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Any document or plan that exists in a school or school system that defines the work of teachers, at least to the extent of identifying the content to be taught student and the methods to be used in the process (English, 2000). The educative experiences learners have in an educational program. The purpose of which is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives that have been developed within a framework of theory and research, past and present professional practice, and the changing needs of society (Parkay, 2006). 2 Slide 3: Concept of Curriculum A systematic group of courses or sequence of subjects required for graduation or certification in a major field of study; A general overall plan of the content or specific materials of instruction that the college should offer the student by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification or for entrance into a professional or vocational field; A body of prescribed educative experiences under the supervision of an educational institute, designed to provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for the society of which he is a part or to qualify him for a trade or a profession. 3 7 Common Concepts of Curriculum : 7 Common Concepts of Curriculum Scope and Sequence Syllabus Content Outline Standards Textbooks Course of Study Planned Experiences (Posner, 2004) 4 Components of Curriculum : Components of Curriculum Curriculum Design -Creating the curriculum in schools Curriculum Delivery -Implementation, supervising, monitoring or using feedback to improve the curriculum Curriculum Coordination -Lateral focus and connectivity Curriculum Articulation -Vertical focus and connectivity 5 Types of Curriculum : Types of Curriculum Formal Informal -Values -Personality of teacher -Assessment Hidden Written Taught Tested 6 Quality Curriculum : Quality Curriculum Greater depth and less superficial coverage Focus on problem solving Facilitates the mastery of essential skill and knowledge Coordinated Articulation -multi-level sequence study Emphasize academic and practical Effective integrated curricula Mastery of a limited number of objectives 7 Curriculum Goals : Curriculum Goals Provide general guidelines for determining the learning experiences to be included in the curriculum. -Citizenship -Equal Educational Opportunity -Vocation -Self-realization -Critical Thinking 8 Bloom’s Taxonomy : Bloom’s Taxonomy 9 Remembering: Student can recall or remember information (define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce, state) Understanding: Student can explain ideas or concepts (classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase) Applying: Student can use the information in a new way (choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write) Analyzing: Student can distinguish between the different parts (appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test) Evaluating: Student can justify a stand or decision (appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate) Creating: Student can create new product or point of view (assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write) Slide 10: Syllabus List of Subjects Content outline for each subject Broad time Allocations 10 Slide 11: Difference Between Syllabus & Curriculum Functionally a ‘Syllabus’ is generally unidimensional in the sense it merely presents the content or the subject matter to be studied. Curriculum is three dimensional, because it takes into account: the needs of the students, the content (in terms of specific performances) instructional methodology 11 Curriculum Approaches : Curriculum Approaches 12 CURRICULUM as: Content emphasis on the content to be transmitted syllabus (document listing the topics, the content and suggestions on how topics should be taught) Product what is it that is desired of students having been taught using a curriculum (behavioral objectives). product = student equipped with knowledge, skills and values Process emphasis on interaction of teachers, students and knowledge. teaching and learning process in classroom Curriculum as a Discipline : Curriculum as a Discipline IS CURRICULUM A DISCIPLINE? Reflect on the characteristics of a discipline: have organized set of theoretical principles encompasses a body of knowledge and skills pertinent to that discipline has theoreticians and practitioners 13 Curriculum as a Discipline : Curriculum as a Discipline 14 A in curriculum planning there are principles such as educational philosophy, curriculum goals etc. principles of content, sequence and balance in organization of content (curriculum design) B apply ideas from other disciplines & generated own ideas through research e.g: selection of content relied on knowledge and skills from psychology e.g: knowledge management and organizational theory used in organization content C