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Educator Opportunities Offered by Hampton University and NASA Satellite-Based Research Missions Barbara Maggi, Outreach Director Hampton University Center for Atmospheric Sciences


Cloud Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations The first satellite that will use a laser to the atmosphere Is part of the “A-Train” of satellites which will give us more accurate information allowing better predictions related to climate change Will involve students nationally and internationally in collecting measurements with a hand-held sun photometer


Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Will study clouds often referred to as noctilucent clouds Usually observed in high latitudes Will answer the question, “Are they harbingers of global warming?”


Standards-Based Professional Development Workshops CALIPSO will offer 2 workshops (Colorado and Hampton) AIM will offer 2 workshops (both in Alaska) Educator teams will be selected nationwide for participation 3 members per team administrator,science teacher, teacher skilled in technology If you are interested please put your name on our mailing list or contact Barbara Maggi at:


Transition to SABER

The SABER Instrument Aboard the TIMED Satellite : 

The SABER Instrument Aboard the TIMED Satellite Hampton University Interdisciplinary Sciences Center Dianne Q. Robinson, Barbara H. Maggi Aileen M. Seshun, Sherrye Pollard, March 2003

Hampton University’s SABER Education & Public Outreach: 

Principal Investigator – James M. Russell, III, Ph.D. Outreach Director - Dianne Q. Robinson, Ph.D. Assistant Outreach Director - Barbara H. Maggi Education Coordinator - Aileen M. Seshun Teacher Advisor – Sherrye Pollard Teacher Advisor – Karen Steele Hampton University’s SABER Education & Public Outreach

Acronyms Defined: 

Acronyms Defined SABER: Sounding of the Atmosphere Using Broadband Emission Radiometry TIMED: Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesophere Energetics & Dynamics

TIMED Mission: 

TIMED Mission Sun-synchronous (polar orbiting) satellite located approximately 388 miles (625 km) above Earth. Orbit cycle is approximately 1.7 hours / 14 orbits a day (7 ascending/7 descending). Focus on least understood portion of the Earth’s atmospheric region (MLTI) extending from 40-110 miles (60 km to 180 km) above the Earth. Collected data is being used to predict weather & global warming. Mission duration anticipated to be two years.

SABER Mission: 

SABER Mission Produce a global picture of how the MLTI region changes over time. Analyze & take measurements of processes governing the energetics, chemistry, dynamics, & transport of the atmospheric region where the energy & chemistry are unique* from other atmospheric regions Make global day / night vertical profile measurements of atmospheric temperature, density, & pressure. * There are fewer molecules in the MLTI, affecting how the atmosphere radiates & absorbs heat. This includes fewer aerosols.

Two Points to Clarify: 

SABER is one of the four instruments on board the TIMED spacecraft. Two Points to Clarify TIMED is the satellite which will study the variability of the Mesosphere & Lower Thermosphere/Ionosphere region (MLTI).

Artist’s Concept of TIMED: 

Artist’s Concept of TIMED

SABER as a Remote Sensor: 

SABER as a Remote Sensor SABER is a “passive remote sensor,” because it observes the atmosphere like a camera without a flash. (In contrast, an “active remote sensor” would be like a camera that has to illuminate its subject with a flash in order to take a picture.) SABER will observe atmospheric infrared backscatter. (Backscatter is the scattering of light off of particles in the backward direction.)

SABER as a Remote Sensor (continued): 

Solar radiation will illuminate the atmosphere from behind the spacecraft, like a flashlight, stimulating the atmosphere to emit infrared radiation. SABER will observe the infrared radiation using an instrument called a “multispectral radiometer.” A moving mirror instrument allows SABER to observe a variety of altitudes in the region of study. SABER as a Remote Sensor (continued)


Views of SABER Instrument

SABER Background: 

SABER Background Built by Utah State University Space Dynamics Laboratory & is managed by NASA Langley Research Center. Launched on December 7, 2001 from Vandenberg Air Force Base Is a multi-channel radiometer measuring infrared energy emitted by the atmosphere over a broad altitude & spectral range.

