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B. R. SIWALDeputy Directoremail: brsiwal@gmail.comWomen Development DivisionNIPCCD, New Delhi : 

B. R. SIWALDeputy Directoremail: brsiwal@gmail.comWomen Development DivisionNIPCCD, New Delhi GENDER BASED VIOLENCE AGAINST ADOLESCENT GIRL-FOCUS ON SEXUAL VIOLENCE

UN Definition : 

UN Definition “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to results in , physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.”


FACTORS THAT PERPETUATE VIOLENCE SOCIO-CULTURAL Gender – specific socialization Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles Expectations of roles within relationships Belief on the inherent superiority of males

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Values that give men proprietary rights over women and girls Notion of the family as the private sphere and under male control Customs of marriage (bride price / dowry) Acceptability of violence as a means to resolve conflict Portrayal of negative image in media

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ECONOMIC Women’s economic dependence on men Limited access to cash and credit Discriminatory laws regarding inheritance, property rights, use of communal lands, and maintenance after divorce or widowhood Limited access to employment in formal and informal sector Limited access to education and training

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POLITICAL Under-representation of women in power, politics, media and in legal and medical professions Domestic violence not taken seriously Notions of family being private and beyond control of the state Risk of challenge to status quo / religious laws Limited organisation of women as a political force Limited participation of women in organised political system

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LEGAL Laws regarding divorce, child custody, maintence and inheritance Low levels of legal literacy among women Lesser legal status of women either by written law and / or by practice Insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary


PSYCHOLOGICAL MALTREATMENTDefinition Psychological Neglect - the consistent failure of a parent or caretaker to provide a child with appropriate support, attention, and affection. Psychological Abuse - a chronic pattern of behaviors such as belittling, humiliating, and ridiculing a child.


PHYSICAL ABUSEDefinition Physical abuse is any non-accidental injury to a child under the age of 18 by a parent or caretaker. These injuries may include beatings, shaking, burns, human bites, strangulation, or immersion in scalding water, with resulting bruises and welts, broken bones, scars, burns, retinal hemorrhage, or internal injuries.


CHILD SEXUAL ABUSEDefinition Child sexual abuse is the exploitation of a child or adolescent for the sexual gratification of another person.


TYPES OF VIOLENCE Violation of human rights CRC CEADAW Other human right instruments Gender based discrimination

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PHYSICAL Dowry murder Battering Foeticide Infanticide Deprivation of Food Shelter Medicare Trafficking Sexual violence

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EMOTIONAL ABUSE Confinement Forced marriage Threats of reprisals


SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND ABUSE Rape Molestation Pornography Incest Exposure to Sexual Acts of others Sexual Assault with object Forcible Fondling Trafficking Juvenile Prostitution Sexual Harassment / Eve teasing Sex with minor (child marriage)

Indications of violence against Girls: : 

Indications of violence against Girls: PHYSICAL Fractures, injuries of conjunctive tissue: wounds on head or face; broken teeth; broken jaw; black eyes; perforated ear-drums.

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Contusion of abdomen, chest, perineum, especially during pregnancy. Bite marks Unusual burns (from cigarettes, stove, hot fat, acids). Visits to the hospital become more frequent, and traumas – more serious. Not getting enough sleep and malnutrition.

Pattern injury- Hand print : 

Pattern injury- Hand print

Defensive injuries : 

Defensive injuries

Pattern injuries - linear : 

Pattern injuries - linear

Pattern Injury Bite Mark : 

Pattern Injury Bite Mark


SEXUALLY ABUSIVE BEHAVIORS Fondling Child prostitution Child pornography Intercourse


SEXUALLY ABUSIVE BEHAVIORS Sodomy Oral-genital stimulation Verbal stimulation Exhibitionism


SEXUAL ABUSE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED WHEN: Pregnancy in young adolescent Frequent unexplained sore throats, yeast or urinary infections Child reports inappropriate sexual behavior Child engaged in highly inappropriate sexual behavior

