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Visualization of the snow depth distribution in Japan using Arc/Info: 

Visualization of the snow depth distribution in Japan using Arc/Info Harumi Kitajima Yanagimachi Shinshu University yanagi@econ.shinshu-u.ac.jp Kenji Sato Pasco Corporation st2@pasco.co.jp

Purpose of this study: 

Purpose of this study To provide the snow distribution archives of Japan To develop the animation from a series of 2-D and 3-D snow depth distribution maps To point out the advantages of the GIS to the climatic change research

An example of how GIS was used in the climatological study - technical aspect -: 

An example of how GIS was used in the climatological study - technical aspect - 1.Why GIS had not been used in climatology as much as in the other fields ? 2.How Arc/Info is useful for the snow distribution analysis ?

1. Why GIS had not been used in climatology as much as in the other fields?: 

1. Why GIS had not been used in climatology as much as in the other fields? Climate data are usually very huge hourly, daily, seasonal, monthly, annual .... Analyses of huge data needed the enormous system such as mainframe or super computer GISs were developed mainly on workstation

Slide5: 

Inquiry approach using multivariate data needs statistical analyses principal components analysis, cluster analysis..... GISs were not so analytical Climatic change research inevitably requires to consider time dimension GISs couldn’t deal with time dimension

Slide6: 

There were excellent graphic software available for meteorological and climatic research NCAR graphic on mainframe computer

Slide7: 

Snow cover is a significant climatic index and reflects the dynamic nature of climate Ground data (conventional data) contribute the improvement of snow water equivalent estimation which is derived from the remote sensing data and validate climate models. Snow Cover Climatology

Slide8: 

If temperature gets higher, what happens with regard to snow distribution? global warming Climate reconstruction climatic change during the glacial and the inter glacial periods some geological data reflect palaeoclimate ex. snowlines reflect snow cover and snow depth Advanced research of snow cover climatology - environmental modeling -

Data: 

Data Daily snow depth data of 37 winters, 1954/55-1990/91 This data derives from the 4 kinds of data sources (magnetic tapes) prepared by Japan Meteorological Agency. Number of observations is changing from 300 to 1500 year after year.

Table 1 Number of snow depth observation points K A I S total 1954/55 314 - - - 314 1955/56 351 - - 351 1956/57 356 - - - 356 1957/58 450 - - - 450 1958/59 463 - - - 463 1959/60 477 - - - 477 1960/61 488 - - - 488 1961/62 507 - - 154 661 1962/63 530 - - 154 684 1963/64 555 - - 154 709 1964/65 606 - - 154 760 1965/66 620 - - 154 774 1966/67 630 - - 154 784 1967/68 643 - - 154 797 1968/69 662 - - 154 816 1969/70 690 - - 154 844 1970/71 704 - - 154 858 K,A,I and S indicate the different data sources. : 

Table 1 Number of snow depth observation points K A I S total 1954/55 314 - - - 314 1955/56 351 - - 351 1956/57 356 - - - 356 1957/58 450 - - - 450 1958/59 463 - - - 463 1959/60 477 - - - 477 1960/61 488 - - - 488 1961/62 507 - - 154 661 1962/63 530 - - 154 684 1963/64 555 - - 154 709 1964/65 606 - - 154 760 1965/66 620 - - 154 774 1966/67 630 - - 154 784 1967/68 643 - - 154 797 1968/69 662 - - 154 816 1969/70 690 - - 154 844 1970/71 704 - - 154 858 K,A,I and S indicate the different data sources.

Table 1 Number of snow depth observation points K A I S total 1972/73 704 - - 154 858 1973/74 700 - - 154 854 1974/75 699 - - 154 853 1975/76 692 - - 154 846 1976/77 684 - 202 154 1040 1977/78 643 - 681 154 1478 1978/79 420 - 973 154 1547 1979/80 400 32 988 154 1574 1980/81 382 62 956 154 1554 1981/82 360 92 924 154 1530 1982/83 - 122 896 154 1172 1983/84 - 147 888 154 1189 1984/85 - 167 853 154 1174 1985/86 - 178 833 154 1165 1986/87 - 182 828 154 1164 1987/88 - 187 815 154 1156 1988/89 - 197 802 154 1153 K,A,I and S indicate the different data sources. : 

Table 1 Number of snow depth observation points K A I S total 1972/73 704 - - 154 858 1973/74 700 - - 154 854 1974/75 699 - - 154 853 1975/76 692 - - 154 846 1976/77 684 - 202 154 1040 1977/78 643 - 681 154 1478 1978/79 420 - 973 154 1547 1979/80 400 32 988 154 1574 1980/81 382 62 956 154 1554 1981/82 360 92 924 154 1530 1982/83 - 122 896 154 1172 1983/84 - 147 888 154 1189 1984/85 - 167 853 154 1174 1985/86 - 178 833 154 1165 1986/87 - 182 828 154 1164 1987/88 - 187 815 154 1156 1988/89 - 197 802 154 1153 K,A,I and S indicate the different data sources.

