Category: Education

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Introduction: :

Introduction : Audio- visual aids, audio-visual materials, communication technology, educational or instructional media and learning resources, all these terms have same meaning. The revolution in the field of technology is due to the development of electronics like television, computer etc.

Definitions: :

Definitions : According to Burton “Audio visual aids are those sensory objects or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning”. Carter said “Audio visual aids are those aids which help in completing the triangular process of learning, i.e. motivation, classification and stimulation”. According to Dale “Audio visual aids are those devices by the use of which communication of ideas between persons and group in various teaching and training situation is helped. These are also termed as multi-sensory materials”.

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According to Kinder “Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete, realistic and dynamic. According to Mckown and Roberts “Audio visual aids are supplementary devices by which the teacher, through utilization of more than one sensory channel is able to clarify, establish and co-relate concepts, interpretations and appreciations”

General Uses of A.V. aids: :

General Uses of A.V. aids: To provide basis for effective perceptional and conceptional learning. To increase and sustain concentration and attention and personal involvement of student. To provide corrections, realism and life linkers in teaching learning situations.

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To explicate and increase the meaningfulness of abstract concepts. To bring remote events either of space or time in classroom. To introduce opportunities for situational and field types of learning. To facilitate and advance the process of applying what is to learned in realishe performance and life situations.


IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING AIDS Motivation Teaching aids motivate the students so that they can learn better. Clarification Through teaching aids, the teacher clarify the subject matter more easily. Discouragement of Cramming Teaching aids can facilitate the proper understanding to the students which discourage the act of cramming. Increase the Vocabulary Teaching aids helps to increase the vocabulary of the students more effectively.


IMPORTANCE CONTD.. Saves Time and Money Classroom Live and active Teaching aids make the classroom live and active. Avoids Dullness Direct Experience Teaching aids provide direct experience to the students 


ADVANTAGES OF A.V. AIDS: Antidote to disease of verbal instruction. Best motivators. Clear images. Vicarious experience. Variety. Freedom. Opportunities to handle and manipulate. Retentivity .

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Based on maxims of teaching. Helpful in attracting attention. Helpful in fixing up new learning. Saving of energy and time. Realism Vividness. Meeting individual differences. Encouragement to healthy classroom interaction.

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Spread of education. Promotion of scientific temper. Development of higher faculties. Reinforcement of learners. Positive transfer of learning and training. Positive environment.


CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TEACHING AIDS: Meaningful and purposeful. Accurate. Simple and cheap They should be improvised. Should be large enough to be properly seen by students.


CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION NO.1: Projected aids. Non-projected aids. CLASSFICATION NO.2: Audio materials Visual materials Audio-visual materials


PROJECTED aids: Projected   aids   are   those   that   require audiovisual equipment in order  to  be  presented properly.  Some of the aids included in this category   are   slides,   filmstrips,   overhead transparencies (vu-graphs), and motion pictures.

Slides :

Slides Anything that can be photographed can be made into a slide.  Slides are one of the best known   projected   aids.   They   are   found in   all types and levels of briefings, both informative and educational. Presentations  utilizing  35-mm slides  can  be  both  informative  and educational while  at  the  same  time  they  can  be relatively inexpensive  to  produce.

Types of slides :

Types of slides Photographic slides: Black and white Colored Handmade slides: Acetate sheet Cellophane Etched glass Plain glass Lumarith

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Slides can be made from photographs and pictures by teachers and pupils taking photographs and snapshots when they go on fieldtrips for historical, geographical, literacy or scientific excursions. The arrangement of slides in proper sequence, according to the topic discussed, is an important aspect of teaching with them.

Advantages: :

Advantages: Requires only filming, processing and mounting by self or laboratory. Results in colourful, realistic, reproduction original subject. Preparation with any 35mm camera for most uses. Easy to revise and up-date. Easily handled, stored and re-arranged for various uses. Can be combined with tape narration or can control time for discussion. May be adapted to group or individual use

Filmstrips :

Filmstrips Filmstrips are used primarily in an educational environment.  Each frame of the 35-mm filmstrip is related to others in such a way that an entire story or lesson can be contained in one strip. A major disadvantage of filmstrips is that they cannot be repaired without losing a portion of their information.

Principles :

Principles Preview filmstrips before using them are selected carefully to meet the needs of the topic to be taught. Show again any part of the filmstrip needing more specific study. Use filmstrip to stimulate emotions, build attitudes and to point up problems. It should be introduced appropriately and its relationship to the topic of the study brought out. Use a pointer to direct attention, to specific details on the screen.

Types of filmstrip: :

Types of filmstrip : Discussion filmstrip: it is continuous strip of film consisting of individual frames arranged in sequence usually with explanatory titles. Sound slide film : it is similar to filmstrip but instead of explanatory titles or spoken discussion recorded explanation is audible, which is synchronized with the pictures.

Advantages: :

Advantages: Are compact, easily handled and always in proper sequence. Can be supplemented with recordings. are inexpensive when quantity reproduction is required. are useful for group or individual study at projection rate is controlled by instructor or user. Are projected with simple light weight equipment . 


OPAQUE PROJECTOR The opaque projector , epidioscope , epidiascope or episcope is a device which displays opaque materials by shining a bright lamp onto the object from above. A system of mirrors, prisms and/or imaging lenses is used to focus an image of the material onto a viewing screen. Because they must project the reflected light, opaque projectors require brighter bulbs and larger lenses than overhead projectors. Care must be taken that the materials are not damaged by the heat generated by the light source.

