Lexical Semantics II

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Outline: 

Outline Linguistic Theories of semantic representation Case Frames – Fillmore – FrameNet Lexical Conceptual Structure – Jackendoff – LCS Proto-Roles – Dowty – PropBank English verb classes (diathesis alternations) - Levin - VerbNet Manual Semantic Annotation Automatic Semantic annotation Parallel PropBanks and Event Relations

Thematic Proto-Roles and Argument Selection, David Dowty, Language 67: 547-619, 1991: 

Thematic Proto-Roles and Argument Selection, David Dowty, Language 67: 547-619, 1991 Thanks to Michael Mulyar

Context: Thematic Roles : 

Context: Thematic Roles Thematic relations (Gruber 1965, Jackendoff 1972) Traditional thematic roles types include: Agent, Patient, Goal, Source, Theme, Experiencer, Instrument (p. 548). “Argument-Indexing View”: thematic roles objects at syntax-semantics interface, determining a syntactic derivation or the linking relations. Θ-Criterion (GB Theory): each NP of predicate in lexicon assigned unique θ-role (Chomsky 1981).

Problems with Thematic Role Types: 

Problems with Thematic Role Types Thematic role types used in many syntactic generalizations, e.g. involving empirical thematic role hierarchies. Are thematic roles syntactic universals (or e.g. constructionally defined)? Relevance of role types to syntactic description needs motivation, e.g. in describing transitivity. Thematic roles lack independent semantic motivation. Apparent counter-examples to θ-criterion (Jackendoff 1987). Encoding semantic features (Cruse 1973) may not be relevant to syntax.

Problems with Thematic Role Types: 

Problems with Thematic Role Types Fragmentation: Cruse (1973) subdivides Agent into four types. Ambiguity: Andrews (1985) is Extent, an adjunct or a core argument? Symmetric stative predicates: e.g. “This is similar to that” Distinct roles or not? Searching for a Generalization: What is a Thematic Role?

Proto-Roles: 

Proto-Roles Event-dependent Proto-roles introduced Prototypes based on shared entailments Grammatical relations such as subject related to observed (empirical) classification of participants Typology of grammatical relations Proto-Agent Proto-Patient

Proto-Agent: 

Proto-Agent Properties Volitional involvement in event or state Sentience (and/or perception) Causing an event or change of state in another participant Movement (relative to position of another participant) (exists independently of event named) *may be discourse pragmatic

Proto-Patient: 

Proto-Patient Properties: Undergoes change of state Incremental theme Causally affected by another participant Stationary relative to movement of another participant (does not exist independently of the event, or at all) *may be discourse pragmatic

Argument Selection Principle: 

Argument Selection Principle For 2 or 3 place predicates Based on empirical count (total of entailments for each role). Greatest number of Proto-Agent entailments  Subject; greatest number of Proto-Patient entailments  Direct Object. Alternation predicted if number of entailments for each role similar (nondiscreteness).

Worked Example: Psychological Predicates: 

Worked Example: Psychological Predicates Examples: Experiencer Subject Stimulus Subject x likes y y pleases x x fears y y frightens x Describes “almost the same” relation Experiencer: sentient (P-Agent) Stimulus: causes emotional reaction (P-Agent) Number of proto-entailments same; but for stimulus subject verbs, experiencer also undergoes change of state (P-Patient) and is therefore lexicalized as the patient.

Symmetric Stative Predicates: 

Symmetric Stative Predicates Examples: This one and that one rhyme / intersect / are similar. This rhymes with / intersects with / is similar to that. (cf. The drunk embraced the lamppost. / *The drunk and the lamppost embraced.)

Symmetric Predicates: Generalizing via Proto-Roles: 

Symmetric Predicates: Generalizing via Proto-Roles Conjoined predicate subject has Proto-Agent entailments which two-place predicate relation lacks (i.e. for object of two-place predicate). Generalization entirely reducible to proto-roles. Strong cognitive evidence for proto-roles: would be difficult to deduce lexically, but easy via knowledge of proto-roles.

