RESEARCH OBJECTIVES : RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Dr. Azadeh Asgari Research Methodology Research Objectives : Research Objectives A continuation of the problem statement.
May be written in the form of a general objective which is GENERALLY STATED and RATHER WIDE, followed by the specific objectives – which are more focused and direct. Characteristics of Research Objectives : Characteristics of Research Objectives Outline the scope of the research
Give a picture of how to perform the investigation
Give an idea who would be the subjects of the research
e.g.: To examine if there is a significant relationship between readiness for self-directed learning (SDL) and needs for language skills, perceived language competence, and teaching experience. Research Questions : Research Questions The research objectives being posed as questions or derivatives of the objectives being posed as questions.
OBJECTIVE: to identify the differences in form 2 mathematics performance based on gender Characteristics of Research Questions : Characteristics of Research Questions Should be significant to be studied and would add knowledge to the body of knowledge.
Should be ethical (would not cause physical and psychological injury to anyone, or to the environment). Characteristics of Research Questions : Characteristics of Research Questions Should be feasible (could be studied and would not take too much time, energy, and cost).
Should be clear (most researchers would agree to the meaning of key descriptors in the questions). Research Hypothesis : Research Hypothesis Tentative statements as solutions to the problem.
Tentative statements on relationships between two or more variables.
An educated guess of conditions of a phenomenon.
A reasoned speculation about how two or more variables are related to each other. Slide 8: Suppose you want to find out the effect of higher level cognitive questions on students’ learning in geography classes but has no basis for formulating a hypothesis:
What is the objective of this research?
… to determine whether higher level cognitive questions affect students’ learning in geography classes
What is the research question of this research?
What is the effect of higher level cognitive questions on students’ learning in geography classes? Slide 9: If These Is Basis For Formulating A Hypothesis:
Higher level cognitive questions will significantly affect students’ learning in geography classes
Higher level cognitive questions will significantly improve students’ learning in geography classes Criteria of Research Hypothesis : Criteria of Research Hypothesis Borg & Gall (1989) identified four criteria:
Should explain expected relationships that exist between two or more variables,
Researcher should have strong reasons based on concrete evidences or theories to formulate the hypothesis which is to be tested,
Should be as short as possible but clear,
Should be testable. Types of Research Hypothesis : Types of Research Hypothesis HO: Null Hypothesis= Statistic Hypothesis = No relationship Hypothesis or No Difference Hypothesis
HA: Alternative Hypothesis = Research Hypothesis
Directional Hypothesis vs Non Directional Hypothesis Examples of Research Hypotheses : Examples of Research Hypotheses Gifted students have higher motivation towards mathematics.
There exists a positive relationship between IQ scores and scores on a Mathematic Interest Inventory for 11 year old students..
There exists a positive relationship between English grades and grades achieved in Mathematic.
There is no significant difference in customer satisfaction between ethnic groups.