BK-Granite waste Management

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How to make granite wastes to assets.

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NATURAL STONE QUARRYING – WASTE MANAGEMENT AND VALUE ADDITION :

NATURAL STONE QUARRYING – WASTE MANAGEMENT AND VALUE ADDITION B.KANISHKAN Director( Rtd ) Geological Survey of India . & Dr.K.SUBBA REDDY CMD, Pallava Group, Chennai.

HIGHLIGHTS:

HIGHLIGHTS The paper highlights mainly the scientific methods to minimize waste generation in quarries. B y way of increasing its recovery while selection of quarries for operation, duly understanding its geometry. By deploying state of the art quarrying methods Utilizing the wastes as secondary source of income generation by making use optimally in local factories, value added products and for use as building materials like aggregates, M sand as a substitute for natural river sand in construction industry as in China.  

WASTE GENERATION IN GRANITE QUARRIES:

WASTE GENERATION IN GRANITE QUARRIES Geological and Tectonic factors mainly determine the poor recovery in each of the quarries . Physiographic factors like above and below ground granite deposits . Failure of quarries due to non- recovery of blocks within major shear, fault, intrusive zones . Variations of grain, texture and colour within the granite deposits . Method of working.  

PREVENTION OF UNNECESSARY GENERATION OF WASTES :

PREVENTION OF UNNECESSARY GENERATION OF WASTES The problem of unnecessary generation of wastes in individual Dimension stone quarries commence right from scientific selection of granite deposits for operation. Duly understanding the basic parameters of Regional Geology/tectonics and by carrying out a detailed geo-structural of mapping of the site to differentiate the defective and promising pockets within the area under consideration. This task can be achieved only by an experienced Geologist with background knowledge of structural mapping combined with in depth exposure to the quarrying aspects.

Geological structures which affect the recovery in quarries. :

Geological structures which affect the recovery in quarries.

A GEO-STRUCTURAL MAP SHOWING THE DEFECTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE ZONES OF GRANITE DEPOSIT:

A GEO-STRUCTURAL MAP SHOWING THE DEFECTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE ZONES OF GRANITE DEPOSIT

RESULTS OF THE SURVEY :

RESULTS OF THE SURVEY Survey has identified around 25 quarries as most successful in its operations and another 25 quarries under average category and the remaining 55 quarries categorized under failure category. The Main reason for the high rate of failures is due to poor recovery which may be attributed to structural defects like shear cracks etc. In view of the geological attributes as mentioned, failure rate in quarry operations turned out to quite high. As a result the quarries had to be abandoned abruptly causing much damage to the environment (land degradation) and huge accumulation of waste rocks. Most of the agricultural belt mainly mango yielding belt has been damaged in Krishnagiri area. Above environmental damage could have been avoided, had the deposit been assessed scientifically prior to commencement of exploitation. Failure to understand the geometry of deposit and is causing a major environmental degradation besides on disposal of huge waste rocks in the belt.

TECTONIC BLOCKS AND ITS IMPACT ON QUARRYING AND WASTE GENERATION:

TECTONIC BLOCKS AND ITS IMPACT ON QUARRYING AND WASTE GENERATION

BLACK GRANITE DYKE SWARMS OF TAMILNADU AND ITS GEOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES WITHIN EACH OF THE TECTONIC BELTS – A CASE STUDY :

BLACK GRANITE DYKE SWARMS OF TAMILNADU AND ITS GEOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES WITHIN EACH OF THE TECTONIC BELTS – A CASE STUDY

BLACK GALAXY BELT, CHIMAKURTHY, ONGOLE, ANDHRA PRADESH- A CASE STUDY :

BLACK GALAXY BELT, CHIMAKURTHY, ONGOLE, ANDHRA PRADESH- A CASE STUDY

IMPACT OF BLACK BANDS IN BLACK GALAXY DEPOSIT AND WASTE GENERATION:

