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Thank you Dave Cather, Dean of Instruction and Chief Learning Officer Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide1: AIM Top Management Program: A Clear View of What to Do The Changing Nature of Leadership and Management in this Era of Globalization May 24-25, 2004 Glenn K. Miyataki, Ph.D. President, JAIMS Slide2: Slide3: Slide4: Slide5: Slide6: Outline of Sessions: Outline of Sessions Session 1: Globalization and Management Thought 'Storyboarding' Exercise of Opinions and Views Session 3: Managing Paradox: Dialectical Management Critical Factors of Success Session 2: Understanding Culture in the Workplace Cross-cultural Communications/International Education It’s a Global World : It’s a Global World You can buy almost anything from anywhere You function in a knowledge-based economy You can talk to your colleague anywhere in the world You will work with people from different cultures You can travel almost anywhere you want Slide9: To Compete Effectively…… Speed! Perfection (top quality) Persistence (durability) Here in China Motivators Are : Here in China Motivators Are Mianzi or face Money Power Globalization Demands……. : Globalization Demands……. Organizations to be more creative and agile Understand cultural sensitivity Manage 'paradox' between explicit/tacit knowledge Understand megatrends and cross-trends Leadership attention to attitudes and behavior Slide12: What are the issues, concerns, and problems your organization faces as you compete in global and local markets? Storyboarding Exercise Slide13: Dynamic Equilibrium INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS PRACTICES e-Commerce/m-Commerce Legal/Documentation Insurance Tariffs Corporate Behavior Profit Repatriation Cross-cultural Management Entrepreneurship TYPES OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Import/Export Direct Investment Portfolio Investment Raw Material Extraction Technology Transfer Management Consulting SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL FACTORS Economic Indicators Values/Beliefs Rituals Government Regulations Languages/Culture Political System Taxation Educational System International Business Model History of Management Thought : History of Management Thought 3000-2400 BC Sumerians Commerce; postal system 3000-1000 BC Egyptians First national government 2700-500 BC Babylonians Code of Hammurabi 800 BC-500 AD Romans Staff advisers 1500 BC-1300 AD Chinese Written testing Slide15: Scientific Management Behavioral Science Perspective Management Science Systems Theory Contingency Theory Japanese Management Theory Z Total Quality Management Cross-cultural Management Dialectical Management Modern Perspectives of Management Slide16: Cross-cultural Management Cross-cultural Communications Workplace Behavior Multi-cultural Teams Motivation, Leadership, Decision Making Ethical Decision Making Cross-cultural Leadership: Cross-cultural Leadership Global leaders and managers need to develop relationship skills and understand cultural sensitivity in doing business in other countries. In Japan, relationships come first, then deal. In India, relationships come first, then deal. In U.S., deal comes first, then relationships. In Malaysia, relationships come first, then deal. In Germany, deal comes first, then relationships. In Philippines, relationships come first, then deal. Slide18: Changing Nature of American Management Entrepreneurship Information Technology Management Risk Assessment Innovation and Strategy Knowledge Management Slide19: Japan’s Context Political Opportunity for Koizumi Leadership in m-Commerce Reform of Corporations Better Control of Bank Debts Encourage Consumer Spending Slide20: Changing Nature of Japanese Management 1940’s, 50’s, and 60’s competed by low wages and low prices 1970’s, 80’s, and early 90’s competed by quality 2000’s need to compete by strategy and innovation Change from growth to profitability model Slide21: Japan’s Changing Agenda to Compete Globally New government agenda Changes in the Japanese management mindset Role of foreign investment and alliances Role of women managers Rise of business schools in Japan’s university system Corporate governance reform Slide22: U.S. and Japan in the China Market Dobun doshu (same culture, same race) Tung zhuang imeng (Sleeping in the same bed with different dreams) Japanese vs. Americans as partners Slide23: Concluding Discussion What is the nature