GEO-WONDERS OF PLANET EARTH

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GEO-WONDERS OF THE PLANET EARTH:

GEO-WONDERS OF THE PLANET EARTH GEO means GEOLOGY(Earth Science) GEOLOGY means the study of earth and its Crustal manifestations. GEOLOGIST – One who studies Earth Science(Geology) Rocks and Minerals for the economic development of a country. Catastrophic (Tectonic) Activities like Earthquake, Volcanic eruptions/ triggering tsunami.

GEO-WONDERS OF THE PLANET EARTH:

Study of Landforms like Mountains, Valley, River system, Plains, coastal system etc., Exploring and Exploiting Bountiful hidden mineral wealth. Study of soil and Water. Geo-Tourism. Environmental Aspects Exploring its origin, structure and various Geological Events including the Continental drift and the imprints/signatures left on the rocks and associated fossils is the Geo-Wonders what we need to understand and admire. GEO-WONDERS OF THE PLANET EARTH

ORIGIN OF EARTH:

ORIGIN OF EARTH Stellar System Earth is a cosmic body and an insignificant dust in the universe. Nebulae are enormous masses of Gaseous Clouds. Galaxies are assemblies of billions of stars. All the star in a galaxy are held together by the force of Gravitation. A single Galaxy with its stars is the Stellar System

ORIGIN OF EARTH:

Nebular Hypothesis Planetary System evolved from hot and gaseous cloud –the NEBULA. Nebular Mass rotated fast around the Sun. During rotation nebular mass started cooling and contracted. When the Centrifugal force exceeded the gravitational force, the outer mass of the Nebula broke and the mass separated and formed the different planets including the Earth. ORIGIN OF EARTH

ORIGIN OF EARTH – THE SIMULATION:

ORIGIN OF EARTH – THE SIMULATION

AGE OF THE EARTH:

AGE OF THE EARTH The age of the Earth is based on meteorites and oldest rocks present on the crustal surface. The age of the rock is determined by Radio Active method. Methods for dating the age of rocks and meteorites exist & end ash ; they are based on the spontaneous transition of certain elements to other elements and called radiometric dating techniques. The spontaneous transition is called radioactive decay and we call the isotope that decays the "parent" and the product of decay a "daughter".

AGE OF THE EARTH:

Radioactive decay one atom spontaneously changes to another, releasing heat, light, or another atomic particle. The original atom is called the "parent", the new atom is called the "daughter". The result of such analyses indicate that meteorites have ages near 4.56 Ga, and hence so does Earth. The oldest rocks are just under 4 Ga, no rocks survived the earliest part of Earth history . In India, oldest rocks occur in South India dating around 4000 million years. AGE OF THE EARTH

INTERIOR OF EARTH:

INTERIOR OF EARTH

INTERIOR OF EARTH:

INTERIOR OF EARTH

CRUSTAL ROCKS:

CRUSTAL ROCKS IGNEOUS ROCKS: Rocks formed from hot molten magma. VOLCANIC ROCKS: Rocks formed from Volcanic Eruptions. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: Secondary rocks from sediments derived from early formed igneous and metamorphic rocks due to erosion, deposition and compaction over millions of years in a basin.

IGNEOUS ROCK:

IGNEOUS ROCK

VOLCANIC ROCK-IGNEOUS ROCK:

VOLCANIC ROCK-IGNEOUS ROCK

SEDIMENTARY ROCK:

SEDIMENTARY ROCK

METAMORPHIC ROCK:

METAMORPHIC ROCK

METAMORPHIC AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS:

METAMORPHIC AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Different rock types spread across India:

Different rock types spread across India

LAND FORMS:

LAND FORMS The landforms are the geomorphic features developed: Based on the type of rocks present, Tectonic movements and structural features of the area. Erosional Characteristics etc.

