Variations in Total Quality Management

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Variations in Total Quality Management By BHARATH B M.Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Assurance Sri Krupa Institute of Pharmaceuticals Sciences UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF Mr. M. Santhosh Kumar. 1

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TQM TQM is “An evolving system of practices, tools, and training methods being developed by industry, for creating higher quality products and services for increased customer satisfaction, in a rapidly changing world” . TQM can be said to be a sociological experiment on the track to a new management paradigm. 2

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ISO 8402 Defines Total Quality Management as a “ Management approach of an organization centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction and benefits to all members of the organization and society”. British Quality Association (1989) defined TQM as follows: TQM is a corporate business management philosophy which recognizes that customer needs and business goals are inseparable. It is appropriate within both industry and commerce. 3

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Indian Statistical Institute , Hyderabad in its training document defined TQM as follows: “TQM is an integrated organizational approach in delighting customers (both internal and external) by meeting their expectations on a continuous basis through everyone involved with the organization working on continuous improvement in all products, services, and processes along with proper problem - solving methodology.” 4

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Similar quality management philosophies and programs include: CQI ( C ontinuous Q uality I mprovement), SQC ( S tatistical Q uality C ontrol), QFD ( Q uality F unction D eployment), TQC ( T otal Q uality C ontrol). 5

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Continuous Quality Improvement(CQI) CQI is an approach to quality management that builds upon traditional quality assurance methods by emphasizing the organization and systems : it focuses on "process" rather than the individual; it recognizes both internal and external "customers"; it promotes the need for objective data to analyze and improve processes. 6

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Concepts of CQI Quality is defined as meeting the expectations of the customers. Success is achieved through meeting the needs of the customers. Most problems are found in processes, not in people. CQI does not seek to blame, but rather to improve processes. Unintended variation in processes can lead to unwanted variation in outcomes, and therefore CQI seek to reduce or eliminate unwanted variation. It is possible to achieve continual improvement through small, incremental changes using the scientific method. Continuous improvement is most effective when it becomes a natural part of the way everyday work is done. 7

Continuous Quality Improvement:

Continuous Quality Improvement Steps in Continuous Improvement Form a team that has knowledge of the system needing improvement. Define a clear aim. Understand the needs of the people who are served by the system. Identify and define measures of success. Brainstorm potential change strategies for producing improvement. Plan, collect, and use data for facilitating effective decision making. Apply the scientific method to test and refine changes. 8

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Statistical Quality Control Statistical Quality Control (SQC) is the term used to describe the set of statistical tools used by quality professionals. SQC is used to analyze the quality problems and solve them. Statistical quality control refers to the use of statistical methods in the monitoring and maintaining of the quality of products and services. 9

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All the tools of SQC are helpful in evaluating the quality of services. SQC uses different tools to analyze quality problem. 1) Descriptive Statistics: Descriptive Statistics involves describing quality characteristics and relationships. 2) Statistical Process Control (SPC ): SPC involves inspect random sample of output from process for characteristic 3) Acceptance Sampling: Acceptance Sampling involve batch sampling by inspection. 10

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Eg : Strategic approach to problems make us understand the root causes of problems and helps the customer to come up with a long lasting and effective solution. 11

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Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Quality Function Deployment was developed to bring this personal interface to modern manufacturing and business. In today's industrial society, where the growing distance between producers and users is a concern, QFD links the needs of the customer (end user) with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions. QFD is: Understanding Customer Requirements Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology. Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value. Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction. Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game. 12

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QFD provides a system of comprehensive development process for: Understanding 'true' customer needs from the customer's perspective. What 'value' means to the customer, from the customer's perspective. Understanding how customers or end users become interested, choose, and are satisfied. Analyzing how do we know the needs of the customer. Deciding what features to include. Determining what level of performance to deliver. Intelligently linking the needs of the customer with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions. 13

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Total Quality Control (TQC). A management approach that seeks to improve quality and performance, and thus meet or exceed customer expectations, by integrating all quality-related functions and processes throughout the organization; takes a holistic approach to managing quality design and development, quality control and maintenance, quality improvement ,and quality assurance, at all levels and involving all employees. 14

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Variation Variation is a normal feature of process characteristics. For production processes, some variations are statistically random, while others are due to the actions of production workers. When the workers don't act consistently, they introduce nonrandom variations that reduce product quality. The key for using variation as a tool in TQM is to identify the random variations, which are natural to the process, and those due to worker inconsistency. TQM reduces the nonrandom variations by acting to reduce worker inconsistency. 16

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Uncontrolled Variation Once TQM has identified the nonrandom variations, it examines their source. TQM looks for inconsistencies that result from uncontrolled actions. If a product sometimes fails due to a loose bolt, it may be because the worker is not tightening the bolt consistently. If a product's color varies, it may be because the paint composition varies. TQM introduces controls to reduce inconsistency. It may train the worker in the use of a torque wrench and specify a single supplier for the paint. In this way, TQM converts uncontrolled variation into variation it can control. 17

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Controlled Variation When TQM introduces controls to reduce inconsistency, it must check to see if the controls reduced the variations initially observed. If use of the torque wrench eliminates product failure due to a loose bolt, the controls have eliminated the variation. If the product color still varies, the variation is still uncontrolled. It may be that the color variation is due to inconsistent drying time. If controlling the drying time increases color consistency, the variation is controlled and the product quality increases with respect to the desired characteristics. 18

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Thank you 20