there are curriculum planners, professors, curriculum developers who termed as curriculum specialist well-informed in areas relating to curriculum Foundations of Curriculum : Foundations of Curriculum Foundations of Curriculum 15 philosophy psychology sociology history These foundations have been used by curriculum design and development teams to decide on: - Goals of curriculum - Content - Organization of content - Teaching process Slide 16: Four Phases of Curriculum Process Design Phase Development Phase Implementation Phase Evaluation Phase Figure 1: Four Phases of Curriculum Process FEEDBACK LOOPS 16 Slide 17: CURRICULUM DESIGN PHASE 17 Slide 18: Curriculum Design Phase What abilities the students possess on entry into the course? What abilities they will acquire on leaving the course? (as indicated by the job analysis) THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN (a) and (b) IS THE GAP THAT MUST BE BRIDGED WHEN DESIGNING THE CURRICULUM 18 Slide 19: Formulation of the OBJECTIVES of the curriculum Job analysis Identification of knowledge and skill requirements Formulation of programme objectives Specification of entering behavior Curriculum Design Phase 19 Slide 20: Figure 2: Learning as a change in behavior Educational Process Student Input Entering Behavior Student Output Terminal Behavior 20 Slide 21: Educational Objectives Course Description (content) PREREQUISITES OBJECTIVE What the learner has to know before he starts the course What the learner measurably knows after successful completion of the course CHANGE IN THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE LEARNER Figure 3: Educational Objectives 21 Slide 22: Knowledge (intellectual) Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Attitudes (values) Skills (Manual) Psychomotor Domain Main Categories of Human Behavior Figure 4: Main Categories of Human Behavior 22 Slide 23: Instructional Objectives Instructional Objectives are statements that communicate in behavioral terms the expected performance of the students at the END of instruction. 23 Slide 24: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PHASE 24 Curriculum Development : Curriculum Development Involves the following phases: 25 Curriculum planning The decision about philosophy and aim of education Curriculum design The way curriculum is conceptualized Selection and organization of content & learning activities Curriculum implementation Actualizing the curriculum entities Curriculum evaluation Determines the extent to which the curriculum has been successful Slide 26: Sequencing the various subjects / courses Selecting the content in each subject Sequencing the units and topics Selecting instructional methods, instructional materials and media Preparation of plans for instruction Development of tests and other materials needed for evaluation of students performance Orienting the teachers to the new curriculum. TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN: Curriculum Development Phase 26 Slide 27: Criteria of Utility, Variety & Flexibility While making various decisions during the process of curriculum development three criteria, described below, are usually employed: 1. CRITERION OF UTILITY 2. CRITERION OF VARIETY 3. CRITERION OF FLEXIBILITY 27 Slide 28: Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making 1. CRITERION of UTILITY CONTENT Must know Should know Nice to know 28 Slide 29: 2. CRITERION of VARIETY Interesting Variety of learning experiences 29 Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making Slide 30: 3. CRITERION of FLEXIBILITY Horizontal and Vertical mobility Modular approach Bridge Courses Core and Elective Subjects 30 Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making What are the Qualifying Professional Development Categories? : What are the Qualifying Professional Development Categories? 1. College and University Coursework 2. Conferences/Workshops & Training Sessions 3. Collaborative and Partnership Activities 4. Involvement in Development/Improvement Processes. 5. Individually-Guided Professional Development 6. Professional Leadership Experiences 31 Slide 32: Suggestions for Improving CDP Specification of instructional objectives for each course (subject) of the programme. Organizing the syllabus in terms of units, topics and sub-topics. Indicating the time allotted for teaching each unit of the course. Assigning about 15% of the time allotted for each course for revision and conduct of tests. Preparation and inclusion of a Table of Specifications (Blueprint) for construction of Question paper as an integral part of the curriculum, to ensure validity of the question paper. 32 Slide 33: Greater involvement of teachers in the various tasks of curriculum process. 