Upper Atmosphere’s Radiation Budget: 

Upper Atmosphere’s Radiation Budget Types of Measurements: Energy balance between Earth’s incoming & outgoing energy in Earth’s upper atmosphere Infrared radiation emitted by the upper atmosphere Strength of heat by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun (airglow)

Airglow from Earth’s Limb: 

Airglow from Earth’s Limb When sunlight comes into contact with chemically active molecules, the atmosphere emits energy through photochemical processes known as airglow. Red = high airglow emission / Blue = low airglow emission. (

TIMED Watches Earth's Response to Strong Solar Storms in April 2002: 

TIMED Watches Earth's Response to Strong Solar Storms in April 2002 Photo Credits Attributed to NASA / Hampton University ( Low values (green & blue) High values (yellow & red)

Atmospheric Structure & Dynamics: 

Atmospheric Structure & Dynamics SABER’s observations will: Provide new information about how temperature, density, & pressure change with altitude. Track the movement of air between the poles, from lower to upper atmospheric regions, from season to season around the globe. Chart by R. Bradley Pierce NASA LaRC

Key Gases in the Upper Atmosphere: 

Parameter CO2 O3 O2 (‘) CO2 OH(V) NO H2O Wavelength (m) 14.9 & 15.2 9.6 1.27 4.3 2.0 & 1.6 5.3 6.9 Key Gases in the Upper Atmosphere Gases that warm & cool the MLTI region through absorption of solar radiation & emission of infrared radiation (heat energy): SABER measures the vertical distribution of these gases

Key Gases (continued): 

Key Gases (continued) SABER will make the first-ever measurements of the global distribution of carbon dioxide concentrations in the MLTI region. SABER will also provide the first measurements of ozone during the day & at night in the MLTI region.

SABER E/PO Deliverables (Education & Public Outreach): 

SABER E/PO Deliverables (Education & Public Outreach) SABER Educational Web Site Will be developed by Hampton University & linked to John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory TIMED web site Will contain scientific information & teacher activities NASA Connect (grades 5 - 8) Will work with NASA Langley to develop a program incorporating the TIMED mission including a segment on the SABER instrument

SABER E/PO Deliverables (continued): 

SABER Teacher Training Conduct workshops on SABER instrument & TIMED mission SABER Conference Presentations Conduct presentations to inform the general public, educators, & students SABER E/PO Deliverables (continued)

Benefits to Educational Institutions*: 

Benefits to Educational Institutions* Association with NASA, Hampton University, John Hopkins University Technology involvement in Real Time / Real Life dissemination/explanation of actual scientific research Professional Development for teachers Publish lesson plans & activities on the SABER website Building of interest & enthusiasm for students to study science, math, & technology Exposure of students to new careers in science, math, & technology * Schools, universities; educators, & students

Slide28: The TIMED Education Website


SABER Schematic TIMED Teacher’s Lesson Plan Objectives: Work with ratio, proportion, scale drawing, & coordinate graphing Locate objects on a coordinate grid Enlarge a picture of SABER using coordinates

Classroom Activities: 

Classroom Activities Middle School Activity - 'How SABER 'Sees' the Earth' (developed at W.E. Waters Middle School, Portsmouth, VA) See how a hula-hoop can simulate TIMED's orbit as it rotates around the Earth in it's matched Earth orbit around the sun. At the same, learn how the instrument looks NOT at the Earth itself, but through the atmosphere called the limb, & how this provides unique measurements for the first time. High School Activity - 'Exothermic & Endothermic Chemical Reactions of Hot & Cold Materials (developed at Perquimans’ County High School, Hertford, NC) Are you looking for a new way to teach your students about remote sensing? Our website will show you how to use a cola can to build a remote sensing tool that models the SABER instrument riding on the TIMED satellite.