of your management system? Is it changing because of globalization? Slide24: Session 2: Understanding Culture: The Human Side of Doing Business 'Culture: shared ways that groups of people understand and interpret the world.' Different Points of View : Different Points of View In Japan, if you have two cows, you give one to your neighbor. In China, if you have two cows, you give the government the cows and it gives you back the milk. In U.S., if you have two cows, you ___________________________ Cultural Values: Cultural Values Culture Behavior Attitude Values Cultural values affect behavior in doing business, and we need to learn deeper values. Levels of Culture : Levels of Culture Level 1: Universal or Global Culture, e.g. Life and Death Level 4: Business Culture, e.g., Profitability Level 6: Personal Culture, e.g., Loyalty and Dedication Level 2: Societal Culture, e.g., Rights of Individuals Level 3: National Culture, e.g., Individualism Level 5: Corporate Culture, e.g., Quality Service Managers’ Cultural Stance : Managers’ Cultural Stance Own culture of origin Culture in which you are working Culture of your company Cultural Differences: Cultural Differences Understand how cultures vary - Activity: Doing or being - Time: Past, Present, or Future - Space: Public or private - Personal relationships: Individualism or collectivism - People’s relationship to the world - How people see themselves Slide30: Saying Culture Meaning Ayorama: Inuit-Canada Subjugation 'It can’t be helped' En Shah Allah: Moslem-Arab Harmony with 'If God is willing' nature Can Do: American Dominance 'I will do it' A Few Deeper Cultural Values: A Few Deeper Cultural Values Four major 'fears' of the Japanese andgt; Jishin andgt; Oyaji Yarikata (Right Form) Amae no kozo (Mother-child dependency) andgt; Kaji andgt; Kaminari Slide32: Hofstede’s Work Behavior Factors Factors that explain differences - Individualism and Collectivism - Power Distance - Career Success and Quality of Life - Uncertainty Avoidance Behavior varies across cultures Slide33: U.S. focuses on Individualism – primary commitment to oneself. Self-identity. India focuses on Collectivism – gain identity through group membership. Malaysia focuses on Collectivism, too. Workplace Behavior Individualism Index (IDV): Individualism Index (IDV) Masculinity Index (PDI) Hofstede 91 67 48 46 32 26 25 20 20 18 17 14 14 USA Germany India Japan Philippines Malaysia Hong Kong Singapore Thailand South Korea Taiwan Pakistan Indonesia 0 20 40 60 80 100 Slide35: India has high power distance - titles, status, and formality important. U.S. has low power distance - titles, status, and formality not as important as treating each person as an individual. Malaysia has highest power distance. Relationship between Boss and Employee Power Distance Index (PDI): Power Distance Index (PDI) Hofstede 104 94 78 77 74 68 64 60 58 55 54 40 35 Malaysia Philippines Indonesia India Singapore Hong Kong Thailand South Korea Taiwan Pakistan Japan USA Germany 0 20 40 60 80 100 Power Distance Index (PDI) Slide37: Japan has high need for structure and security - value authority, procedures, and chain of command. U.S. has low need for structure and security - value job mobility, risk taking, and empowerment. India has low need for structure and security as well as Malaysia. Need for Structure and Security Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI): Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) Masculinity Index (PDI) Hofstede 92 85 70 69 65 64 48 46 44 40 36 29 8 Japan South Korea Pakistan Taiwan Germany Thailand Indonesia USA Philippines India Malaysia Hong Kong Singapore 0 20 40 60 80 100 Slide39: Both India and U.S. focus upon Career Success as life goal - emphasizes work, material things, and attention to outcomes. Both Thailand and Sweden focus upon Quality of Life as life goal - emphasizes relationships among people, concern for others, and the overall quality of living. Malaysia, like Pakistan, is balanced between Career Success and Quality of Life. Career Life Goal Career Success Index (MAS): Career Success Index (MAS) Masculinity Index (PDI) Hofstede 95 66 64 62 57 56 50 50 48 46 45 39 34 Japan Germany Philippines USA Hong Kong India Malaysia Pakistan Singapore Indonesia Taiwan South Korea Thailand 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cross-cultural Communications: Cross-cultural Communications It’s not enough to hear what is said or to use an interpreter