7. Using the model curriculum as a base for curriculum revision (in various subjects). Conferring Academic autonomy to the colleges Utilization of the services of Academic council members Establishment of a Curriculum cell in each college Board of Studies Size and Composition 33 Suggestions for Improving CDP Slide 34: CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION PHASE 34 Slide 35: Preparation of implementation plans. Organizing in-service staff development programmes. Effecting organizational changes like work distribution, role clarification, provision of support services and streamlining procedures and communication channels. Actual implementation of the curriculum in the identified institutions. Monitoring the implementation processes and evaluation of students performance. Collection of feedback information. TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN: Curriculum Implementation Phase 35 Curriculum and Instruction : Curriculum and Instruction Curriculum => what is taught Instruction => how it’s taught 36 Curriculum Instruction - Curriculum and instruction as 2 entities Dualistic Model Curriculum and Instruction : Curriculum and Instruction 37 Curriculum Instruction Curriculum and instruction mutually interdependent Instruction is a subsystem of curriculum with curriculum dominating instruction Concentric Model Curriculum and Instruction : Curriculum and Instruction Curriculum makes a continuous impact on instruction and vice versa. Instructional decisions are made after curriculum decisions are made and later the curriculum decisions are modified after being evaluated in classroom 38 Curriculum Instruction Cyclical Model Slide 39: Two Approaches to Curriculum Academic Approach Competency based Approach 39 Slide 40: COMPETENCY BASED Subject Approach Knowledge Based Analysis of Subject Matter & Disciplines Systems Approach Job / Occupation Based Analysis of Policies, Labour Market and Occupations Contd. 40 Two Approaches to Curriculum Slide 41: Determining Level and Prerequisites Organise Curriculum According to Logic of the Discipline Develop Instruction Analysis of Job and Tasks Contd. Develop Instruction Organise Curriculum According to way the job is done COMPETENCY BASED 41 Two Approaches to Curriculum Slide 42: Who are the Learners? What Learning Objectives? What Learning Strategies? What Resources Needed? How Evaluate? What is to be learned? How will it be learned? What Texts / Materials? What Tests / Exams? COMPETENCY BASED 42 Two Approaches to Curriculum Slide 43: Intended Curriculum vs. Operational Curriculum INTENDED CURRICULUM: Refers to the PRESCRIPTIONS in the curriculum document. The intended curriculum is an inert document containing the objectives of the curriculum, content matter, time schedules and the performance standards expected. 43 Slide 44: Intended Curriculum vs. Operational Curriculum OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM When an “intended curriculum” is enacted in a classroom or given life through teaching it becomes an “OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM”. It deals with the processes of teaching and learning, organisation of the class and the milieu in which instruction takes place. 44 Slide 45: Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation 1. FACTORS RELATED TO THE STUDENT: Aptitude for the subject Proficiency in the language which is used as the medium of instruction Entering behavior Motivation 45 Slide 46: 2. FACTORS RELATED TO THE TEACHER: Teacher preparedness Teacher’s resourcefulness 46 Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation Slide 47: 3. FACTORS RELATED TO THE INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT : Appropriateness of curricular objectives Adequacy of instructional time Instructional resources Instructional methods and procedures Task orientation of the class Evaluation procedures used Feedback provided to students 47 Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation Slide 48: CURRICULUM EVALUATION PHASE 48 Slide 49: Curriculum Evaluation Phase Curriculum evaluation can be defined as the collection and provision of evidence, on the basis of which decisions can be taken about the feasibility, effectiveness and educational value of curricula. 49 Slide 50: Why Should We Evaluate a Curriculum? To bring the curricular content abreast of modern advances To remove the ‘Dead Wood’ from the curriculum To improve the EFFECTIVENESS of the curriculum To improve the Efficiency of curriculum Implementation process To review the entry behavior requirements for admission into the course To identify: - How an “Intended Curriculum’ is enacted - How it becomes operational - The factors which may affect it and result in unintended effect EFFECTIVENESS = Actual Output Planned Output EFFICIENCY = Output Input 50 Slide 51: EFFECTIVENESS Doing Right Things EFFICIENCY Doing Things In The Right Way 51 Slide 52: ACTUAL OUTPUT PLANNED OUTPUT Determination of the extent to which the objectives of the curriculum have been achieved. 