Anatomy Unit 1 Introduction to Anatomy

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This presentation provides very basic concepts in the subject of anatomy.It is equally important for

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Overview of Anatomy & Physiology:

Overview of Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Gross or macroscopic Microscopic Developmental Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery [ characteristics and mechanisms that make it a living being. ]

Gross Anatomy:

Gross Anatomy Regional – all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg) Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin

Microscopic Anatomy:

Microscopic Anatomy Cytology – study of the cell Histology – study of tissues

Developmental Anatomy:

Developmental Anatomy Traces structural changes throughout life Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth

Physiology:

Physiology Considers the operation of specific organ systems Renal – kidney function Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system Cardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vessels Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level

Physiology:

Physiology Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains electrical currents, blood pressure, and the way muscle uses bone for movement

Principle of Complementarity:

Principle of Complementarity An anatomical structure usually reflects its function [ Form follows function ] What a structure can do depends on its specific form

Levels of Structural Organization:

Levels of Structural Organization Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules Cellular – cells are made of molecules Tissue – consists of similar types of cells Organ – made up of different types of tissues Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together Organismal – made up of the organ systems

Levels of Structural Organization:

Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules 1 2 3 4 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems Atoms Molecules Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Cardiovascular system Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Integumentary system Forms the external body covering Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Skeletal system Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments [ with the joints they make up ] Protects and supports body organs Provides the framework for muscles Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Muscular system Composed of muscles and tendons Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression Maintains posture Produces heat

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Nervous system Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves Is the fast-acting control system of the body Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Cardiovascular system Composed of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Lymphatic system Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells involved with immunity

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Respiratory system Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Digestive system Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Urinary system Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Male reproductive system Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens Main function is the production of offspring Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Female reproductive system Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina Main function is the production of offspring Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn

Organ Systems Interrelationships:

Organ Systems Interrelationships The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Figure 1.2

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