Diathesis Alternations: 

Diathesis Alternations Alternations: Spray / Load Hit / Break Non-alternating: Swat / Dash Fill / Cover

Spray / Load Alternation: 

Spray / Load Alternation Example: Mary loaded the hay onto the truck. Mary loaded the truck with hay. Mary sprayed the paint onto the wall. Mary sprayed the wall with paint. Analyzed via proto-roles, not e.g. as a theme / location alternation. Direct object analyzed as an Incremental Theme, i.e. either of two non-subject arguments qualifies as incremental theme. This accounts for alternating behavior.

Hit / Break Alternation: 

Hit / Break Alternation John hit the fence with a stick. John hit the stick against a fence. John broke the fence with a stick. John broke the stick against the fence. Radical change in meaning associated with break but not hit. Explained via proto-roles (change of state for direct object with break class).

Swat doesn’t alternate…: 

Swat doesn’t alternate… swat the boy with a stick *swat the stick at / against the boy

Fill / Cover: 

Fill / Cover Fill / Cover are non-alternating: Bill filled the tank (with water). *Bill filled water (into the tank). Bill covered the ground (with a tarpaulin). *Bill covered a tarpaulin (over the ground). Only goal lexicalizes as incremental theme (direct object).

Conclusion: 

Conclusion Dowty argues for Proto-Roles based on linguistic and cognitive observations. Objections: Are P-roles empirical (extending arguments about hit class)?

Proposition Bank: From Sentences to Propositions: 

Proposition Bank: From Sentences to Propositions . . . When Powell met Zhu Rongji on Thursday they discussed the return of the spy plane. meet(Powell, Zhu) discuss([Powell, Zhu], return(X, plane)) meet(Somebody1, Somebody2)

A TreeBanked phrase: 

A TreeBanked phrase NP that SBAR WHNP-1 *T*-1 S NP-SBJ VP would VP give NP PP-LOC a GM-Jaguar pact that would give the U.S. car maker an eventual 30% stake in the British company.

A TreeBanked phrase: 

A TreeBanked phrase NP that SBAR WHNP-1 *T*-1 S NP-SBJ VP would VP give NP PP-LOC a GM-Jaguar pact that would give the U.S. car maker an eventual 30% stake in the British company.

The same phrase, PropBanked: 

The same phrase, PropBanked that would give *T*-1 the US car maker an eventual 30% stake in the British company Arg0 Arg2 Arg1 a GM-Jaguar pact that would give the U.S. car maker an eventual 30% stake in the British company.

The full sentence, PropBanked: 

The full sentence, PropBanked that would give *T*-1 the US car maker an eventual 30% stake in the British company Arg0 Arg2 Arg1 Analysts have been expecting a GM-Jaguar pact that would give the U.S. car maker an eventual 30% stake in the British company. Arg0 Arg1 have been expecting Analysts

Slide24: 

Frames File Example: expect Roles: Arg0: expecter Arg1: thing expected Example: Transitive, active: Portfolio managers expect further declines in interest rates. Arg0: Portfolio managers REL: expect Arg1: further declines in interest rates

Frames File example: give: 

Frames File example: give Roles: Arg0: giver Arg1: thing given Arg2: entity given to Example: double object The executives gave the chefs a standing ovation. Arg0: The executives REL: gave Arg2: the chefs Arg1: a standing ovation

Word Senses in PropBank: 

Word Senses in PropBank Orders to ignore word sense not feasible for 700+ verbs Mary left the room Mary left her daughter-in-law her pearls in her will Frameset leave.01 "move away from": Arg0: entity leaving Arg1: place left Frameset leave.02 "give": Arg0: giver Arg1: thing given Arg2: beneficiary How do these relate to traditional word senses in VerbNet and WordNet?

Annotation procedure : 

Annotation procedure PTB II - Extraction of all sentences with given verb Create Frame File for that verb Paul Kingsbury (3100+ lemmas, 4400 framesets,118K predicates) Over 300 created automatically via VerbNet First pass: Automatic tagging (Joseph Rosenzweig) http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~josephr/TIDES/index.html#lexicon Second pass: Double blind hand correction Paul Kingsbury Tagging tool highlights discrepancies Scott Cotton Third pass: Solomonization (adjudication) Betsy Klipple, Olga Babko-Malaya

Semantic role labels:: 

Semantic role labels: Jan broke the LCD projector. break (agent(Jan), patient(LCD-projector)) cause(agent(Jan), change-of-state(LCD-projector)) (broken(LCD-projector)) agent(A) -> intentional(A), sentient(A), causer(A), affector(A) patient(P) -> affected(P), change(P),… Filmore, 68 Jackendoff, 72 Dowty, 91

Trends in Argument Numbering: 

Trends in Argument Numbering Arg0 = agent Arg1 = direct object / theme / patient Arg2 = indirect object / benefactive / instrument / attribute / end state Arg3 = start point / benefactive / instrument / attribute Arg4 = end point Per word vs frame level – more general?