LAND FORMS:

LAND FORMS Kangchenjunga ( 23000 feet) Hill Slope-LADAK

LAND FORMS:

GLACIER Mountain & Valley LAND FORMS

LAND FORMS:

RIVER VALLEY Water Falls LAND FORMS

LAND FORMS:

Bora Limestone Caves, AP FLAT TOPPED (PLATEAUE) HILL LAND FORMS

LAND FORMS:

PLAINS Sand Dunes LAND FORMS

LAND FORMS:

Natural Arch Coastal Plains LAND FORMS

CANYON:

CANYON

DYNAMIC ACTIVITIES OF THE PLANET EARTH :

DYNAMIC ACTIVITIES OF THE PLANET EARTH

PLATE TECTONICS:

PLATE TECTONICS

PLATE TECTONICS:

PLATE TECTONICS

PLATE TECTONICS:

PLATE TECTONICS

Slide31:

Correlation of Africa and South America 1912 – 1934 Alfred Wegener

Slide32:

Fitting of Continents

Slide33:

Existence of Similar Fossils in Different Continents

PRESENT POSITION OF CONTINENTS:

PRESENT POSITION OF CONTINENTS

EARTHQUAKE:

EARTHQUAKE

TSUNAMI:

TSUNAMI Term Tsunami a Japanese word means Port Wave Defined as a Wave Train generated by the impulsive disturbances of a water body caused by displacement due to: Sea quake Volcanic eruption Landslide/subsidence in the ocean

EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI EPISODE-2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami:

EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI EPISODE-2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami A shallow EQ of M 9+ stuck the coast off Sumatra at around 30km on 26 th De,2004 at around 0630hrs Epicentre located 260km SSE of Banda Aceh,Indonesia Major EQ was followed by a number of after shocks EQ triggered the Tsunami Unleashed vast devastation all along the littoral countries fringing Indian Ocean More than 1.5lakh people lost lives and property worth millions lost and several thousands rendered homeless

AFTERMATH OF TSUNAMI 2014:

AFTERMATH OF TSUNAMI 2014

VOLCANIC ACTIVITY:

VOLCANIC ACTIVITY

VOLCANIC ISLAND:

VOLCANIC ISLAND

VOLCANIC ACTIVITY:

VOLCANIC ACTIVITY

GEOTHERMAL ACTIVITY-YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK-USA:

GEOTHERMAL ACTIVITY-YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK-USA

TRIGGERING MECHANISM:

TRIGGERING MECHANISM

Sources of Earth’s Internal Energy:

Sources of Earth’s Internal Energy 70% comes from the decay of radioactive nuclei with long half lives that are embedded within the Earth Some energy is from residual heat left over from Earths formation. The rest of the energy comes from meteorite impacts.

LANDSLIDES:

LANDSLIDES

LANDSLIDES:

LANDSLIDES

TYPE OF SOIL:

TYPE OF SOIL LOAMY SOIL SANDY SOIL

TYPE OF SOIL:

SAND CLAY TYPE OF SOIL

ROCK AND SOIL MAPS OF INDIA:

ROCK AND SOIL MAPS OF INDIA ROCK MAP OF INDIA SOIL MAP OF INDIA

GROUND WATER:

GROUND WATER

EARTH IS A TREASURE HOUSE FOR ECONOMIC MINERALS INCLUDING OIL:

EARTH IS A TREASURE HOUSE FOR ECONOMIC MINERALS INCLUDING OIL Minerals are the backbone for economic development of a country. Industrial growth depends on minerals like coal, iron, oil, aluminum, copper, Nickel, zinc etc., Occurrence of each mineral is related the source/ potential rock occurring in any area.

DIAMOND:

DIAMOND

DIAMOND MINE:

DIAMOND MINE

DIAMOND PANNING:

DIAMOND PANNING

SEPARATED DIAMONDS:

SEPARATED DIAMONDS

KOLAR GOLD - UNDERGROUND MINE:

KOLAR GOLD - UNDERGROUND MINE

GOLD MINE-OPENCAST:

GOLD MINE-OPENCAST

NATIVE GOLD NUGGET:

NATIVE GOLD NUGGET

GEM STONES:

GEM STONES

LIGNITE MINE:

LIGNITE MINE

OIL EXPLORATION:

OIL EXPLORATION

Oil Traps:

Oil Traps

Garnet/ Illmenite Mineral Deposits along south coast :

Garnet/ Illmenite Mineral Deposits along south coast

FOSSIL:

FOSSIL Fossils are the remains or traces of plants and animals that lived long ago .... Most  fossils are found in earth that once lay underwater. They usually formed from the hard parts—such as shells or bones—of living things.