52 EFFECTIVENESS Slide 53: OUTPUT INPUT Efficiency is related to the various kinds of COSTS (Money/Time/Space/Instructional Resources etc.) associated with the educational program. 53 EFFICIENCY Slide 54: Curriculum Evaluation Phase Whole curriculum of the program Curriculum of a single course Specific components like the objectives, course content, teachers’ guide, textbook, audio-visual aids, teaching methods and evaluation procedures. THE ENTITY TO BE EVALUATED: 54 Slide 55: Outcomes Processes Fit to Standards CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION: 55 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 56: Criteria for Curriculum Evaluation Outcomes should cover both short range and long-range ones. It should also take cognizance of the unintended outcomes. 1. Outcomes: 56 Slide 57: 2. Processes: The Processes include: Student participation in certain activities Interest in the program and The desired pattern of communication between students and teachers 57 Criteria for Curriculum Evaluation Slide 58: 3. Fit to Standards: Standards may have their roots in: Pedagogical principles: Appropriate provision of feedback, reinforcement, sufficient amount of repetition etc. Communication principles: Clarity of presentation, proper significance, vocabulary control, multisensory cues, etc. Curricular principles: Correspondence between objectives and planned activities. 58 Criteria for Curriculum Evaluation Slide 59: Formative evaluation Summative evaluation Curriculum Improvement Tasks to be undertaken: 59 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 60: This is carried out during the process of curriculum development. The evaluation results provide information to curriculum developers and enable them to correct flaws detected in the curriculum. The evaluation results may contribute to the formation of the curriculum and hence the notion of formative evaluation. 1. Formative evaluation: TASKS 60 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 61: This is carried out after offering the curriculum once or twice. Such an evaluation will summarize the merits (as well as the weaknesses) of the program, hence the notion of summative evaluation. Summative evaluation of curriculum may aid in the specification of the optimal or minimal conditions for usage. Such results may serve the clients / customers in deciding whether they should use the program at all, or under what conditions (Availability of equipment, space, time, professional prerequisites etc.) they should use it. 2. Summative evaluation: TASKS 61 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 62: A curriculum that operates satisfactorily over a certain period of time may gradually become obsolete or deteriorate over time. To prevent this from occurring permanent follow-up and quality control of the program should be maintained. Quality control may reveal when some or all portions of the program should be altered or replaced. In this way quality control may lead toward the updating of an old program and production of “Second Generation Program”. 3. Curriculum Improvement: TASKS 62 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 63: Beane, J. A., Toepfer Jr, C. F., & Alessi Jr, S. J. (1986) Curriculum Planning and Development Allyn and Bacon, Boston Brady, L., & Kennedy, K. (1999) Curriculum Construction, Prentice-Hall, Sydney Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) (2002a) “The Arts Modules”, from www.qsa.qld.edu.au/yrs1to10/kla/arts/modules.html Spady, W. G. (1993) Outcome-based Education: Workshop Report No 5, Australian Curriculum Studies Association, Belconnen, ACT Spady, W. G. (1994) Outcome-based Education: critical issues and answers, American Association of School Administrators,Virginia, USA Beretta, A (1992) Evaluation of Language Education an overview. In Alderson. J & J Beretta, A (eds.) Evaluating Second Language Education. Cambridge University Press. Brindley, G. (1989) “The role of needs analysis in adult ESL programme design” In R. K.Johnson (ed) Brown, J. D. (1995) The Elements of Language Curriculum, USA: Heinle & Heinle. 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(2000) The Implications of Curriculum Design for a Graduate of the English Language Program at Universidad Veracruzana. Unpublished dissertation. Mexico Munby, J. (1978) Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge University Press. Nunan, D. (2000 ) Syllabus Design, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Richards, J. (2001) Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J. C, Hull, J., Proctor, S. & Shields, C. (2005) Interchange Third Edition. UK: Cambridge University Press. Richards, Platt and Platt (1993) Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics. London: Longman. Robinson, P. (1990) ESP Today. Great Britain: Prentice Hall. 63 References You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.