Wind Power

Category: Education

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Dr.Azadeh Asgari


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WIND POWER By Ramin Rasti for academic class presentation Dr. Azadeh Asgari


Energy is a major input for overall socio-economic development of any society The prices of the fossil fuels steeply increasing So renewables are expected to play a key role Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable Wind turbines are up to the task of producing serious amounts of electricity INTODUCTION


windmills were used in Persia as early as 200 B.C first Charles F Brush built the first automatically operated wind turbine for electricity production in  Cleveland, Ohio Although Blyth's turbine was considered uneconomical in the United Kingdom [7] electricity generation by wind turbines was more cost effective in countries with widely scattered populations. HISTORY


It was 18 m tall, weighed 4 tons and powered a 12 kW generator.


In the fall of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in  vermont . The  Smith-Putnam wind turbine  only ran for 1,100 hours before suffering a critical failure In the early 1970s, however, anti-nuclear protests in Denmark spurred artisan mechanics to develop microturbines of 22 kW. The organizing of owners into associations and co-operatives lead to the lobbying of the government and utilities, which incentivized larger turbines throughout the 1980s and afterwards and later a Danish company vestas became world's biggest wind-turbine manufacturer!!!!


Huge potential exists Available potential can contribute five times the world energy demand 0.4 % contribution to total energy POTENTIAL


Wind is currently the world’s fastest growing energy source

Growth of Wind Energy:

Growth of Wind Energy Year


Installed Capacity (MW) in 2005

Turbine Evolution:

Turbine Evolution Used for Pumping water Grinding grain Mainly used for Generating Electricity TECHNOLOGY

Types of Turbines:

Types of Turbines VAWT Drag is the main force Nacelle is placed at the bottom Yaw mechanism is not required Lower starting torque Difficulty in mounting the turbine Unwanted fluctuations in the power output


HAWT Lift is the main force Much lower cyclic stresses Yaw mechanism is required 95 % of the existing turbines are HAWTs Nacelle is placed at the top of the tower

Two Types of HAWT:


Vertical Axis Turbines:

Vertical Axis Turbines Advantages Omnidirectional Accepts wind from any angle Components can be mounted at ground level Ease of service Lighter weight towers Can theoretically use less materials to capture the same amount of wind Disadvantages Rotors generally near ground where wind poorer Centrifugal force stresses blades Poor self-starting capabilities Requires support at top of turbine rotor Requires entire rotor to be removed to replace bearings Overall poor performance and reliability Have never been commercially successful

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines:

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Rotors are usually Up-wind of tower Some machines have down-wind rotors, but only commercially available ones are small turbines

Offshore Turbines:

Offshore Turbines More wind speeds Less noise pollution Less visual impact Difficult to install and maintain Energy losses due long distance trans port

A Typical HAWT:

A Typical HAWT

Turbine Design & Construction:

Turbine Design & Construction Blades Material used Typical length Tower height Heights twice the blade length are found economical Number of blades Three blade HAWT are most efficient Two blade turbines don’t require a hub As the number increases; noise, wear and cost increase and efficiency decreases Multiple blade turbines are generally used for water pumping purposes


Determining Factors Wind Speed Turbine design and construction Rated capacity of the turbine Exact Location Improvements in turbine design Capital ECONOMICS

Wind Speed Matters:

Wind Speed Matters Assuming the same size project, the better the wind resource, the lower the cost.

Size Matters:

Size Matters Assuming the same wind speed of 8.08 m/s, a large wind farm is more economical

Overall Cost Distribution:

Overall Cost Distribution

Break Down Of Capital Cost:

Break Down Of Capital Cost

Energy Cost Trend:

Energy Cost Trend 1979: 40 cents/kWh Increased Turbine Size R&D Advances Manufacturing Improvements 2004: 3 – 4.5 cents/kWh 2000: 4 - 6 cents/kWh

Typical Cost Statistics:

Typical Cost Statistics Size: 51 MW Wind Speed: 13-18 miles/hour Capital cost: $ 65 million ($1300/MW) Annual production: 150 million kW-hr Electricity costs: 3.6-4.5 cents Payback period: 20 years


Greater fuel diversity No delay in construction Low maintenance costs Reliable and durable equipment Additional income to land owners More jobs per unit energy produced No hidden costs ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES



Wind Capital Cost:

Wind Capital Cost

Cost of Wind Energy:

Cost of Wind Energy

So . . .:

So . . . Price of wind power is coming down There is enormous capacity Energy storage, however, is still a problem


Visual impact Off shore turbines Arrangement Avian concerns Suitable choice of site Using tubular towers instead of lattice tower Using radars TYPICAL CONCERNS


Noise Varies as 5 th power of relative wind speed Streamlining of tower and nacelle Acoustic insulation of nacelle Specially designed gear box Use of upwind turbines Reducing angle of attack Low tip speed ratios


Changes in wind patterns Reducing turbulence Intermittent Coupling with hydro or solar energy TV, microwave, radar interference Switching from conducting material to non-conducting and composite material


Wind energy is pollution free and nature friendly Wind energy has very good potential and it is the fastest growing energy source The future looks bright for wind energy because technology is becoming more advanced and windmills are becoming more efficient CONCLUSION

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