Snow depth observations: 

Snow depth observations

Slide13: 

Snow depth distribution observation 500m and 1000m contour line snow depth contour line every 20cm Feb. 1, 1991

Slide14: 

Topography of Japan The dividing ranges are located mainly from northeast to southwest in Japan islands.

Topography of Japan: 

Topography of Japan

Snowfall in Japan: 

Snowfall in Japan There is a remarkable difference between the Pacific Ocean side and the Sea of Japan side. Much snowfall on the west of dividing ranges, and quite little snowfall on the east of them

Slide17: 

The mesoscale strong seasonal westerlies in winter associated with the global circulation Moisture is supplied from the Sea of Japan. just like the Lake Effect Snow in the US

Slide18: 

made by Kazutaka Iwasaki

Slide19: 

Snowfall on the west of the dividing ranges occurs when the high pressure is located to the west of Japan while the depression is to the east of Japan. Snow falls heavily from the middle of December to the middle of February. West high and east low weather pattern

Slide20: 

made by Kazutaka Iwasaki

Slide21: 

The east of the dividing ranges is usually clear in winter. It snows only when the depression is passing along to the south or to the north of Japan from the southwest to the northeast in February or in March.

Method to create the snow distribution map using Arc/Info: 

Method to create the snow distribution map using Arc/Info Daily snow depth data create Info file from original data (ASCII) create point coverage of observations create tin create grid (681 x 601) (1.5’ x 1.5’) (2km x 3km)

Slide23: 

Arc/Info GRID file size One GRID for each day 1.64MB/day 49.2MB/month (=30 days) 196.8MB/winter (=4 months) 7281.6MB/37winters Huge data storage system is required for the climate data analyses.

Slide24: 

Elevation data create grid (681 x 601) from DEM (0.75’ x 0.5’) (1km x 1km) Snow distribution map 2D representation 3D representation on the elevation

TIN: 

TIN

0 cm contour line derived from TIN original (>0cm) corrected (1>=cm) unit of original snow depth data: cm: 

0 cm contour line derived from TIN original (>0cm) corrected (1>=cm) unit of original snow depth data: cm

0 cm contour line derived from TIN original (>0cm) corrected (1>=cm) Unit of original snow depth data: cm: 

0 cm contour line derived from TIN original (>0cm) corrected (1>=cm) Unit of original snow depth data: cm

Border of the snow covered area: 

Border of the snow covered area 1mm contour line is adequate to the border of snow cover. Snow depth under 1mm is treated as “trace” in the original data.

Snow Depth Distribution in Japan : 

Snow Depth Distribution in Japan

Average Snow Depth Distribution : 

Average Snow Depth Distribution

Snow depth on topography: 

Snow depth on topography

Snow Depth Distribution in Japan: 

Snow Depth Distribution in Japan

Snow Depth in the Central Japan: 

Snow Depth in the Central Japan

Snow depth: 

Snow depth 500m contour line

2. How Arc/Info is useful for the snow distribution analysis: 

2. How Arc/Info is useful for the snow distribution analysis interpolation problem remains in the mountain area visualization skill is required to set the good viewpoint

Comments on GIS with regard to the application to climatic change research: 

Comments on GIS with regard to the application to climatic change research Arc/Info has many effective and useful functions, but it is not necessarily analytical and it is not easy to manipulate it.

Animation as an effective visualization method: 

Animation as an effective visualization method Animation is very convenient to grasp the principle that is changing with time.

Movies of the Snow depth distribution in Japan: 

Movies of the Snow depth distribution in Japan daily fluctuation (winter season) 12/1 ~ 3/31 Rotated images view from the continuously changing viewpoint Secular change February 15th, 1955 ~1991

How to make movie files - MPEG -: 

How to make movie files - MPEG - 1.Save a series of images as Sun raster files or the other image format 2.Convert to yuvsplit files by ppmtoyuvsplit included in pbmplus package 3.Make MPEG file using MPEG encoder “mpeg” UNIX

How to make movie files - QuickTime movie -: 

How to make movie files - QuickTime movie - 1.save a series of images as PICT files 2.Make QuickTime movie by Adobe Premier on Macintosh Macintosh

Acknowledgment The Analyses using Arc/Info were done at NCGIA/University of California at Santa Barbara and NCGIA/State University of New York at Buffalo. We appreciated both organizations. Copyright 1996 Harumi Kitajima Yanagimachi: 

Acknowledgment The Analyses using Arc/Info were done at NCGIA/University of California at Santa Barbara and NCGIA/State University of New York at Buffalo. We appreciated both organizations. Copyright 1996 Harumi Kitajima Yanagimachi

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