Additional tags (arguments or adjuncts?): 

Additional tags (arguments or adjuncts?) Variety of ArgM’s (Arg#>4): TMP - when? LOC - where at? DIR - where to? MNR - how? PRP -why? REC - himself, themselves, each other PRD -this argument refers to or modifies another ADV –others

Inflection: 

Inflection Verbs also marked for tense/aspect Passive/Active Perfect/Progressive Third singular (is has does was) Present/Past/Future Infinitives/Participles/Gerunds/Finites Modals and negations marked as ArgMs

Frames: Multiple Framesets: 

Frames: Multiple Framesets Framesets are not necessarily consistent between different senses of the same verb Framesets are consistent between different verbs that share similar argument structures, (like FrameNet) Out of the 787 most frequent verbs: 1 FrameNet – 521 2 FrameNet – 169 3+ FrameNet - 97 (includes light verbs)

Ergative/Unaccusative Verbs: 

Ergative/Unaccusative Verbs Roles (no ARG0 for unaccusative verbs) Arg1 = Logical subject, patient, thing rising Arg2 = EXT, amount risen Arg3* = start point Arg4 = end point Sales rose 4% to $3.28 billion from $3.16 billion. The Nasdaq composite index added 1.01 to 456.6 on paltry volume.

PropBank/FrameNet: 

PropBank/FrameNet Buy Arg0: buyer Arg1: goods Arg2: seller Arg3: rate Arg4: payment Sell Arg0: seller Arg1: goods Arg2: buyer Arg3: rate Arg4: payment More generic, more neutral – maps readily to VN,TR Rambow, et al, PMLB03

Annotator accuracy – ITA 84%: 

Annotator accuracy – ITA 84%

Limitations to PropBank: 

Limitations to PropBank Args2-4 seriously overloaded, poor performance VerbNet and FrameNet both provide more fine-grained role labels WSJ too domain specific, too financial, need broader coverage genres for more general annotation Additional Brown corpus annotation, also GALE data FrameNet has selected instances from BNC

Levin – English Verb Classes and Alternations: A Preliminary Investigation, 1993. : 

Levin – English Verb Classes and Alternations: A Preliminary Investigation, 1993.

Levin classes (Levin, 1993) : 

Levin classes (Levin, 1993) 3100 verbs, 47 top level classes, 193 second and third level Each class has a syntactic signature based on alternations. John broke the jar. / The jar broke. / Jars break easily. John cut the bread. / *The bread cut. / Bread cuts easily. John hit the wall. / *The wall hit. / *Walls hit easily.

Levin classes (Levin, 1993) : 

Levin classes (Levin, 1993) Verb class hierarchy: 3100 verbs, 47 top level classes, 193 Each class has a syntactic signature based on alternations. John broke the jar. / The jar broke. / Jars break easily. change-of-state John cut the bread. / *The bread cut. / Bread cuts easily. change-of-state, recognizable action, sharp instrument John hit the wall. / *The wall hit. / *Walls hit easily. contact, exertion of force

Limitations to Levin Classes: 

Limitations to Levin Classes Coverage of only half of the verbs (types) in the Penn Treebank (1M words,WSJ) Usually only one or two basic senses are covered for each verb Confusing sets of alternations Different classes have almost identical “syntactic signatures” or worse, contradictory signatures Dang, Kipper & Palmer, ACL98

Multiple class listings: 

Multiple class listings Homonymy or polysemy? draw a picture, draw water from the well Conflicting alternations? Carry verbs disallow the Conative, (*she carried at the ball), but include {push,pull,shove,kick,yank,tug} also in Push/pull class, does take the Conative (she kicked at the ball)

Intersective Levin Classes: 

