American Imperialism: American Imperialism HUSH 111B Unit 1
“America Becomes a World Power” Keeping Up With Other Nations: Keeping Up With Other Nations Imperialism- stronger nation dominates the weaker nation in some way(s).
By the mid-19th century many European powers had established empires.
The US began to follow their example by the late 19th century How Imperialism Works: How Imperialism Works Economically- Taking over their business, out selling their products.
China, Banana Republics
Politically- (Nationalist factors) Controlling their governments/colonizing.
Philippines, Cuba- Platt Amendment
Militarily- By use or show of force.
Philippines, Banana Republics, Japan, Mexico, etc..
Culturally- (Humanitarian Factors) Influencing them to take on different customs, religions, manners.
Native Americans, Philippines, Latin America, etc..
The Advance of Imperialism: The Advance of Imperialism Baby steps towards an American Empire…: Baby steps towards an American Empire… George Washington had warned, suggested, “Don’t get involved…it just causes problems. Worry about just the US.” But…
Jefferson- Louisiana Purchase- 1803 Enlarge the country…What about the Native Americans?
Monroe Doctrine- 1823 It’s OUR hemisphere…stay out!
Manifest Destiny- It’s OUR (US) Destiny (not our fault we take over everything!)
Commodore Perry (1853)- gets Japan to open up trade with the US. Slide6: Commodore Perry in Japan 1853 Baby Steps… continued: Baby Steps… continued 1860’s- Had treaty set up with China, we get to have territory and bases, they get to buy our stuff.
1866- Sent troops to Mexico as “Back-Up” against French (Remember Cinco de Maya?) China Claimed by the Great Powers: China Claimed by the Great Powers We hit the Jackpot!: We hit the Jackpot! 1867- Seward’s Folly- Bought Alaska from Russians
We paid $7.2 million
About 2.5 cents per acre for an area twice the size of Texas
1890’s The US builds the Great White Fleet.
The US becomes an “instant” military power on the seas Bring In the Dough.: Bring In the Dough. 1867- 1890- What about all these Pacific Islands? Hawaii, Midway, Samoa..
1880’s- Hello Latin America- Give us your bananas, and we’ll give you American stuff to buy.
1898- Spanish American War- Let’s the Spanish out of there once and for all (Cuba and Philippines) A Spanish Colony- Cuba: A Spanish Colony- Cuba Cuban Revolution - Cubans were being mistreated by Spain. (The Spanish Reconcentration Policy ) This was not news but became an issue when US sugar cane companies couldn’t get enough workers to their fields
Cuban exiles- (Jose Marti- wrote newspaper articles) Plead with President McKinley to help Cuban Rebels, say it just like France helping American Patriots back in 1776. Should we keep the Peace or keep a Piece of the Pie 2”: Should we keep the Peace or keep a Piece of the Pie 2” Pressure from the Press
Wm. Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer compete with each other to sell more newspapers by telling exaggerated stories about what was going on in Cuba. Violence sells, people interested. Americans want to help rebels.
Sugar Companies want American involvement-
These Big companies pressure McKinley to assist Cuban Rebels. The War Begins: The War Begins Remember The Maine- McKinley sends the USS Maine to protect American interests- Sugar companies and people. It’s mysteriously blown up in Havana Harbor.
Today we think it was an accident because of the boiler room problems.)
Newspapers report it as a Spanish Attack! The U.S. wants revenge!
WAR is declared with Spain
Some small battles in Cuba get a lot of press.
The real battle will between the Navies. The USS Maine Havana Harbor, February 16, 1898: The USS Maine Havana Harbor, February 16, 1898 Teddy Roosevelt Charges up San Juan Hill!: Teddy Roosevelt Charges up San Juan Hill! When war broke with Spain in April of that year, Roosevelt was serving as Assistant Secretary of the Navy.
He immediately quit his position and helped form a regiment of volunteers.
