8251A USART - Programmable Communication Interface

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8251A is a USART (Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) for serial data communication. Programmable peripheral designed for synchronous /asynchronous serial data communication, packaged in a 28-pin DIP.

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By: amar90114 (44 month(s) ago)

easy to learn..

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8251 Programmable Communication Interface By:- Anoop Bhalwal

# Introduction:

# Introduction 8251A is a USART (Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) for serial data communication. Programmable peripheral designed for synchronous /asynchronous serial data communication, packaged in a 28-pin DIP. Receives parallel data from the CPU & transmits serial data after conversion. Also receives serial data from the outside & transmits parallel data to the CPU after conversion.

# Pin diagram:

# Pin diagram

# Block diagram of the 8251 USART :

# Block diagram of the 8251 USART

# Sections of 8251A:

# Sections of 8251A Data Bus buffer Read/Write Control Logic Modem Control Transmitter Receiver 1. Data Bus Buffer D0-D7 : 8-bit data bus used to read or write status, command word or data from or to the 8251A

2. Read/Write Control logic :

2. Read/Write Control logic Includes a control logic, six input signals & three buffer registers: Data register, control register & status register. Control logic : Interfaces the chip with MPU, determines the functions of the chip according to the control word in the control register & monitors the data flow.

Input signals :

Input signals CS – Chip Select : When signal goes low, the 8251A is selected by the MPU for communication. C/D – Control/Data : When signal is high, the control or status register is addressed; when it is low, data buffer is addressed. (Control register & status register are differentiated by WR and RD signals) WR : When signal is low, the MPU either writes in the control register or sends output to the data buffer. RD : When signal goes low, the MPU either reads a status from the status register or accepts data from data buffer. RESET : A high on this signal reset 8252A & forces it into the idle mode. CLK : Clock input, usually connected to the system clock for communication with the microprocessor.

Control Register :

Control Register 16-bit register for a control word consist of two independent bytes namely mode word & command word. Mode word : Specifies the general characteristics of operation such as baud, parity, number of bits etc. Command word : Enables the data transmission and reception. Register can be accessed as an output port when the Control/Data pin is high.

Status register :

Status register Checks the ready status of the peripheral. Status word in the status register provides the information concerning register status and transmission errors. Data register Used as an input and output port when the C/D is low CS C/D WR RD Operation 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 × 1 0 0 1 × 0 1 1 0 × MPU reads data from data buffer MPU writes data from data buffer MPU writes a word to control register MPU reads a word from status register Chip is not selected for any operation

3. Modem Control:

3. Modem Control DSR - Data Set Ready : Checks if the Data Set is ready when communicating with a modem. DTR - Data Terminal Ready : Indicates that the device is ready to accept data when the 8251 is communicating with a modem. CTS - Clear to Send : If its low, the 8251A is enabled to transmit the serial data provided the enable bit in the command byte is set to ‘1’. RTS - Request to Send Data : Low signal indicates the modem that the receiver is ready to receive a data byte from the modem.

4. Transmitter section:

4. Transmitter section Accepts parallel data from MPU & converts them into serial data. Has two registers: Buffer register : To hold eight bits Output register : To convert eight bits into a stream of serial bits. Transmit control Output Register Transmitter Buffer

PowerPoint Presentation:

The MPU writes a byte in the buffer register. Whenever the output register is empty; the contents of buffer register are transferred to output register. Transmitter section consists of three output & one input signals TxD - Transmitted Data Output : Output signal to transmit the data to peripherals TxC - