BK- M Sand

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Nitty Gritty of Stone Quarries

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NITTY GRITTY OF STONE QUARRIES- ITS USEFULNESS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY BOTH AS AGGREGATES AND AS M - SAND, AN ALTERNATE SOURCE FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY AND AS LANDFILL SITES TO DUMP URBAN SOLID WASTES AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS. :

NITTY GRITTY OF STONE QUARRIES- ITS USEFULNESS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY BOTH AS AGGREGATES AND AS M - SAND , AN ALTERNATE SOURCE FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY AND AS LANDFILL SITES TO DUMP URBAN SOLID WASTES AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS . B.Kanishkan Research Scholar Presidency College Director( Rtd ), Geological Survey of India & Dr.R.Sivakumar Associate Professor & Controller of Examinations Presidency College Chennai.

PREAMBLE:

PREAMBLE H ard rocks are the potential source for extracting the building materials from time immemorial with erection of gigantic and amazing historic temples and palaces across the State of TamilNadu . The main reason to be attributed is that the State is endowed with more than 80 percent hard rocks like Charnockite , Migmatite and other Granite varieties which have acclaimed in recent times as the Treasure house for Ornamental/Dimensional Stones cater to the Global demand. With the present day urban growth in cities like Chennai metropolis and other smart cities within the State, the demand for construction materials like granite aggregates and M Sand (Manufactured sand) has grown up manifold. As a result, the Stone quarries with the specifications of Construction Industry have come up within the periphery of all the Smart cities including Chennai.  

PREAMBLE:

PREAMBLE The paper highlights the potential of raw material for quarrying and mushroom growth of stone quarries and stone crushers in recent times and its environmental hazards. Further , the paper projected the demand for M Sand as a substitute to natural river sand in construction industry. Shortage of river sand and the restrictions in quarrying in river beds considering the environmental aspects like depletion of ground water source and inundation of water in neighbouring lands during floods necessitated to find a substitute for the river sand and as result the M Sand becomes the best alternative to meet the demand

PREAMBLE:

PREAMBLE The State of Art Technology has been adopted in several of M Sands units within the State to satisfy the BIS quality specifications . Nowadays, most of the builders use M Sand both in concrete mixture and P Sand for plastering purpose.

PREAMBLE:

PREAMBLE In addition, the stone quarries located near the erstwhile of Chennai have gone deep and have been abandoned long back due to environmental considerations. Recent thinking is how best these quarries can be used for human needs like an alternate source to tap stagnated rain water for urban drinking water supplies which is mostly potable after treatment. Use as landfill sites to dump the urban solid wastes in dried up deep quarries after proper treatment to circumvent the serious environmental problems within the urban growth around such abandoned quarries . Further, the quarries with stagnant water can be a better source for developing fish culture considering its high dissolved Oxygen content etc.,  

PREAMBLE:

PREAMBLE Paper also highlights the environmental hazards of such quarry clusters located within the periphery of urban agglomerations like land degradation, air and water pollution etc. Any mining activity is definitely a threat to the environment but for economic development it becomes inevitable and with stringent environmental measures as envisaged in the Environmental Act. Proper monitoring mechanism will definitely balance not only the pollution but also meet the requirements of the Industries and the society in a more meaningful manner

PART –I STONE AGGREGATES & MANUFACTURED SAND(M-SAND):

PART –I STONE AGGREGATES & MANUFACTURED SAND(M-SAND)

MANUFACTURED SAND(M-SAND):

MANUFACTURED SAND(M-SAND) Sand grain vary in size from 0.15mm to 4.75mm. Produced by disintegration of rocks of siliceous nature. Process includes quarrying, crushing, sieving ,grinding, washing . Used as fine aggregates for concreate. Hardness should be 6-8 in Moh’s Scale Chemical impurities and deleterious material should be within permissible limits.

DEMAND FOR M- SAND:

DEMAND FOR M- SAND Daily demand across State for Sand is around 30,000 truck loads. Out of which M Sand accounts for nearly 12,000 Truck loads. Due to shortage of natural river sand the demand for M-Sand over the years has escalated by 40%. Cost of M sand is considerably low to river sand ranges between Rs3500 and Rs4500 per unit. Units produce both M sand for concrete and P sand for plastering.

GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS:

GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS Blanket ban on Crushers units producing M Sand without PWD approval. Ban on use of quarry dust as M Sand. M sand is subjected to a battery of procedures including sieve analysis test, grain size distribution, alkali aggregate reaction and shape tests over a period of one month. To be tested and certified in seven notified laboratories. Vertical Shaft Impactor(VSI) mandatory as per ISC.