The "Rough Riders" enlisted cowboys and college men led by Roosevelt under the command of Leonard Wood.
They arrived in Cuba in time to take part in the Battle of San Juan Hill.
The victory at San Juan Hill gave the Americans control of the heights overlooking the Spanish stronghold of Santiago and doomed the Spanish to defeat in Cuba. Slide16: Roosevelt (center) and the Rough Riders celebrate at the top of San Juan Hill The Spanish American War: The Spanish American War US Dominates- US Navy finds the Spanish Navy in Manila Harbor the wipe out their old wooden ships with new American steel ships.
War Over in 3 Months- US is a World Power – We are 1-0!
US gets the Philippines, Cuba, Guam- But what do we do with them?
Start an Empire-
What Issues do we have this?
What Problems will we encounter with administering an empire? “A Splendid Little War”
-Secretary of State John Hay
Here We Go!: Here We Go! Guam- No Problem- it just a stopover for US Ships
Latin America- It will be our version of Africa or Asia (Natural resources galore!)
Cuba- We tried to help you, but I guess we’ll just take you over. Passed Platt Amendment (Valid until 1934)
Cuba can not make any agreements without US “help” and established military bases there The Filipino’s Fight Back: The Filipino’s Fight Back Philippine Insurrection- Tougher than the Spanish American War- 3 years +3,000 dead and we still don’t control everything. Establish their government with a governor appointed by US President Kill Every One Over Ten: Kill Every One Over Ten Slide21: In 1903, an elderly supporter named James F. Rusling recalled that in 1899, McKinley had said to a religious delegation:
"The truth is I didn't want the Philippines, and when they came to us as a gift from the gods, I did not know what to do with them.... I sought counsel from all sides - Democrats as well as Republicans - but got little help. I thought first we would take only Manila; then Luzon; then other islands, perhaps, also. I walked the floor of the White House night after night until midnight; and I am not ashamed to tell you, gentlemen, that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance more than one night."
"And one night late it came to me this way - I don't know how it was, but it came:
(1) That we could not give them back to Spain - that would be cowardly and dishonorable;
(2) that we could not turn them over to France or Germany - our commercial rivals in the Orient - that would be bad business and discreditable;
(3) that we could not leave them to themselves - they were unfit for self-government - and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain's was; and
(4) that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God's grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellow men for whom Christ also died.
“And then I went to bed and went to sleep and slept soundly." What has the United States Fought For?(For the Filipinos/Cubans/Hawaiians/Panamanians…or for the Americans?): What has the United States Fought For? (For the Filipinos/Cubans/Hawaiians/Panamanians…or for the Americans?) The Death of McKinley: The Death of McKinley The notoriety from the charge up San Juan Hill was instrumental in propelling TR to the governorship of New York in 1899.
The following year Roosevelt was selected to fill the Vice Presidential spot in President McKinley's successful run for a second term in 1900.
He was standing in a receiving line at the Buffalo Pan-American Exposition when a deranged anarchist shot him twice. He died eight days later.
With McKinley's assassination in September 1901, Roosevelt became President. Slide24: The Assassination of McKinley Diplomacy During the Roosevelt Presidency: Diplomacy During the Roosevelt Presidency “There is an…adage which runs, ‘Speak softly and carry a big stick: You will go far.’ If the American nation will speak softly and yet build and keep at a pitch of the highest training a thoroughly efficient navy, the Monroe Doctrine will go far.” Roosevelt Corollary
An extension of the Monroe Doctrine
Said US would exercise power to prevent intervention from other countries in Latin America
“Big Stick” Diplomacy: “Big Stick” Diplomacy Use of military force to influence political events in other countries
US can and will intervene! “sooner or later, we must keep order ourselves” The Panama Canal: The Panama Canal The 1800’s: The 1800’s 1835 France is given a permit to build a canal across Panama. However first they have to come up with a plan to build the canal. In 1881 they finally start.
