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Abstract ::

Abstract : A brain-machine interface is a communication system that does not depend on the brains normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles. BMI uses brain activity to command, control, actuate and communicate with the world directly through brain integration with peripheral devices and systems. It is a new communication link between a functioning human brain and the outside world. These are electronic interfaces with the brain, which has the ability to send and receive signals from the brain. The signals from the brain are taken to the computer via the implants for data entry without any direct brain intervention. BMI transforms mental decisions and/or reactions into control signals by analyzing the bioelectrical brain activity. QUOTE :“While linking the brain directly with machines was once considered science fiction, advances over the past few years have made it increasingly viable”.

Contents ::

Contents : 1. Introduction. 2. BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACE(BMI) DETAILS:- ( a). Main Principle. (b). Electroencephalography. (c). BMI Approaches. (d). Block Diagram. (e). Block Description . 3. BMI Components:- (a). IMPLANT DEVICE. (b). Signal Processing Section. (c). External Device. (d). Feedback . 4. Challenges. 5. Future Expansion. 6. Conclusion. 7. Credits and References.

1.Introduction ::

1.Introduction : “ A Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) is an attempt to mesh our minds with machines. It is a communication channel from a human's brain to a computer” .Imagine that one day we will be able to download vast amounts of knowledge directly to our brain! So as to cut the lengthy processes of learning everything from scratch. Instead of paying to go to university we could pay to get a "knowledge implant" and perhaps be able to obtain many lifetimes worth of knowledge and expertise in various fields at a young age. .Picture a time when soldiers communicate by thought alone. Imagine a time when the human brain has its own wireless modem so that instead of acting on thoughts, war fighters have thoughts that act. .Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) is a communication system, which enables the user to control special computer applications by using only his/her thoughts. It will allow human brain to accept and control a mechanical device as a part of the body. .Data can flow from brain to the outside machinery, or to brain from the outside machinery. .Major goal of such research is to create a system that allow patients who have damaged their sensory/motor nerves severely to activate outside mechanisms by using brain signals. IMPACT - “This technology has the capability to impact our lives in ways that have been previously thought possible in only sci-fi movies ”.

2.BMI Details ::

2.BMI Details : 1.Main Principle: “Main principle behind this interface is the bioelectrical activity of muscles and nerves,neurons work in complex logic and produce thought and signals that control our bodies ,who’s measurement is together Called ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY” . 2.ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY(WORKING): It is now well established that the human body, which is composed of living tissues, can be considered as a power station generating multiple electrical signals with two internal sources, namely muscles and nerves,neurons work together in complex logic and produce thought and signals that control our bodies,there measurent is done by two electrode(actul and reference electrode) From the surface of scalp,as the signal travels from the cortex, the dura, the skull and the scalp.It’s graph is called Electroencephalograph(EEG). 3.BMI APPROACHES: What are the thoughts the user thinks in order to control a BMI? An ideal BMI could detect the user’s wishes and commands directly. However, this is not possible with today’s technology. Therefore, BMI researches have used the knowledge they have had of the human brain and the EEG in order to design a BMI. There are basically two different approaches that have been used. The first one called a pattern recognition approach is based on cognitive mental tasks. The second one called an operant conditioning approach is based on the self-regulation of the EEG response.

4.Block diagram & description::

4.Block diagram & description: Block diagram Block Description

Implant Device:

Implant Device The EEG is recorded with electrodes, which are placed on the scalp. Electrodes are small plates, which conduct electricity. They provide the electrical contact between the skin and the EEG recording apparatus by transforming the ionic current on the skin to the electrical current in the Wires. fig: Block diagram of the neurotrophic electrodes for implantation in human patients A microscopic glass cone contains a neurotrophic factor that induces neurites to grow into the cone, where they contact one of several gold recording wires. Neurites that are induced to grow into the glass cone make highly stable contacts with recording wires. Signal conditioning and telemetric electronics are fully implanted under the skin of the scalp. An implanted transmitter (TX) sends signals to an external receiver (RX), which is connected to a computer

Signal Processing & Ext. Device:

Signal Processing & Ext. Device Signal processing section Electrodes interface directly to the non-inverting opamp inputs on each channel. At this section amplification, initial filtering of EEG signal and possible artifact removal takes place. Also A/D conversion is made, i.e. the analog EEG signal is digitized. The voltage gain improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by reducing the relevance of electrical noise incurred in later stages. Processed signals are time division multiplexed and sampled. Further Steps for Signal Processing are SPIKE DETECTION,SIGNAL ANALYSIS. External device The classifier’s output is the input for the device control. The device control simply transforms the classification to a particular action. The action can be, e.g., an up or down movement of a cursor on the feedback screen or a selection of a letter in a writing application. However, if the classification was “nothing” or “reject”, no action is performed, although the user may be informed about the rejection. It is the device that subject produce and control motion. Examples are robotic arm, thought controlled wheel chair etc

Feedback & Challenges::

Feedback & Challenges : (d) Feedback : Feedback can have many different effects, some of them beneficial and some harmful. Feedback used in BMIs has similarities with biofeedback, especially EEG biofeedback Cursor control has been the most popular type of feedback in BMIs. Feedback is needed for learning and for control One is the ‘online’ control and correction of errors during the execution of a movement 4. Challenges : 1.Connecting to the nervous system could lead to permanent brain damage, resulting in the loss of feelings or movement, or continual pain. 2.In the networked brain condition –what will mean to be human? 3.Virus attacks may occur to brain causing ill effects.

5.Future Expansion ::

5.Future Expansion : A new thought-communication device might soon help severely disabled people get their independence by allowing them to steer a wheelchair with their mind. Mind-machine interfaces will be available in the near future, and several methods hold promise for implanting information. Linking people via chip implants to super intelligent machines seems to a natural progression –creating in effect, super humans. These cyborgs will be onestep ahead of humans. And just as humans have always valued themselves above other forms of life, it is likely that cyborgs look down on humans who have yet to ‘evolve’. Will people want to have their heads opened and wired? Technology moves in light speed now. In that accelerated future, today’s hot neural interface could become tomorrow’s neuro trash. Will you need to learn any math if you can call up a computer merely by your thoughts? Thought communication will place telephones firmly in the history books.

6.Conclusion ::

6.Conclusion : “If by some more advanced technology in future, if at all we were able to save the brains in a good working condition then thinking, thoughts and innovation may become immortal !”. “No more handicap people (Synthetic arms, legs, eye, sensitive skin etc.) !” “Going to more advancement if the saved brains recovered to fix BMI’S then the innovative people may RE-BORN like ” Cultures may have diverse ethics, but regardless, individual liberties and human life are always valued over and above machines. What happens when humans merge with machines? The question is not what will the computer be like in the future, but instead, what will we be like? What kind of people are we becoming? BMI’s will have the ability to give people back their vision and hearing. They will also change the way a person looks at the world. Someday these devices might be more common than keyboards. Is someone with a synthetic eye, less a person than someone without? Shall we process signals like ultraviolet, X-rays, or ultrasounds as robots do? These questions will not be answered in the near future, but at some time they will have to be answered. What an interesting day that will be.


7.CREDITS & REFERENCES: Served on Inter-Net by: WEBSITES: Books and magazine: Handbook Of Biomedical Instrumentation By R.S.Khandpu Thank You! Special thanks to E.C.E dept. of JBIET for firm guidance and encouragement .

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