Vineyard Maintenance

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Vineyard Maintenance Pruning to Harvest: 

Vineyard Maintenance Pruning to Harvest Steve Renquist Horticulture Department

Topics Covered: 

Topics Covered Pruning- dormant Vineyard floor mgt. Fertilization Pest Control Shoot thinning Hedging, positioning Leaf pulling Harvest

Pruning- Dormant: 

Pruning- Dormant Cane pruning: leaving a fixed number of one year old canes on a trellis wire. Combined with VSP, Scott Henry, GDC Spur pruning: leaving a number of short spurs of one year old wood, 2 to 3 buds long, on established arms. Combined with Cordon, or Lyre Open Center

Cane Pruning: 

Cane Pruning Easy system to train Use with head trained vines Canes and renewal spurs Most widely used system in Oregon First four nodes can be unfruitful More complex system than spur prune

Head Trained Vine- Cane Pruned: 

Head Trained Vine- Cane Pruned

Head Trained Cane Pruned Vine: 

Head Trained Cane Pruned Vine

Scott Henry Trained Cane Pruned Vine: 

Scott Henry Trained Cane Pruned Vine

Cordon Trained Spur Pruned Vine: 

Cordon Trained Spur Pruned Vine More complex system to train You can leave more buds than Guyot Keep spurs on upper arm Not good for unfruitful varieties buds 1-4 Spurs make smaller clusters in cool climates

Cordon Trained Spur Pruned Vine: 

Cordon Trained Spur Pruned Vine

Balanced Pruning: 

Balanced Pruning Formula based on pruning weight from a vine For each lb. of pruned canes leave 20 buds Leave another 10 buds for each additional lb. of pruned canes 3 lbs of wood, leave 20+10+10=40 buds

Balanced Pruning: 

Balanced Pruning With experience can be done visually If last years canes weak leave fewer buds If last years canes too vigorous leave more buds

Balanced Vine: 

Balanced Vine

Vineyard Floor Management: 

Vineyard Floor Management Floor management objectives: Minimize erosion Influence grapevine growth Improve traffic condition Improve soil tilth Enhance biodiversity Improve working conditions Modify vineyard air temperature

Types of Floor Cover for Alleyway: 

Types of Floor Cover for Alleyway Native vegetation Perennial grasses: Covar or Micklenburg Sheep fescue Annual grasses: rye, oat, barley, triticale Cover crop mixes with legumes

Alleyway Strategy: 

Alleyway Strategy Create a strategy that improves the structure of your soil Minimize traffic compaction Rotation: green manure, compost or manure, lime and cover crops Occasional tillage

Alleyway Strategy: 

Alleyway Strategy Plant cover in fall, annual or perennial Management depends on the vigor of your vines Keep low in spring frost season Will dry down during summer

Vine Row Strategy: 

Vine Row Strategy Most growers keep clean Herbicides, tillage Over time vine row soil structure will suffer Try allowing some low growing plants that can be tilled occasionally Mowing row alleys and blowing into vine rows will mulch and help soil structure

Vine Row Strategy-Chemical: 

Vine Row Strategy-Chemical Site preparation: glyphosate (Roundup) New plantings: Devrinol, Surflan, Gallery, Basagran, Goal, Poast, Round Established plantings: Devrinol, Surflan, Casoron, Roundup, Rely, Goal, Poast Sucker control: Rely, Goal

Fertilization: 

Fertilization Soil test every 5-7 years Petiole sample every 2-3 years Preplant liming, potash, phosphorus Light annual N applications (40-50lbs) Boron and zinc deficiency SW Oregon Mg and Ca imbalance in SW Oregon Band applications of K, P, Ca annually as needed, can inject P K into irrigation

Pest and Other Crop Losses, 2005: 

Pest and Other Crop Losses, 2005 Animals 3% Birds, Voles, Elk, Deer, Mites Diseases 2% Powdery mildew, botrytis Weather 5% Rain, hail Total loss is 10% of 27,500 tons 2500 tons lost at $1668/ton = $4.17 myl

Slide22: 

Cane-pruned vine symptoms with short deformed shoots at the head of the vine

Vine bud mite Symptoms: 

Vine bud mite Symptoms During the summer small circular lesions swelled up on upper leaf surface and pink to brown fuzzy surface on underside of leaf

Where Vine Bud mites and Rust mites Overwinter: 

Where Vine Bud mites and Rust mites Overwinter Vine bud mites overwinter on the basal buds of previous years canes or spurs Rust mites will over winter in the basal buds and under bark at the head of the vine

Rust and Vine Bud Mites: 

Rust and Vine Bud Mites Rust mite controls- Wooly bud spray with wettable sulfur sprays, only if uniform moderately high bronzing occurred the year before on leaves Vine bud mite controls- wettable sulfur 7 to 10 days after bud burst at nodes 1-2, only if unburst buds are high. If spotty wait until next spring