Slide30: Image Courtesy of: http://www.anu.edu.au/BoZo/jennions/images/Panama%20lake.jpg Slide31: Courtesy of: http://www.canalmuseum.com/photos/panamacanalphoto002.htm Slide32: Courtesy of: http://www.canalmuseum.com/photos/panamacanalphoto002.htm Slide33: Courtesy of: http://www.canalmuseum.com/photos/panamacanalphoto003.htm The French Give Up: The French Give Up 1881 A French company begins construction on the canal. After eight years France gives up on the project.
Over 20,000 construction workers died working on the project for France and the company trying to build the canal goes bankrupt.
Slide35: 1904 The United States takes over construction and work begins on the Canal
The United States Why was it so important to build a canal? : Why was it so important to build a canal? In 1904, Theodore Roosevelt is president, and the United States is fast becoming one of the most powerful nations in the world.
Such recent inventions as the telephone and the automobile make the 3,000 mile wide country seem a lot smaller.
Slide37: The Canal will shorten the trip across the US by nearly 8000 miles! The Lock System: The Lock System The Panama Canal consists of locks and gates at each end where boats are raised or lowered to different water levels.
Here are the giant locks: Here are the giant locks Courtesy of: http://www.canalmuseum.com/photos/panamacanalphoto026.htm Here are the giant locks being built: Here are the giant locks being built Photo from the Canal Zone Brats www.czbrats.com Here is how the Panama Canal works: Here is how the Panama Canal works Image Courtesy of: http://www.panamacanal-cruises.com/panama-canal-pictures/crosssections.jpg Here is how the Panama Canal works: Here is how the Panama Canal works Photo Courtesy of: http://navy.memorieshop.com/Panama/ProfilePC.jpg Challenges of Building the canal : Challenges of Building the canal Just like when the
French had tried to
build the canal, the
builders of the canal
had to figure out how
to cut a 51 mile path
through a tropical
jungle and an area of
mountains! Image Courtesy of:
http://www.astrosurf.org/lombry/Documents/terre-panama-canal-panama-srtm.jpg The building of the canal: The building of the canal Photo courtesy of: www.canalmuseum.com The building of the canal: The building of the canal Photo courtesy ofwww.canalmuseum.com 1914 The Canal Opens : 1914 The Canal Opens Image Courtesy of:
http://www.canalmuseum.com/photos/panamacanalphoto042.htm Who Owns the Canal Today?: Who Owns the Canal Today? 1977
The United States signs a treaty with Panama and agrees to give Panama control of the canal in 1999
Do you agree with this decision??
The Panama Canal Today: The Panama Canal Today http://www.pancanal.com/eng/photo/camera-java.html
The Open Door Policy: The Open Door Policy Roosevelt’s chief concern in Asia was to preserve trade with China…
AKA the “Open Door Policy”
TR helped with negotiations that ended the Russo-Japanese War (Won Nobel Prize) and kept trade open for Russia and other world powers.
Russia gave up influence in Korea and Manchuria in exchange for a huge cash payment that they did not have Open Door Policy: Open Door Policy 1899 - America suggests an Open Door Policy for China.
In this policy:
(1) spheres of influence would be accepted formally by all powers
(2) all nations would be treated equally within each sphere of influence
(3) all nations would receive tariff extensions from China
(4) China's sovereignty would be preserved. Spheres of Influence: Spheres of Influence “Spheres of Influence”
The division of control over China around the turn of the century
China is said to be "carved up like a melon" by foreign powers competing for "spheres of influence" on Chinese soil. Slide53: The Game of Grab The Annexation of Hawaii: The Annexation of Hawaii Hawaii had become an important trading partner with the US (Sugar, fruits…)
King Kalakaua was forced to give up a great deal of powers to the planters (Dole)
Upon his death, his sister became queen.
