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A brief introduction of Epilepsy, its pathogenesis and management.Factors aggravating and causing are also d


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Epilepsy Module # 7


Epilepsy Epilepsy is a neurological disorder - a physical condition , which causes sudden bursts of electrical energy in the brain . These electrical discharges produce sudden, brief seizures, which vary from one person to another in frequency and form.


seizure A seizure may appear as: A brief stare An unusual movement of the body A change of awareness, or a convulsion A seizure may last a few seconds or a few minutes.


Causes In approximately 60-75% of all cases, there is no known cause. Of the remaining cases, there are a number of frequently identified causes.

Identifiable Causes:

Identifiable Causes Brain injury to the fetus during pregnancy Birth trauma (lack of oxygen) Poisoning from substance abuse or environmental contaminants (lead poisoning) Aftermath of infection (meningitis) Head trauma (car accident, sports injury, shaken baby syndrome) Alteration in blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Other metabolic illness (hypocalcaemia) Brain tumor Stroke


Classification Seizures are classified into two types: Primary Generalized Seizures Partial Seizures

Partial seizures:

Partial seizures Unlike primary seizures, which begin on both sides of the brain, partial seizures begin with an abnormal burst of electrical activity in a restricted area of brain tissue

Partial seizures Factors:

Partial seizures Factors Although the cause of most partial seizures cannot be identified, the following factors are known to precipitate them: Head injury Brain infection Stroke Brain tumors Heredity

Types of Partial Seizures:

Types of Partial Seizures Motor seizures Sensory seizures Autonomic seizures Psychic seizures

Motor seizures:

Motor seizures Effects on the body : Cause a change in muscle activity Associated symptoms: May include one or more of the following symptoms: stiffening of the body; muscles jerking in one area of the body, such as the, finger or wrist (abnormal movements that may remain in one part of the body or may spread to other muscles on one or both sides of the body); possible weakness of one or more body parts, including vocal apparatus, affecting speech; coordinated actions such as laughter or automatic hand movements (with or without consciousness).

Sensory seizures:

Sensory seizures Effects on the body: Cause changes in sensation, involving any one of the senses — touch: numbness, pins and needles; smell: unpleasant odor; taste; vision: spot of light, scene with people; hearing: a click, ringing, a person's voice; orientation in space: floating or spinning feeling. Associated symptoms: Common symptoms include hallucinations, which may involve the feeling of something that is not actually there, such as "pins and needles" in a finger or sighting of a red ball. Illusions are also common, that is, distortions of true sensations (e.g., a car standing still may appear to be moving farther away, or a person's voice may appear muffled when it's actually clear).

Autonomic seizures:

Autonomic seizures Effects on the body: Cause changes in part of the nervous system that automatically controls bodily functions. Associated symptoms: Strange or unpleasant sensations in abdomen, chest, or head; possible changes in heart rate or breathing rate; sweating; or goose bumps.


COMPLEX PARTIAL SEIZURES These seizures cause impairment, but not complete loss, of consciousness; they can also cause memory lapses. Usually automatic movements—called automatisms —occur during the seizure


Automatisms Automatisms can involve the following body parts: Mouth and face: lip smacking, chewing, tasting, and swallowing movements. Hands and arms: fumbling, picking, tapping, or clasping movements. Vocalizations: grunts, repetition of words or phrases. Complex acts: walking or mixing foods in a bowl. Less common automatisms: Laughing, screaming, crying, running, shouting, bizarre and sometimes movements that appear "sexual," and disrobing.


SECONDARILY GENERALIZED SEIZURES These seizures are common, occurring in more than 30 percent of adults and children with partial epilepsy They often follow a partial seizure or complex partial seizure.

Seizure-Provoking Factors :

Seizure-Provoking Factors They include: Missed medication Sleep deprivation Alcohol use Drug abuse The menstrual cycle Stress Over-the-counter drugs Nutritional deficiencies, and vitamins and minerals. Another factor thought by some to affect seizure occurrences is the moon, particularly the cycles of the moon.


End… Module # 6

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