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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Herpesviruses: Herpesviruses ubiquitous, all vertebrate species ds DNA, approximately 100 genes co-evolved with their hosts, well adjusted enveloped latent infections The case of the elephant herpesvirusesThe elephant herpesvirus Richman et al. 1999. Science 283:1171: The elephant herpesvirus Richman et al. 1999. Science 283:1171The case of the elephant herpesviruses (Richman et al. 1999. Science 283:1171): The case of the elephant herpesviruses (Richman et al. 1999. Science 283:1171) Asian elephant herpesvirus (“cold sores”) Fatal hemorrhagic Disease in African elephants African elephant herpesvirus (“cold sores”) Fatal hemorrhagic Disease in Asian elephants Viruses with ds DNA genomes: Viruses with ds DNA genomes Poxviridae African swine fever virus Herpesviridae Adenoviridae Papovaviridae bovine herpesvirus-1,2 porcine cytomegalovirus equine herpesviruses -1,4 malignant catarrhal fever virusHerpesviridae: Herpesviridae Alphaherpesvirinae (BHV-1, EHV-1,4, FelineHV, CanineHV) Grow rapidly Latency in sensory neurons Betaherpesvirinae Cytomegaloviruses (large balloon-like cells) Grow slowly Latency in salivary glands, kidneys, lymphocytes Gammaherpesvirinae (malignant catarrhal fever virus) Lymphoproliferative diseases Latency in lymphoid cellsStructure: Structure nucleocapsid envelope tegument glycoproteins (gB, gC…gL)Slide7: Productive and latent infections Slide8: Viral DNA Latency and Reactivation LAT IE genes (regulatory) E genes (enzymes) L genes (structural) stress immunosuppression corticosteroids cAMP reactivation Bovine herpesviruses: Bovine herpesvirusesBHV-1(IBR virus): BHV-1(IBR virus) Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis Disseminated fatal disease of newborns Abortions Genital lesions Encephalitis Infection in the animal: Infection in the animal reactivation from latency replication in epithelial cells (rhinotracheitis) Infection of susceptible animal systemic cell-associated spread infection of the fetus -> abortion encephalitis replication in epithelial cellsPrimary lesion: Primary lesion chemokinesClinical and immunological parameters: Clinical and immunological parametersComplications of BHV-1 infection: Complications of BHV-1 infection abortions encephalitis fatal disease in newborn calves Shipping fever (M. hemolytica, P. multocida) Bronchopneumonia -> fibrinous pleuropneumoniaFactors contributing to shipping fever: Factors contributing to shipping fever environmental crowding animals from different sources stress host-virus paralysis of mucociliary escalator release of iron and nutrients increased colonization immunosuppression Diagnosis of BHV: Diagnosis of BHV virus isolation immunofluorescence immunohistochemistry PCR serology virus neutralization ELISAVaccination against BHV-1: Vaccination against BHV-1 modified-live (attenuated) intra nasal intra muscular inactivated intra muscularVaccines for eradication: Vaccines for eradication gB gB gB gB gene for gE deleted gE gB infected vaccinated ELISA for antibodies infected vaccinated gD subunits gE gD gD gDEquine herpesviruses: Equine herpesviruses 9 types, 1,3 and 4 are of veterinary importance EHV-1 and EHV-4: EHV-1 and EHV-4 Immunologically related Respiratory disease EHV-1causes abortions, neurological disease Immunity short lived Reinfection or reactivationEHV-1 and EHV-4 (respiratory disease): EHV-1 and EHV-4 (respiratory disease) Incubation period (2-10 days) Primary infection in young horses Biphasic fever Nasal discharge, cough Uncomplicated cases -> complete recovery 1-2 weeks EHV-1 associated neurological disease - An emerging disease: EHV-1 associated neurological disease - An emerging diseaseMyeloencephalopathy by EHV-1: Myeloencephalopathy by EHV-1 often but not always associated with respiratory disease often several horses sudden onset rapid progression, early stabilization ataxia, paresis, urinary incontinence, cystitis little evidence of viral replication in neural tissues (immune mediated?) vasculitis, thrombosis, hemorrhages (See Borchers et al. 2006. Eq Vet Jn 38:283 )Risk factors for EHV-1 myeloencephalitis: Risk factors for EHV-1 myeloencephalitis Viral (Nugent et al. 206. J. Virol 80:4047 N752D mutation Host (Goehring et al. 2006. J. Vet. Int. Med. 20:601) sex - female age - > 3 yrs season - fall, winter fever breed - Hispanic, Standardbred, Draught Viraemia by neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic EHV-1: Viraemia by neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic EHV-1 Allen and Breathnach 2006. Eq Vet Jn 38:252EHV-1 abortions: EHV-1 abortions late in gestation (7th to 11th month) few weeks to several months after respiratory outbreak abortion stormsPathogenesis of abortion: Pathogenesis of abortion viraemia endometrial endothelial cell infection endometrial vasculitis and thrombosis extensive infarction: virus negative fetusPathogenesis of abortion: Pathogenesis of abortion viraemia endometrial endothelial cell infection endometrial vasculitis and thrombosis extensive infarction: virus negative fetus limited infarction: virus positive fetusCirculatory immune responses: summary: Circulatory immune responses: summary strong humoral response to infection with transient CF and longer lived VN antibody responses (Thompson et al. 1976) protection from reinfection is short lived (Allen and Bryans 1986) no correlation between circulating antibody levels and protection from re-infection (Hannant et al. 1993; Mumford et al. 1994) MHC I restricted CD8+ CTL responses are generated in response to infection (Allen et al. 1995)Prevention of EHV-1 disease: Prevention of EHV-1 disease management vaccines short-lived immunity (mares - 5,7,9 months of gestation reduce severity but do not prevent exacerbate myeloencephalitis??Other herpesviruses: Other herpesviruses alpha herpesviruses porcine herpesvirus 1 (pseudorabies/Aujeszky’s disease) Canine herpesvirus Feline herpesvirus Marek’s disease beta herpesviruses porcine cytomegalovirus gamma herpesviruses malignant catarrhal feverporcine herpesvirus: porcine herpesvirus endemic in most parts of the world - Canada considered free (reportable disease) wide host range pigs asymptomatic abortions fatal disease in new born piglets respiratory, neurological other speciescanine herpesvirus: canine herpesvirus wide-spread, usually asymptomatic generalized fatal disease in puppies (fading puppy syndrome) hypothermia no vaccine in N. Americafeline herpesvirus: feline herpesvirus feline rhinotracheitis wide spread in catteries respiratory infections abortions - no direct viral involvement vaccinesMarek’s disease: Marek’s disease lymphoproliferative, neurological disease of young chickens unilateral paralysis, ataxia due to infiltration of spinal nerves involvement of iris, skin stable in feather follicle dander beta herpesvirus - porcine cytomegalovirus: beta herpesvirus - porcine cytomegalovirus asymptomatic if endemic in herds in susceptible herds inclusion body rhinitis fetal death runting, poor growth in young pigletsmalignant catarrhal fever (gamma herpesvirus): malignant catarrhal fever (gamma herpesvirus) other ruminants ? other species malignant catarrhal feverclinical signs in susceptible species: clinical signs in susceptible species peracute high fever, diarrhoea, death in 1-3 days acute fever, depression, enlarged lymph nodes, serous nasal discharge, erosive lesions, corneal opacity, high mortality chronic formacute MCF: acute MCF You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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