Advantages: :

Advantages: Stimulates attention and arouses interest. can project a wide range of materials like stamps, coins, specimen, when one copy is available. can be used for enlarging drawings, pictures and maps. does not require any written or typed materials, hand-written material can be used. Helps students to retain knowledge for longer period. Review instructional problems. Test knowledge and ability. Simple operation.

Disadvantages: :

Disadvantages: Costly equipment. needs to use it with care. needs a dark room for projection

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Two main classes of opaque projectors thus existed: the episcope, which solely projected images of opaque objects the epidiascope, which was capable of projecting images of both opaque and transparent images

Overhead projector::

Overhead projector: An overhead projector is a variant of slide projector that is used to display images to an audience An overhead projector typically consists of a large box containing a very bright lamp and a fan to cool it. On top of the box is a large Fresnel lens that collimates the light. Above the box, typically on a long arm, is a mirror and lens that focuses and redirects the light forward instead of up.

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Transparencies are placed on top of the lens for display. The light from the lamp travels through the transparency and into the mirror where it is shone forward onto a screen for display. The mirror allows both the presenter and the audience to see the image at the same time, the presenter looking down at the transparency as if writing, the audience looking forward at the screen. The height of the mirror can be adjusted, to both focus the image and to make the image larger or smaller depending on how close the projector is to the screen.

Purposes: :

Purposes: To develop concepts and sequences in a subject matter area. To make marginal notes on the transparencies for the use of the teacher that can carry with out exposing them to the class. To test students performances, while other classmates observe. To show relationships by means of transparent overlays in contrasting color . To give the illusion of motion in the transparency.

Advantages: :

Advantages: it permits the teacher to stand in front of the class while using the projector, thus enabling her to point out features appearing on the screen by pointing to the materials at the projector itself and at the same time, to observe the students reactions to her discussion. Gains attention of the student


FILMS: A film , also called a movie or motion picture , is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry.

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Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called as beta movement.



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Demonstration involves showing by reason or proof, explaining or making clear by use of examples or experiments. But more simply, demonstration means to clearly show. Teachers not only demonstrate specific learning concepts within the classroom, they can also participate in demonstration classrooms to help improve their own teaching strategies, which may or may not be demonstrative in nature. DEMONSTRATIONS


DEMONSTRATIONS CONTD… Demonstration method is a concrete visual aid, because of its wide use in the teaching of nurses. In nursing education, it is used for this purpose and also for clinics, conferences, laboratory classes, autopsies and teaching of health to patients. The demonstration method teaches by explanation and exhibition. In short, it is a performance to show a process or activity to others. When a teacher demonstrates, students observe and imitate to learn.


ADVANTAGES OF DEMONSTRATION:- It activates several senses. This increases learning, because it gives a better opportunity for observational learning. It clarifies the underlying principles by demonstrating the ‘why’ or ‘how’ of the procedure. It provokes interest by use of concrete illustrations. It correlates theory with practice engages student’s attention and concentration. It encourages student’s participation in learning through questions and answers as the teacher performs


TELEVISION Television ( TV ) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colour, with accompanying sound. The television set has become commonplace in homes, businesses and institutions, particularly as a vehicle for advertising, a source of entertainment, and news.


ADVANTAGES it induces effective learning. can relive with vividness the past events and happening. it work as a powerful medium of mass education. can impart experiences which are out of physical reach. TV programs have well planned and verbal descriptions aided with audio visual presentation. Breaks the monotony of normal dullness of classroom instructions. Includes latest information and findings.


VIDEOTAPES A videotape is a recording of images and sounds on to magnetic tape as opposed to film stock or random access digital media. Videotapes are also used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram. Videotape is used in both video tape recorders( VTRs ) or, more commonly and more recently, videocassette recorders(VCR) and camcorders.

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Tape is a linear method of storing information and, since nearly all video recordings made nowadays are digital direct to disk recording, it is expected to gradually lose importance as non-linear/random-access methods of storing digital video data become more common VIDEOTAPE CONTD…


FIELD TRIPS: The purpose of the trip is usually observation for education, non experimental research or to provide students with experiences outside their everyday activities, such as going camping with teachers and their classmates. The aim of this research is to observe the subject in its natural state and possibly collect samples. To mitigate these risks and expenses, most school systems now have formalized field trip procedures that consider the entire trip from estimation, approval and scheduling through planning the actual trip and post-trip activities.


ADVANTAGES OF FIELD TRIPS They are a way to reinforce and expand on concepts taught in class. They offer students another method to learn concepts and are especially good for the many tactile/kinaesthetic students in your classroom. They allow for a shared reference that can be referred to later as you are teaching new concepts. (E.g. remember when we saw...) They allow you and your students a different format in which to get to know each other and bond.


VIDEO WITH SOUND RECORDING Cassette tapes, CDs, videos and DVDs are all technology mediums that provide both sound and vision to enhance a presentation. Most facilities have computer access with CD and DVD portals but older versions of sound technology such as cassette tapes and videos can also be used.


ADVANTAGES OF VIDEO WITH SOUND RECORDING It can store a large amount of data of all kinds. Digitized video is much more versatile and much easier to integrate into educational multimedia documents.

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