Celebrate What You’ve Learned: 

Celebrate What You’ve Learned Remember when I described the difference between TIMED & SABER? Who can tell us what that difference is? SABER looks at the Earth’s ____________ _______. Name at least one of the First’s for SABER. Who can mention one other interesting fact about this instrument?


Transition to High School Presentation

Things You Should Know: 

Things You Should Know Axis = Earth’s tilt is 23.5° (change or wobble is too small to be noticed) (Good review: Earth rotation = 24 hours / 1 day / 360° / counterclockwise around axis (toward East) Earth orbit around sun = 365 days / 1 year / counterclockwise (almost a perfect circle) - See slides 6 & 7 for Internet Orbit Tracking resource

Things You Should Know (continued): 

Things You Should Know (continued) North Pole always points toward star Polaris (North Star in Ursa Minor or Little Dipper) Differences between stars & planets: Stars - outside our solar system / generate own radiant light / generally much larger than planets Planets - inside our solar system / shine due to reflected sunlight / smaller than stars Sun - is a star & is therefore large & radiates it’s own light, BUT it is the center of our solar system Satellites - a small body revolving around a larger astronomical body (our Moon is a natural satellite)

Things You Should Know (continued): 

Things You Should Know (continued) TIMED is a sun-synchronous (polar orbiting) satellite, which orbits the Earth at the poles. TIMED also orbits around the sun as the Earth does, always maintaining the same distance from Earth. TIMED orbits approximately 388 miles (625 km) above Earth. SABER always faces the Earth with the sun behind. SABER always looks into or through the Earth’s atmospheric limb (not AT the Earth itself).


How SABER Looks at Earth’s Atmosphere Note: Drawing is an artistic rendering only. 1 –Have student hold inflatable globe at an angle of the axis. Have student walk toward East twirling globe maintaining the correct axis. 2 - Glue TIMED model to one side of hula hoop. Have student rotate hula hoop from North Pole to South Pole to represent the orbit of TIMED. Since Earth & TIMED satellite orbit Sun in sync, the student must also spin eastward around the sun as the Earth does. SABER always looks into or through the Earth’s atmospheric limb (not AT the Earth itself). Another student can shine a flashlight onto the globe’s edge as it orbits the Earth. SABER always faces the Earth with the sun behind it. 3 - Have a large, strong light shining on the globe from a far side of the room.

TIMED Orbit Data: 

TIMED Orbit Data Identification USSPACECOM Catalog No.: 26998 International Designation Code: 2001-055-B Satellite Details Orbit: 619 x 622 km, 74.1° Country/Org. of Origin: USA Launch Date (UTC): December 7, 2001 View from above satellite View from above orbital plane

TIMED Ground Track: 

TIMED Ground Track


SABER Mobile Fun - informative Whoops! We’ve got tangles! ( & )

Studying Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions Using a Model of the SABER Infrared Radiometer: 

Studying Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions Using a Model of the SABER Infrared Radiometer Perquimans County High School, Hertford, NC Teacher: Tonya Little-Williams Student Investigators: Casey Bouch Erin France Kimberly Rucker Brandon Woodard March 2003

Brief Overview: 

Brief Overview “By studying portions of Earth's atmosphere, scientists believe global change is occurring, primarily due to variations in the sun's cycle and from human-induced changes to the atmosphere by the release of gases, such as methane and carbon dioxide.” ( ) TIMED

SABER & Educational Opportunities: 

SABER & Educational Opportunities SABER is a highly sensitive & accurate instrument. The fundamental operations can be understood through the demonstration of a simple cola can sensor. Translating between voltage readings & temperature at a given distance by recording numerous data points using a thermometer & a voltmeter (digital or analog) & finding other creative ways to employ the remote sensor’s abilities can be very instructive.

Objective of High School Experiment: 

Objective of High School Experiment To measure infrared radiation from exothermic & endothermic reactions using the Cola Can Contraption (CCC).