Dole removed her from power and the Islands became a republic and were then annexed by the US
Slide57: President Grover Cleveland is depicted as Lorelei sitting dejectedly on a rock in foreground, the Sandwich Isles lie in the distance, a U.S. vessel is shipwrecked and a British ship nearby.
YIKES!!! That’s scary! Slide58: In the back of the classroom students representing California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Alaska are quietly reading. In the front row are boys representing the Philippines, Porto (sic) Rico, Cuba, and Hawaii looking as if they would rather not be there. Jingoism: Jingoism We don't want to fight
But, by Jingo, if we do,
We've got the ships,
We've got the men,
We've got the money, too.
Jingoism is a term describing chauvinistic patriotism
Usually with a hawkish or expansionist political stance.
In plain language it means bullying other countries. The White Man’s Burden-By Rudyard Kipling: The White Man’s Burden -By Rudyard Kipling Take up the white man’s burden
Send forth the best ye breed –
Go, bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives’ need…
Take up the white man’s burden
The savage wars of peace –
Fill full the mouth of famine,
And bid the sickness cease… Take up the white man’s burden! Have done with childish days
The lightly proffered laurel, The easy ungrudged praise: Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years, Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers. Slide61: Pear’s Soap Ad
The first step towards lightening the “white man’s burden” is through teaching the virtue of cleanliness. The Anti-Imperialists: The Anti-Imperialists On June 15, 1898, the Anti-imperialist league formed to fight U.S. annexation of the Philippines, citing a variety of reasons ranging from the economic to the legal to the racial to the moral.
It included among its members such notables as Andrew Carnegie and Mark Twain. Platform of the American Antilmperialist League : Platform of the American Antilmperialist League “We hold, with Abraham Lincoln, that "no man is good enough to govern another man without that other's consent. When the white man governs himself, that is self-government, but when he governs himself and also governs another man, that is more than self-government-that is despotism." So Long, Teddy, Hello Big Guy: So Long, Teddy, Hello Big Guy Roosevelt decides not to run again and picks William Howard Taft to succeed him as Republican nominee
Taft had been Governor of the Philippines
Shared some of T.R.’s beliefs about breaking up trusts, but still supported business
Thought U.S. investment abroad would help Latin America gain stability. Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy: Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy Maintain “Open Door” in Asia and Latin America
“Substituting dollars for bullets”
Reflects Taft’s pro-business views Roosevelt in “Retirement”: Roosevelt in “Retirement” Roosevelt had gone to Africa for big-game hunting
Comes back, thinks Taft is a softie on political reforms
Forms a new party—The Bull Moose Party, also known as the Progressives
In a three-way race, in 1912 TR finishes second—ahead of Taft, but behind the Democrat!!
Slide67: Cartoon depicting William Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt lying exhausted after the 1912 presidential campaign and saying, “Cheer up! I might have won.” Slide68: The battle between Taft and Roosevelt bitterly split the Republican Party; Taft's people dominated the party until 1936. Woodrow Wilson: Woodrow Wilson Democratic former Governor of New Jersey and former president/professor at Princeton
Son of a Minister—strong Christian upbringing
Ticks off T.R. by trying to make a treaty awarding Colombia damages for the loss of the Panama Canal Zone.
Sponsors a new kind of diplomacy… Moral Diplomacy: Moral Diplomacy Main goals of Moral Diplomacy:
Promote Human Rights
How Wilson wants to do it:
Negotiations Questions to Ponder…: Questions to Ponder… What were the diplomatic measures taken by each of these administrations? (Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson)
Why was the United States still unable to avoid entering WWI in 1917?
To be continued in Chapter 20… Does American Imperialism Still Continue?? : Does American Imperialism Still Continue?? Vietnam 1954- 1975
Latin America - 1930 - 2003+
Late 20th Century
Iraq, Afghanistan, How do these people feel about the US today? Discuss:Was 9-11 a result of American Imperialism?Yes or no??: Discuss: Was 9-11 a result of American Imperialism? Yes or no??