for translation of business dealings. Slide42: Effective Communications Pie 7% What is said 38% How it is said 55% Nonverbal communication Slide43: Non-verbal Communication Body Motion (gestures) Personal Physical Characteristics Use of Space Time Physical Environment Slide44: Dangers of Cross-cultural Communications Ethnocentrism Stereotyping Slide45: Intercultural Education We have a responsibility to educate and train more cultural translators to bridge business between countries. Intercultural Education Exchange : Intercultural Education Exchange Total of ~586,000 Foreign Students Studied in the U.S., 2002 India 74,603 China 64,757 Korea 51,519 Japan 45,960 Taiwan 28,017 Malaysia 6,595 Source: Institute for International Education, 2004 Intercultural Education Exchange: Intercultural Education Exchange Total of 160,920 U.S. Students Studying Abroad, 2002 UK 30,143 Spain 17, 176 Italy 16,127 France 11,905 China 3,911 Japan 3,168 Institute of International Education, 2003 Intercultural Education Exchange : Intercultural Education Exchange Fields of Study of 586,323 International Students to U.S., 2003 Business andamp; Management 114,777 Engineering 96,545 Math. andamp; Computer Sciences 71,926 Other 58, 473 Social Sciences 45,978 Physical andamp; Life Sciences 43,549 Institute of International Education, 2003 Intercultural Education Exchange: Intercultural Education Exchange Total of 109,508 Foreign Students in Japan, 2003 China 70,814 Korea 15,871 Taiwan 4,235 Malaysia 2,002 Thailand 1,641 United States 1,310 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science andamp; Technology, 2003 Slide50: A Living Example: JAIMS 'Connecting Careers, Culture, and People' Vision: Vision To be the premier, top quality institute in intercultural management education in the Asia Pacific Region. Mission: Mission To prepare leaders and managers for an interdependent global economy. Slide53: Global Business Skills and Computers in the Workplace Slide54: Business English, Japanese or Mandarin Training Business Protocol and Culture Business Language/ Cultural Training Slide55: Real-Life Experience Cisco Systems, Inc. Voyager Submarines Hawaii Slide56: Real-life Experience in Japan Fujitsu, Ltd. Slide57: Real-life Experience in China The Portman Ritz-Carlton (Shanghai) TriWorks Computers andamp; Telecommunications Technology Co. Ltd. (Shanghai) Slide58: Value Added: The Total Intercultural Experience Slide59: Kahana Ahupua’a Community Service and Hawaiian Culture Community Service and Cultural Experiences Slide60: Business Functions Global Issues Business (Foreign) Language Computer Applications Intercultural Sensitivity Graduate Profile Slide61: Important Things to Remember Nature of management changes with the context. . Effective leadership and management requires an understanding of cultural behaviors. Leadership has a responsibility to promote international education. Globalization influences our perception. Leadership can help to close the cultural gap. Slide62: Session 3: Managing Paradox: Dialectical Management 'Dialectics is a form of thought from ancient Greece that emphasizes change as process and movement and opposites where change takes place through conflict and opposition, and that uses contradictions as a guide to what is likely to happen. ' Knowledge-Creating Companies : Knowledge-Creating Companies Socialization: sharing and creating tacit knowledge through direct experience. Externalization: articulating tacit knowledge through dialogue and reflection. Combination: systematizing and applying explicit knowledge and information. Internalization: learning and acquiring new tacit knowledge in practice. Embracing Paradox: Embracing Paradox Need to risk failure/Need to succeed Being empowered/Respecting hierarchy Being disciplined/Being creative Carefully analyzing/Acting quickly Having core job/Handling different tasks Synthesizing Opposites: Synthesizing Opposites tacit and explicit chaos and order micro and macro self and other creativity and control mind and body East and West Bringing about Synthesis: Bringing about Synthesis Vision Dialogue Targeted Objectives Practice Critical Factors for Success : Critical Factors for Success Managing paradox or dialectical management: Drs. Nonaka andamp; Takeuchi Earning respect and trust: General Shinseki Closing leadership advice: Colby Chandler Slide68: Aloha andamp; Mahalo Home of JAIMS You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.