Water Everywhere

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Water Water Everywhere?: 

Water Water Everywhere? SJC for UDAI 11/3/2007 Achintya Madduri


Overview Current Higher Level Water Resource Situation Large Scale Projects Groundwater Use Water Sanitization and Access to Clean Drinking Water Water Health International

What is the Issue?: 

What is the Issue? Shortage of water supply due to many involved reasons But basically, 20% of the population living on 4% of the Water1 Historic Emphasis on large scale projects Large scale water projects were considered the answer Dams used to provide irrigation and power Aging of large scale projects and adverse effects of new large projects

Bhakra Dam (Sutluj River): 

Bhakra Dam (Sutluj River) Irrigated 7 million hectares and provided 2800 mw of power

Emphasis on Large Scale Projects: 

Emphasis on Large Scale Projects Due to early success of large scale projects, dams considered solution to all problems. 1,500 big dams built since independence No country received more Development Bank money for dam construction than India, despite controversy surrounding many major projects Lifespan of Indian dams is likely 2/3 of design life & every dam built during last 15 years breaks rules meant for environmental protection1

Future of Large Scale Projects: 

Future of Large Scale Projects Pro’s of large scale irrigation projects: Large direct & indirect benefits for landless agricultural labor. Suggested correlation between poverty level and % of cropped area irrigated. Studies show greater returns in educations in rural irrigated areas3


Increased Employment Due to Irrigation for Landless Laborers3

Future of Large Scale Projects: 

Future of Large Scale Projects Pro’s of large scale irrigation projects: Large direct & indirect benefits for landless agricultural labor. Suggested correlation between poverty level and % of cropped area irrigated. Studies show greater returns in educations in rural irrigated areas3 Con’s of large projects: Great environmental and human issue ramifications due to proper review process “Why are we letting dams be built by politicians? … It is high time that the World Bank and the Indian Government recognize the technical infeasibility and economic unviability inherent in large dam projects in the degraded and heavily populated watersheds of India.”1


Narmada River Valley: Flooding due rise in height of Sardar Sarover Dam (Aug – Sept 1999) Source: http://www.narmada.org/domkhedi.submergence.pictures.html

Current Situation: 

Current Situation Groundwater currently being used for majority of water needs 70% of current irrigation needs and 80% of domestic water supply2 Rapidly declining water tables and extremely depleted aquifers, and is no longer sustainable Conservation efforts for groundwater management are not as actively funded due to small scale of projects Some examples of local groundwater management at individual village levels, however no national program to encourage proper management Conflicts between states due to no clearly defined water sharing guidelines2 Pollution and sewage outflow from growing cities and industries adds to the unhealthy condition of many major rivers, a condition that is likely to worsen due to the effects of climate change2


The Need A new approach is necessary Large scale infrastructure systems expensive and not economically viable for low density (rural) areas Conventional decentralized technologies uneconomical/unsustainable in most underserved environments Over 200 deaths per hour due to waterborne diarrheal diseases alone Stunted development of 60 million children annually


High efficacy High throughput Low operating costs Low energy usage Low maintenance Robust and versatile UV WaterworksTM The Technology Breakthrough

More on the UV Technology: 

More on the UV Technology Designed in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1994 by Dr. Ashok Gadgil and Derek Yegian. Uses 60 Watts to provide drinking water to 2000 people. Uses Gravity to drive water into UV chamber killing 99.995% of contaminating organisms due to the germicidal UV wavelengths. Uses three times the EPA and NSF designated doseage of 40 mJ/cm2 for a higher margin of safety. 4 gallons can be disinfected per minute. Source: http://www.lbl.gov/tt/success_stories/articles/WHI_more.html

Technology Applications and Limitations: 

Technology Applications and Limitations Applications Can process source water from: Lakes, ponds, or rivers (surface water) Ground water Pressurized flows (municipal supplies) Versatility and modular designs enable product variety: Community-scale systems Limitations Not suitable for brackish/saline water Solutions in progress for removal of arsenic, fluoride

Competing Technologies : 

Competing Technologies


Community Water Systems Comprehensive programs – much more than just equipment Turn-key program approach to reach rural populations, including: Feasibility studies; source water identification Pre-installation water testing Civil works and construction of multi-purpose community water treatment centers UVW disinfection equipment; all pumps and filters Full system installation Hiring and training operators from local communities Operations and maintenance program Community mobilization + education programs on health and hygiene Monthly post installation quality audits and water tests Provision of portable generators in the event of power outages Safe storage water vessels for all families in program Provision of project financing where necessary


Community Water Systems Forms one of the links in govt. initiative to provide safe drinking water Integrating with Existing Infrastructure Use existing Raw Water Tanks as Water Source Use new/piping infrastructure provided by govt. if clean CWS Systems forms the purifying treatment plant in between the Raw Water Source and the final consumers Employment Generation and Empowerment Plant Operators from Village maintain the system-skill development Lady Community Service Provider-Manages water collection, educates village on hygiene and good sanitation Creating Tangible revenue generating Assets System owned by Village Panchayat after debt repayment Each CWS can generate about 5.00 Lacs annually which can be used for other community projects A source of Pride- a very aesthetic CWS


Community Water Systems Creating long term self sustaining models Financial Model WHO Certified Water at a price even the poorest of poor can afford Rs.1.50 for 20 ltrs of SAFE, PURE water. Same quality of water in urban areas at Rs.40-70 for 25 ltrs. Total Initial Capital Investment of Rs.11.00 for a population till 6000 and 22lakhs Price for population 8000 and above total turnkey system, management and development Village owns self sustaining and revenue generating asset after debt repayment Salaries for Operators and Lady Community Service and maintenance of System provided from collected user fees


WHIN Installation in A.P Installation across wide geographical area


Installations Mudinapalli in Krishna District CWS at Korekallu-Krishna District


Water health india projects Asset of pride for comunity


leading the blue revolution A WaterHealth Centre in Akiveedu-A.P


CWSTM Products High-quality water for under-served markets Turn-key, sustainable community-scale systems Reach thousands with a single installation WHO-quality water sufficient to meet all potable water needs Self-supported through sale of treated water at ~$.002 per liter (India)

Overview of Business Model: 

Overview of Business Model Business model includes financing for the purchase and installation of the systems. User fees for treated water are used to repay loans and to cover the expenses of operating and maintaining the equipment and facility. Members of the local communities are hired to conduct the day-to-day maintenance & local residents encouraged to provide related services, such as sales and distribution of the purified water to outlying areas. Since the facilities are owned by the communities in which they are installed, the user fees become sources of revenue for the community after loans have been repaid. On average, franchisees get a full return on their investment within 12-18 months, making this a very attractive model for local entrepreneurs, and even non-profit institutions interested in revenue generation. Sources: www.waterhealth.com & http://www.nextbillion.net/activitycapsule/1951


References Ward, Diane Raines, Water Wars: Drought, Flood, Folly, and the Politics of Thirst, Riverhead Books, 2002. World Bank Report on The Situation of Water in India: http://www.worldbank.org.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20668501~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:295584,00.html World Bank Presentation by John Briscoe, Senior Water Specialist: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDIA/Resources/India_Water_Strategy.pdf World Bank Report on India Water Supply and Sanitation: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/10/10/000011823_20061010165329/Rendered/PDF/358340REVISED01Main0Report01PUBLIC1.pdf Powerpoint Presentation of Aditya S. Jayarao, Water Health International, Andhra Pradesh, India. An overview of the UV technology from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratoryu: http://www.lbl.gov/tt/success_stories/articles/WHI_more.html

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