plant layout

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Plant Layout


D efinition Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machines, equipment, tools, furniture etc. in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of raw material to the delivery of the final product. The subject of plant layout not only covers the initial layout of machines and other facilities encompasses improvement in, or revisions of, existing layout in the light of subsequent developments in the methods of production.

Objectives of a good Layout:

Objectives of a good Layout Provide enough production capacity. Reduces handling costs. Reduces congestion. Reduces hazards to personnel. Utilizes labour efficiently. Increase employee morale. Reduce accidents. Utilizes available space efficiently and effectively. Provide for volume and product facility. Provide ease for supervision. Facilitate co-ordination communication. Provide safety and health. Allow ease of maintenance. Allow high machine/equipment utilization. Improve productivity.


FACTORS INFLUENCING FACILITY LAYOUT MATERIALS (Type of raw materials and availability) PRODUCT (Type of product and its position) WORKER (Type , position and requirements) MACHINERY ( Product, volume and process) INDUSTRY (Type of industry: Synthetic, Analytical, Conditioning and Extractive) LOCATION (Factor of production) MANAGERIAL POLICIES ( volume, provision for expansion, automation, making or buying decisions, desire for rapid delivery, purchasing policy and personnel policies)

Principles of Layout:

Principles of Layout Principle of minimum travel Principle of sequences Principle of usage Principle of compactness Principle of safety and satisfaction Principle of flexibility Principle of minimum investment.

Types of layout:

Types of layout Process layout or functional or job shop layout. Product layout or line processing layout. Fixed position layout or static layout. Cellular manufacturing layout or Group Technology layout . Combination layout or Hybrid layout.


PROCESS LAYOUT The process layout involves a grouping together of like machines in one department. For example : machines performing drilling operations are fixed in the drilling department In this way there would be a heating department , painting department, casting department.

Process Layout or Functional Layout:

Process Layout or Functional Layout Inward good stores Planers Automatics Grinders Packing and Shipping Milling machines Central inspection Area Heat treatment shop Raw Material holding stores Drilling shop Assembly Finished goods storage Electro plating shop Training Shop (Lathes) Painting shop

While grouping machines certain principles need to b kept in mind ::

While grouping machines certain principles need to b kept in mind : The distance between departments should be as short as possible. Machines should be grouped in accordance with the principle of sequence of operation within the department. Convenience for inspection. Convenience for supervision.

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A dvantages H andle a variety of processing requirements N o t vulnerable to equipment failures General-purpose equipment is less costly and is easier and less costly to maintain P ossible to use individual incentive systems Scope for expansion as the capacity can be easily increased. Greater flexibility. 12 Disadvantages Difficulty in the movement of material. Requires more space. Difficult in production control. More production time as work in progress has to travel from place to place. Accumulation of work in progress at different places.

Product Layout (Straight Line):

The product layout involves the arrangement of machines in one line, depending upon the sequence of operations. Material are fed into the first machine and finished products come out of the last machine. In between , partly finished goods travel automatically , from machine to machine, the output of one machine becoming the input for the next. It is a feast for the eyes to watch the way sugarcane , fed at one end of the mill , comes out as sugar the other end. Product Layout (Straight Line)

Product Layout (Straight Line):

Product Layout (Straight Line) All the machine tool and equipment must be placed at the point demanded by the sequences of operations. There should be no points where one line crosses another line. Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly but not necessarily all at one point. All the operations , including assembly, testing and packing should be included in the line.

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Advantages Reduction in material handling cost due to mechanization. Avoid production bottleneck. Economy in manufacturing time. Better production control. Require less floor area per unit of production. Work-in-progress is reduced and so on investment. Early detection of mistakes. Greater incentive to a group of workers to raise their level of performance. 17 Disadvantages Product layout is known for its inflexibility. This is an expensive layout Difficulty in supervision. Expansion is also difficult. Breakdown can disrupt the whole system.

Fixed position layout:

The fixed position layout involves the movement of men and machines to the product which remains stationary. In this type of layout , the material or major components remains in a fixed location and tools , machinery and men as well as other pieces of material are brought to this location. The movement of men and material to the product is advisable because the cost of moving them would be less than the cost of moving the product which is very bulky. Fixed position layout

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Fixed Position Layout (Advantages):

Fixed Position Layout (Advantages) Men and machine can be used for a wide variety of operations producing different products. The investment on layout is very small. The worker identifies himself with the product and takes pride in it when the work is complete. The high cost of, and difficulty in transporting a bulky product are avoided.


Disadvantages As the production period being very long so the capital investment is very high. Very large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product . As several operations are often carried out simultaneously so there is possibility of confusion and conflicts among different workgroups.

Combined layout or Group technology layout or Hybrid layout):

Combined layout or Group technology layout or Hybrid layout) A combination of process and product layouts combines the advantages of both types of layouts product and process layout. A combination layout is possible where an item is being made in different types and sizes. Here machinery is arranged in a process layout but the process grouping is then arranged in a sequence to manufacture various types and sizes of products. It is to be noted that the sequence of operations remains same with the variety of products and sizes.

Combined layout or Group technology layout or Hybrid layout):

Combined layout or Group technology layout or Hybrid layout) Forging Press Forging Press Gear Cutting Machine Gear cutting Machine Gear cutting Machine Heat Treatment Heat Treatment Gear Grinding Machine Gear Grinding Machine Finished Output Raw Mat. Process layout Product Layout

Group Layout (or Cellular Layout):

Group Layout (or Cellular Layout) In cellular manufacturing (CM),machines are grouped into cells and the cells function somewhat like a product layout within a larger shop or process layout. Each cell in the CM layout is formed to produce a single parts family-a few parts, all with common characteristics , which usually means that they require the same machines and have similar machine settings

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Cell #1 Cell #2 Cell #3 Cell #4 1 3 3 5 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 2

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Advantages Lower work-in-process inventories. Reduced material handling costs Shorter flow times in production Improved visual control 27 Disadvantages Reduced manufacturing flexibility

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