Intersective Levin Classes “at” ¬CH-LOC “across the room” CH-LOC “apart” CH-STATE Dang, Kipper & Palmer, ACL98

Intersective Levin Classes: 

Intersective Levin Classes More syntactically and semantically coherent sets of syntactic patterns explicit semantic components relations between senses VERBNET verbs.colorado.edu/~mpalmer/verbnet Dang, Kipper & Palmer, IJCAI00, Coling00

VerbNet – Karin Kipper: 

VerbNet – Karin Kipper Class entries: Capture generalizations about verb behavior Organized hierarchically Members have common semantic elements, semantic roles and syntactic frames Verb entries: Refer to a set of classes (different senses) each class member linked to WN synset(s) (not all WN senses are covered)

Hand built resources vs. Real data: 

Hand built resources vs. Real data VerbNet is based on linguistic theory – how useful is it? How well does it correspond to syntactic variations found in naturally occurring text?

Mapping from PropBank to VerbNet : 

Mapping from PropBank to VerbNet

Mapping from PB to VerbNet: 

Mapping from PB to VerbNet

Mapping from PropBank to VerbNet: 

Mapping from PropBank to VerbNet Overlap with PropBank framesets 50,000 PropBank instances < 50% VN entries, > 85% VN classes Results MATCH - 78.63%. (80.90% relaxed) (VerbNet isn’t just linguistic theory!) Benefits Thematic role labels and semantic predicates Can extend PropBank coverage with VerbNet classes WordNet sense tags Kingsbury & Kipper, NAACL03, Text Meaning Workshop http://verbs.colorado.edu/~mpalmer/verbnet

Mapping PropBank/VerbNet: 

Mapping PropBank/VerbNet Extended VerbNet now covers 80% of PropBank tokens. Kipper, et. al., LREC-04, LREC-06 (added Korhonen and Briscoe classes) Semi-automatic mapping of PropBank instances to VerbNet classes and thematic roles, hand-corrected. (final cleanup stage) VerbNet class tagging as automatic WSD Run SRL, map Args to VerbNet roles

Can SemLink improve Generalization?: 

Can SemLink improve Generalization? Overloaded Arg2-Arg5 PB: verb-by-verb VerbNet: same thematic roles across verbs Example Rudolph Agnew,…, was named [ARG2 {Predicate} a nonexecutive director of this British industrial conglomerate.] ….the latest results appear in today’s New England Journal of Medicine, a forum likely to bring new attention [ARG2 {Destination} to the problem.] Use VerbNet as a bridge to merge PB and FN and expand the Size and Variety of the Training

Automatic Labelling of Semantic Relations – Gold Standard, 77%: 

Automatic Labelling of Semantic Relations – Gold Standard, 77% Given a constituent to be labelled Stochastic Model Features: Predicate, (verb) Phrase Type, (NP or S-BAR) Parse Tree Path Position (Before/after predicate) Voice (active/passive) Head Word of constituent Gildea & Jurafsky, CL02, Gildea & Palmer, ACL02

Additional Automatic Role Labelers: 

Additional Automatic Role Labelers Performance improved from 77% to 88% Automatic parses, 81% F, Brown corpus, 68% Same features plus Named Entity tags Head word POS For unseen verbs – backoff to automatic verb clusters SVM’s Role or not role For each likely role, for each Arg#, Arg# or not No overlapping role labels allowed Pradhan, et. al., ICDM03, Sardeneau, et. al, ACL03,Chen & Rambow, EMNLP03, Gildea & Hockemaier, EMNLP03, Yi & Palmer, ICON04 CoNLL-04, 05 Shared Task

Arg1 groupings; (Total count 59710) : 

Arg1 groupings; (Total count 59710)

Arg2 groupings; (Total count 11068) : 

Arg2 groupings; (Total count 11068)

Process: 

Process Retrain the SRL tagger Original: Arg[0-5,A,M] ARG1 Grouping: (similar for Arg2) Arg[0,2-5,A,M] Arg1-Group[1-6] Evaluation on both WSJ and Brown More Coarse-grained or Fine-grained? more specific: data more coherent, but more sparse more general: consistency across verbs even for new domains?

SRL Performance (WSJ/BROWN): 

SRL Performance (WSJ/BROWN) Loper, Yi, Palmer, SIGSEM07

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