Wooly Bud Stage: 

Wooly Bud Stage

Vole Damage in the Vineyard: 

Vole Damage in the Vineyard

Grey Tailed Vole/ Townsend Vole: 

Grey Tailed Vole/ Townsend Vole

Vole Tunnels/Runs: 

Vole Tunnels/Runs

Vole Controls: 

Vole Controls Trapping (large mouse or box) Bait (zinc phosphide-restricted use) Predators (raptors, owls) Mowing, clean cultivation

Grape Diseases in Western Oregon: 

Grape Diseases in Western Oregon Powdery Mildew Botrytis Bunch Rot Eutypa Dieback Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot Armillaria Root Rot Crown Gall (bacterial) Viral Diseases

Powdery Mildew: 

Powdery Mildew

Powdery Mildew Control: 

Powdery Mildew Control Cultural: open canopy, hedging, leaf pulling, shoot thinning, vigor control Chemical: first spray at 6” shoot growth and continue into veraison. Alternate chemical families to prevent resistance

Botrytis Bunch Rot: 

Botrytis Bunch Rot

Botrytis Bunch Rot: 

Botrytis Bunch Rot Fungal organism Hits tight bunches with 4 hrs of wetness at 53-86 degrees Cultural control: grow loose bunch varieties, leaf pull east, vigor control Chemical control: spray end of fruit set, veraison, and 3 wk before harvest

Eutypa Dieback: 

Eutypa Dieback

Eutypa Dieback: 

Eutypa Dieback Fungus that enters wounds on vine Control: mark disease vines in spring for removal, prune infected wood 4-6” below visible infection, avoid large pruning cuts Chemical control: treat large pruning wounds for a few weeks

Shoot Positioning: 

Shoot Positioning Helping shoots grow into their desired position Can be done with a light touch or you are doing too late 2-3 passes requires 30 man hours/acre

Shoot Thinning and Positioning: 

Shoot Thinning and Positioning

Shoot Thinning and Positioning: 

Shoot Thinning and Positioning Start thinning early when shoots 3-6” Position shoots after thinning and when shoots will surpass the foliage wires Balanced vines do not require much shoot thinning

Cluster Thinning: 

Cluster Thinning Light cluster thinning done in veraison If heavy cluster thinning necessary do it early, shortly after fruit set Small gains from cluster thinning but big costs

Summer Pruning (hedging): 

Summer Pruning (hedging) Balanced vines do not need much Timing is critical, do not trim too late Do when vine is water stressed, or it will not reduce growth First trim when 30% of shoots 12-18” above the top wire Second trim about 2-3 weeks later

Summer Pruning, Hedging: 

Summer Pruning, Hedging

Leaf Pulling or Removal: 

Leaf Pulling or Removal

Leaf Pulling or Removal: 

Leaf Pulling or Removal Remove leaves to allow air movement and some light to enter Timing: about 3 weeks before veraison Do not over do it, fruit will sunburn and quality will suffer. High phenols in whites and red color will wash out Remove leaves on east side of canopy Some leaf before harvest

Leaf Removal: 

Leaf Removal

Precision Viticulture : 

Precision Viticulture Understanding variability in the vineyard Winegrowing goals, quality, quantity Cultural controls, water, nutrients, pests Tools: gps, satellite, yield mapping, ground based sampling

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Mapping: 

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Mapping

What Can be Gained From Measuring Variability by Mapping: 

What Can be Gained From Measuring Variability by Mapping Doing a better job of : Harvest planning (earliest) Irrigation management Finding poorest soils (nutrient needs) Yield monitoring Vigor monitoring (balanced pruning) Pest monitoring

Crop Estimation: 

Crop Estimation Pre bloom: bearing vines x number of clusters per vine x historical avg weight Lag-phase: mid point between bloom and harvest, estimate more accurate as shoot thinning over, clusters well developed Weigh 200-400 clusters at harvest each year to develop an avg weight by variety

Harvest-Grape Maturity: 

Harvest-Grape Maturity Soluble solids: brix sugar, use refractometer, potential alcohol Titratable acidity and pH are also important measures for wine quality Fruit color, condition Seed color Taste of berries

Harvest Preparations: 

Harvest Preparations Have a buyer well in advance Test fruit starting 3 weeks after veraison Have pickers contracted in advance Have bins, fork lift, trucks ready Picking containers, shears Tickets for pickers, supervisors Quality control in field Remember to keep weight records

Annual Labor Expectation : 

Annual Labor Expectation Extremes 25-250 hours per acre Australian Mechanized 25 hours Highest quality Napa Valley locations 250 hours Oregon typically 150-200 hours

Slide54: 

OSU Viticulture Faculty