Acidosis in sheep and goat

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Well come to my presentation :

Well come to my presentation

I am - Imrul Hasan Rasel Level- 4 Semester- I Reg. no. 01415 Roll no. 32 session – 2006-2007 Faculty of Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine Patuakhali Science and Technology University :

I am - I mrul H asan R asel L evel- 4 S emester- I R eg. no. 01415 R oll no. 32 session – 2006-2007 Faculty of Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine Patuakhali Science and Technology University

FAT SOLUBLE VITAMIN (A & D) DEFICIENCY DISEASES IN SHEEP AND GOAT:

FAT SOLUBLE VITAMIN ( A & D ) DEFICIENCY DISEASES IN SHEEP AND GOAT

VITAMIN A Introduction: Vitamin A is one of the fat soluble vitamins which perform many important functions in the animal body. It plays an important role In the vision of animal In membrane integrity Reproductive performance Prevent congenital defect :

VITAMIN A Introduction : Vitamin A is one of the fat soluble vitamins which perform many important functions in the animal body. It plays an important role In the vision of animal In membrane integrity Reproductive performance Prevent congenital defect

Etiology: Insufficient intake of carotene in feed Interference with vitamin A digestion, absorption and metabolism Excess nitrates interfere with carotene utilization. The drought feeding :

Etiology: Insufficient intake of carotene in feed Interference with vitamin A digestion, absorption and metabolism Excess nitrates interfere with carotene utilization. The drought feeding

Epidemiology :

Epidemiology Normal plasma level of vitamin A is 20μg/dl Occurs in sheep on dry range country during periods of drought . Antepartum feeding of carotene and the alcohol from of the vitamin does, however, cause an increase in the vitamin A content of the colostrums . Vitamin C and E help to prevent loss of vitamin A in feedstuffs and during digestion Secondary vitamin A deficiency may occur in cases of chronic disease of the liver or intestines. In chronic cases, this disease may be irreversible

Predisposing factors: :

Predisposing factors: High environmental temperature Readily oxidized particularly in the presence of unsaturated fatty acids. Pelleting of feed High relative humidity, sunlight and warm temperatures. The intake of inorganic phosphorus A maternal deficiency of vitamin A

Clinical signs: :

Clinical signs: Reduced feed intake Slow growth Loss of body weight Nyctalopia Xerophthalmia Lacrimation Increase intracranial pressure Damage of peripheral nerve root Diarrhea Reproductive abnormalities Congenital defect Increased susceptibility to infection Anasarcous lesions Abnormalities in wool fiber structure and strength.

Diagnosis: On the based on following thing: :

Diagnosis: On the based on following thing: Feeding history taking Detection of papilledema Testing of night blindness Clinical signs Clinical pathology Clinical sign occurs when plasma level of vitamin A is 18μg/dl In plasma level of vitamin A below 4μg/dl occurs ataxia and blindness When vitamin A deficiency occurs then cerebrospinal pressure is rise to 70-150mm.

Necropsy finding :

Necropsy finding Squamous metaplasia of the interlobular ducts of the parotid salivary gland is considered to be pathognomic General edema Focal necrotic hepatitis Hyperkeratinization in prepuce, rumen, reticulum Anasarcous lesions

Treatment: :

Treatment: Following drugs can be used to treat vitamin A deficiency- Inj. Adesol forte ® (Techno) 10ml Dose-2-5ml, IM Inj. Vita-ADE ® (Acme) 10ml, 100ml Dose-4ml, IM Megavit AD 3 E ® (Novartis) 1L Dose- 4g/L

When diarrhea occur then following treatment should be given- :

When diarrhea occur then following treatment should be given- Astringent mixture: Diavet powder ® Pharmaco Entrovet powder ® Pharmaco Dose- mix with drinking water & give orally twice daily for 3 days. Fluid therapy: Inj. Cholera saline ® Opsosaline Inj.Ringers solution ® Opsosaline

Control: :

Control: Supply balance ration feed Minimum daily requirement is 40 iu /kg body weight. Proper storage and form of feed. Antepartum feeing of carotene and the alcohol from of the vitamin In pregnancy, lactation and rapid growth the allowances are increased by 50-70% of the requirements. Intramuscular injection of vitamin A at intervals of 50-60 days at the rate of 3000-6000 iu /kg body weight. Supply other nutrition properly which plays an important role in the vitamin A absorption, metabolism and storage .

VITAMIN D Introduction: :

VITAMIN D Introduction: Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin. The sources of vitamin D include that synthesized in the skin and that supplied in the diet. Plays a significant role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Important for bone growth and muscle functions. Useful in the prevention of autoimmune diseases and cancer.

Etiology: :

Etiology: Insufficient intake vitamin D in feed. Interference with vitamin D digestion, absorption and metabolism. Inadequate exposure to sunlight. Lack of fat deposition in body The drought feeding.

Epidemiology: :

Epidemiology: Ergosterol is the main source of provitamin D activity for herbivores. All green parts of plants contain ergosterol. Formation of vitamin D in the animal body needs ultraviolet light. Vitamin D has an important role in calcium and phosphorus absorption, digestion and metabolism.

Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency :

Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency Inadequate dietary intake inadequate exposure to sunlight obstruction of the bile duct small intestinal and pancreas problems common in pregnant animal Certain medications like phenytoin also can cause vitamin D deficiency. Confined animals.

Clinical signs: :

Clinical signs: Patients with vitamin D deficiency may remain asymptomatic. The symptoms that can result from vitamin D deficiency include – Early stage: Poor appetite Poor weight gains in growing herd Poor productivity

Late stage: :

Late stage: Muscle pain Bone pain Weakness Fractures Bone deformities In young animal the deficiency causes rickets with symptoms like bow legs, soft skull, delayed eruption of teeth and growth retardation. In adults it causes osteomalacia with symptoms like deformed legs and fractures.

Accessory signs: :

Accessory signs : Lethargy Anorexia Hypogalactia Neuromuscular dysfunction.

Diagnosis::

Diagnosis: On the based on following thing: Feeding history taking Clinical signs

Treatment: :

Treatment: Following drugs can be used to treat vitamin D deficiency- Inj. Adesol forte ® (Techno) 10ml Dose-2-5ml, IM Inj. Vita-ADE ® (Acme) 10ml, 100ml Dose-4ml, IM Megavit AD 3 E ® (Novartis) 1L Dose- 4g/L

Incase of presence of pain- :

Incase of presence of pain- Inj. Ketovet ® (techno) 10ml vial Dose- 3ml/100kg bwt. IM or IV daily for 1-3 days. Inj. Diclovet ® (renata) Dose- 4ml/100kg bwt. deep IM may be repeated at 24 hrs. interval.

Control: :

Control: A total daily intake of 7 to 12 iu /kg body weight is optimum. Sun dried hay is a good source but green fodders are generally deficient in vitamin D. Affected animals should also receive adequate calcium and phosphorus in the diet. Supply balance ration feed contain adequate amount of vitamin A. In pregnancy, lactation and rapid growth the allowances are increased by of the requirements. Take extra care of pregnant animal to prevent vitamin D deficiency Exposure to the sunlight to synthesis vitamin D naturally.

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