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF TAMILNADU:

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF TAMILNADU

STONE AGGREGATES AND M SAND QUARRY:

STONE AGGREGATES AND M SAND QUARRY

CRUSHING UNIT:

CRUSHING UNIT

AGGREGATES:

AGGREGATES

GRINDING:

GRINDING

M- SAND:

M- SAND

CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY TANK:

CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY TANK

PLASTERING SAND(P- SAND):

PLASTERING SAND(P- SAND)

IMPORTED RIVER SAND FROM MALAYSIA:

IMPORTED RIVER SAND FROM MALAYSIA

IMPORTED RIVER SAND:

IMPORTED RIVER SAND

PART-II QUARRY WATER AS AN ALTERNATE TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER:

PART-II QUARRY WATER AS AN ALTERNATE TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER

QUARRY WATER AS AN ALTERNATE TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER:

QUARRY WATER AS AN ALTERNATE TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER Due to deficit rainfall the water reservoirs in Chennai city are nearly empty. Anticipating this situation, Metro water explored the possibility of using the stored rain water in the abandoned quarries around the city . Initially the twenty two quarries at Sikkarayapuram near Mangadu in Kanchipuram district were taken up for feasibility studies . The various tests were conducted to ascertain the quality of the stagnant rain water stored in these deep stone quarries. The tests were conducted by experts from King Institute, Centre for Environmental studies and Geological department Anna University.

QUARRY WATER AS AN ALTERNATE TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER:

QUARRY WATER AS AN ALTERNATE TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER The results indicated that the water is fit for distribution to the city and can be supplied after treatment from nearby Chembarambakkam water treatment plant. It was proposed to lay pipes to convey the water from the quarries for treatment to Chembarambakkam treatment plant and supplied for distribution after appropriate treatment. The water is to be pumped at the rate of 30 mld for 100 days and totally 3000ml is to be drawn from the quarries.

WATER PUMPING FROM ABANDONED QUARRY NEAR CHENNAI:

WATER PUMPING FROM ABANDONED QUARRY NEAR CHENNAI

WATER PUMPING FROM ABANDONED QUARRY NEAR CHENNAI:

WATER PUMPING FROM ABANDONED QUARRY NEAR CHENNAI

WATER TREATMENT:

WATER TREATMENT

PART- III ABANDONED STONE QUARRIES USED AS LANDFILL SITES:

PART- III ABANDONED STONE QUARRIES USED AS LANDFILL SITES

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ABANDONED STONE QUARRIES:

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ABANDONED STONE QUARRIES Abandoned stone quarries within and outskirts of urban agglomerations are ideal landfill sites to dump municipal solid wastes. The quarries approved for dumping should be hard rock and dry and not reached depth below water table in the area. The natural joints present both on the floor and side walls of the quarries to be thoroughly examined and sealed with cement by grouting so that the leachates of the waste do not pollute the ground water and to be periodically monitored in the adjoining bore wells.

Landfill sites located in Salem Urban:

Landfill sites located in Salem Urban Sl.No . Location Zone Rock type Structural features 1. Near Chekkampatti (stone quarry) Omalur zone (BZ-W1) Charnockite Widely spaced joints 2. Vellalappatti (Stone quarry) Karuppur zone (CZ – N) Charnockite widely spaced joints 3. 5km N of Mettupatti (abandoned mine pit of M/s Burn Std.Co.) Karuppur (CZ – N) Ultramafics Weathered and Jointed 4. Near Kombaipatti (stone quarry) Karuppur zone (CZ – N) Charnockite widely jointed 5. Around Varumbali (stone quarries) Ayodhyapattanam zone (BZ – E1) Charnockite / migmatite widely jointed 6. Near Erumampalayam (stone quarries) Ayodhyapattanam zone (BZ – E1 and E2) Charnockite / migmatite sheared 7. Munamkaradu (Sanjivarayanpettai) (Stone quarry) Salem urban (BZ - S) Charnockite / migmatite sheared 8. Near Akkaraipalayam (BZ – W2) (stone quarry) Kanjamalai zone (BZ – W2) Migmatite Widely jointed.

PART-IV ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS OF STONE QUARRIES:

PART-IV ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS OF STONE QUARRIES

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS:

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF STONE QUARRIES AND CRUSHER UNITS : Indiscriminate blasting using high explosives causing frequent mines accidents. Shattering of adjoining dwellings. Noise Pollution due to use of compressors, drilling equipment, blasting, vehicle movements etc., Dust Pollution from quarries and more so in Crusher Units. Land Degradation etc.,

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS -REMEDIAL MEASURES:

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS -REMEDIAL MEASURES Any mining activity in an area is a major environmental threat to the surrounding. Stringent rules to regulate mining and in processing units like Mines Act and Environmental Acts if enforced scrupulously, much of these environmental issues can be minimised and controlled. Reclaiming the abandoned quarries is a mandatory one. Avoid clustering of quarries in a place and to be regulated and balanced in particular sprawl.

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION In the present day urban growth, the Stone industry plays a vital and important role cater to the ever growing demands of the construction sector. Mining of river sand to be strictly banned. However it suggested to carryout sand budgeting every year in all the potential river beds and based on accumulation/deposition, Government can permit prudentially the excavation of optimal quantity of sand without detrimental to the environment.

Sectional view of a granite quarry located in northern China with High Walls :

Sectional view of a granite quarry located in northern China with High Walls

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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