Our Experiment: 

Our Experiment This investigation models the SABER instrument using a Cola Can Contraption (CCC) & a voltmeter . The Cola Can Contraption was designed by Charles Hill of Hampton University.

Building the Cola Can Contraption: 

Building the Cola Can Contraption Step by step assembly instructions for classroom building of the CCC remote sensing device can be found on the Hampton University SABER website. The procedure is divided into four parts: Parts I, II, & III can be done by three groups of students designated to work on each part separately. These parts may be completed in an arbitrary order. Parts II & III both require a PC circuit board, but since the circuit board required in Part II is used only to measure the positions of the holes to be drilled, it can be borrowed from Group III. Part II offers instructions on preparing the aluminum project enclosure in which a circuit board will be mounted. Part IV must be completed after the previous three are completed.


The Cola Can Contraption The Sensor

Materials and Resources for the Experiment: 

Materials and Resources for the Experiment CCC - simulated SABER instrument Thermometers Voltmeter 25 g calcium chloride 25 g ammonium nitrate 250 ml distilled water Two 400 ml beakers or flasks Stirring rods


Purpose: to detect infrared heat from a distance (remotely) up to about 4 feet. Measurement: hotter the object, the more infrared light is emitted, & the greater the fluctuation of the voltmeter reading. Experiment: to compare voltage readings & temperature at a given distance by recording numerous data points using a known thermometer (in-situ) & a voltmeter connected to a remote sensor (the CCC). Difference: the CCC measures a continuous, wide range of wavelengths, & treats them the same, while SABER can discriminate between wavelengths contributed by distinct chemical species & move to record their positions. Using the Cola Can Contraption


Calcium chloride weighing in at 25 grams Measure the water BEFORE adding chemicals The Beginning

The Experiment: 

The Experiment

Infrared Output: 

Infrared Output

Temperature Output: 

Temperature Output


Conclusion Ammonium Nitrate + Water produces an endothermic reaction that lowers atmospheric temperatures & absorbs heat energy. Calcium Chloride + Water demonstrates an exothermic reaction that raises temperatures & releases (emits) heat into the atmosphere. We did it!


The Cola Can Contraption (Gizmo)

Gizmo, Tester, Thermal Blanket: 

Gizmo, Tester, Thermal Blanket


Gizmo’s Internal Components


Gizmo’s Internal Components with Cola Can Receiver

CCC Items: 

CCC Items


Also needed: Epoxy glue Empty soda pop can A few feet of AWG 22 solid wire with red insulation A few feet of AWG 22 solid wire with black insulation Three small paper clips (1.25 long) for each CCC ED&G TPS 424 Thermopile Infrared Sensor


Replacement Parts


Steel Machine Hex Nuts 6-32 $1.69 Catalog Number: 64-3019 Quantity: 30. Thermopile Detectors Thermopile detectors recognize thermal radiation. When there is a difference in temperature between the contact points of two different materials, electric voltage is produced. The thermopile detector is a common mode receiver, i.e. the output signal is proportional to the incident infrared radiation; modulation using a mechanical chopper is unnecessary. Thermopiles are well suited for the simple construction of infrared measurements.


Infrared detectors for non-contact temperature measurement in consumer applications TPS 434 Series min typcial max remarks Responsivity [V/W] 75 500K, 1Hz Noise [nV/vHz] 21 r.m.s., 300K, 1Hz Resistance [kW] 28 Sensitive area [mm2] 0, 5x0, 5 Spectral Range 5,5...14µm Encapsulation TO-5 hermetically sealed To order the EG&G TPS 424 or 434 Thermopile Infrared sensor, call EG&G Heimann Optoelectronics at 1-800-995-0602. The address for Heimann is 111 Park Drive, Montgomeryville, PA 18936 USA Other distributors of EG&G Heimann Thermopile sensors include Cheverel Optoelectronics ( ) and Perkin Elmer Optoelectronics ( ) Jim Dell (PA) / 215-412-9444

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