FOSSIL IMPRINT:

FOSSIL IMPRINT

Fossils of 60 million old animals embedded in Limestone rock:

Fossils of 60 million old animals embedded in Limestone rock

CORAL:

CORAL

20 MILLION OLD FOSSIL WOOD PARK, TIRUVAKKARAI, TAMILNADU:

20 MILLION OLD FOSSIL WOOD PARK, TIRUVAKKARAI, TAMILNADU

Long Tree fossilised and lying in Sandstone:

Long Tree fossilised and lying in Sandstone

CLOSE UP VIEW OF FOSSIL WOOD:

CLOSE UP VIEW OF FOSSIL WOOD

18 meter Long FOSSIL WOOD at Sattanur:

18 meter Long FOSSIL WOOD at Sattanur

PLANT FOSSIL EMBEDDED IN A ROCK:

PLANT FOSSIL EMBEDDED IN A ROCK

Plant Fossils in Clay - Ariyalur:

Plant Fossils in Clay - Ariyalur

GEO-ENVIRONMENT:

GEO-ENVIRONMENT SOIL AND WATER ARE CONTAMINATED DUE TO INDUSTRIAL AND URBAN POLLUTION

Pollution to soil and water in a river due to industrial and urban pollution:

Pollution to soil and water in a river due to industrial and urban pollution Sludge/soil samples (ppm): Cr 200 (100) Water sample (ppm) EC 2300 F 1.30 (1.5) ; No 3 -85 (45) Ni 0.25 (0.3) ;Cr 0.01 (0.05) ; Mn 0.29 (0.5) ;DO 3.9 Bacterial water analysis/100ml SPC-120 (300-500) ; TC-12 (10); FC-6 (0) Geobotanical (ppm) Cu 250 (100) ;Ni 175 (5) ; Cd 10 (3) ;Cr 340 (100) Inference : Highly Polluted

Pollution to soil and water in a river –Foaming water :

Pollution to soil and water in a river – Foaming water Water sample anomaly(ppm) EC 2500; No 3 100 (45) ; Ni 0.11 (0.3) ; Mn 0.33 (0.5) Bacterial water analysis/100ml SPC-124 (300-500) ; TC-17 (10) ; FC-9 (0) Inference : Bacterial contamination

Pollution in Well due to Textile dye contamination:

Pollution in Well due to Textile dye contamination Sludge/soil samples (ppm): Cu 270 (100) ; Cr 150 (100) Water sample (ppm)F 2 (1.5) ; No 3 80 (45) ; Cu 0.09 (1.5) ;Cr 0.03 (0.5) Bacterial water analysis/100ml SPC-265 (300-500) ; TC-11 (10); FC9 (0) Inference : Toxic metal and bacterial contaminations

EFFECTS OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATION IN GROUND WATER:

EFFECTS OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATION IN GROUND WATER FLUROSIS DISEASE

GEOTOURISM IN INDIA:

GEOTOURISM IN INDIA Nibura Valley, Ladak Sand dunes of Rajasthan

GEOTOURISM IN INDIA:

Hot spring in Manikaran , HP Sundarban National Park GEOTOURISM IN INDIA

GEOTOURISM IN INDIA:

Bhedeghat Marble Rocks, MP Coral Islands of Andaman GEOTOURISM IN INDIA

GEOTOURISM IN INDIA:

Fossil Wood Park, Tiruvakkarai TamilNadu Kanyakumari Coast GEOTOURISM IN INDIA

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION Geological Wonders of Planet Earth are Much More. Minerals, soils are the treasures for Economic development of a country. Minerals are non- replenishable assets and we need to conserve for our posterity. Environment is a sensitive one and it is our bounden responsibility to preserve the Nature. Last but not the least the Kids will understand the contents of this speech more meaningful and Wonderful.

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