Sexual Abuse : 

Sexual Abuse Early warnings General statements Sexualized play Suspicious touching Improper visualization or glances Direct statements of a sexual nature

Behavioral Changes - Signs of Sexual Abuse : 

Behavioral Changes - Signs of Sexual Abuse Sleep disturbances: nightmares, night terror Appetite disturbances: anorexia, bulimia Neurotic disorders Phobias: avoidance behavior Withdrawal, depression Guilt

Behavioral Changes - Sings of Sexual Abuse : 

Behavioral Changes - Sings of Sexual Abuse Medical conditions Genital or urethral trauma Genital infection Sexually transmitted diseases Recurrent urinary tract infections Abdominal pain

Behavioral Changes - Sings of Sexual Abuse : 

Behavioral Changes - Sings of Sexual Abuse Other signs: Pregnancy School problems Promiscuity or prostitution Substance abuse Commonly admitting to guilt

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CONSEQUENCES OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE: Sexually transmitted diseases. Vaginal or rectal injuries. Miscarriages, stillborn babies, premature birth. Low self esteem Depression Fear Anxiety

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Sexual dysfunction Obsessive – compulsive disorder Post – traumatic stress disorder Unwanted pregnancy Induced abortion STD including HIV/AIDS Suicide

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PSYCHOLOGICAL Symptoms of depression: low self-esteem; self-containment; neglected appearance; consider suicidal options or attempts to take her own life;

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anorexia of bulimia (i.e. pathological refusal to have a meal of pathological overeating); taking alcohol or drugs; insomnia; psychosomatic diseases fits of uneasiness; feeling of helplessness; weeps frequently;

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indecisive behavior; avoids meeting eyes. loss of contacts with family members and friends (sense of being isolated). poverty (sometimes as a result of financial tricks of her partner). obsessive fear. alienation from her children or even hostility towards them.


TRAFFICKING Recruitment transportation are receipt of women and girl through deception or coercion for the purpose of prostitution other sexual exploitation or forced labour.


VULNERABILITIES TO TRAFFICKING Feminization of Poverty Poverty of parent Lack of employment opportunities Lack of unequal access to education Traditional community attitude Debt and bondage of parents False promises and deception Commercialization and agriculture Love of livelihood Gender based socialization

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Caste and tribal social system Domestic – violence Low level of confidence and self worth Death of parents Lack awareness and laws Street children with no guardians Single women – migrant worker Sudden disaster victim – cyclone, earth quakes and floods Stigmatization – girls raped, adorned


TRENDS IN TRAFFICKING Growing scope and magnitude New source and destination Diverse and sophisticated mechanisms Highly organised crime syndicates Changes in the portico of trafficked persons. Extended linkage between trafficking network and political networks Increasing profits with little risk gross human rights violation for capital accumulation.


ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM Victims of domestic violence requiring assistance often face their problems alone without any support from their relatives or neighbors Institutional and legal systems should be more efficient response to cases of domestic violence.

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There are few organizations providing social, housing, legal, and psychological assistance to victims of violence; lack of programs for self-assistance and self-defense for victims of domestic violence. combating domestic violence and of providing assistance to victims.

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Lack of modern empirical diagnostics and practical knowledge essential for better understanding and combating the phenomenon of domestic violence. The level of public stereotypes concerning domestic violence complicates preventing this violence and solving related problems.


ROLE OF NGOs Collect and analyze information on domestic violence. Hold public awareness campaigns, publish informational materials. Conduct different educational activities, e.g. trainings for women. Undertake training of governmental officials; provide them with information. Accompany police on domestic violence calls.

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Provide “public defenders” to victims. Participate in the work of “advisors”. Create shelters, crises centers, self-defense groups and hotlines for abused women. Conduct psychological rehabilitation of abusers, children and other members of the family.

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