IMPACT OF BLACK BANDS IN BLACK GALAXY DEPOSIT AND WASTE GENERATION

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND VALUE ADDITION-IMPACT OF WASTE DUMPING IN QUARRY BELTS. :

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND VALUE ADDITION- IMPACT OF WASTE DUMPING IN QUARRY BELTS. Severe land degradation by making a permanent scar on the mother earth Deterioration to vegetation besides causing much obstruction to the natural drainage to affect badly the natural flow of seasonal rain water in to the adjoining irrigation tanks. Dumping of huge waste within the lease area is a major hazard to trigger landslide within the quarries when its equilibrium reaches a critical point with sudden release of accumulated stress as in the case of breaking away of tectonic plates Plate Tectonics Movements.

WASTE MANAGEMENT:

WASTE MANAGEMENT Grant of granite quarry leases are governed by Minor Mineral Concession Rules of individual States besides by Granite Conservation and Development Rules 1999(GCDR ). Each State has its own rules in respect of waste disposal and it is a major constraint in handling/clearing the huge waste accumulated over the decades. Rules must be liberalized for its effective management duly considering its environmental hazards and its effective utilization mainly in construction industry.

Dumping of waste in a non-Mineralised zone:

Dumping of waste in a non- Mineralised zone Dumping of waste granite material outside the Mining lease area is not only logical but also prudent to dump in the non- mineralised area and to be within the proximity of mining operation. No specific distance can be determined in view of the fact on non-availability of suitable lands and its cost. Therefore , it is suggested that the waste dumping land can be fixed outside the lease area. The environmental parameters like vegetation, dust pollution etc to be adhered to at the dumping site.

VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS OUT OF GRANITE WASTES:

VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS OUT OF GRANITE WASTES Black granite dumps quarried in nineties are considered now as a major wealth, considering the demand in Monument Industry especially for making small monuments of UK etc., For making Cobble and Kerb stones both for local and export market. Granite wastes can be effectively and more prudently used for producing Aggregates and Manufactured Sand (M Sand) as a replacement to River sand and is in great demand in construction industry. In this context, it is relevant to mention that in China, the quarries are operated on a much more larger scale and hardly we find any such huge granite waste dumps in those belts since because, they utilize these wastes till its end product of crushing and grinding for use in construction industry. Unless such liberalization is allowed in India, the we cannot really reap the major benefits derived out of it.

WASTE MANAGEMENT- SOCIETAL RELEVANCE – USE AS RIP RAPS/GROYNES TO PREVENT COASTAL EROSION.:

WASTE MANAGEMENT- SOCIETAL RELEVANCE – USE AS RIP RAPS/GROYNES TO PREVENT COASTAL EROSION . Granite wastes are in huge demand to prevent coastal erosion for use as GROYNES/ RIP-RAPS, to dissipate the wave energy especially during Tsunami or high tide seasons. During Tsunami impact survey conducted by GSI ( B.Kanishkan et al 2005), the Vulnerable zones have been identified between Nagapattinam and Kanyakumari and following recommendations were made.   Estimated requirement of granite wastes was around 10 million cu.m . Estimated availability of accumulated granite wastes in quarry belts is around 30 million cu.m . Therefore considering the surplus quantity of granite waste available in the quarry belts, the proposal for its utilization for Tsunami protection structures can be easily achieved .

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION The studies focus on scientific selection of granite quarries based on geological, mining, marketing and environmental parameters to prevent first the failure of so many quarries besides on increasing the recovery percentage in operation. In this context, Granite wastes can be constructively utilised not only as a value added product but also to meet the societal needs, like prevention of coastal erosion in identified sensitive tracts besides for making use as Granite aggregates and M Sand in construction industry as a replacement to natural river sand.

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION Only constraint for optimum utilization of these granite wastes is the Government Regulation and need to be liberalized based on the need and to protect the Environment on the whole. Finally , it is concluded that Granite Wastes should not be considered as real Wastes but to be treated more sensibly as an ASSET as in the quarries of China.

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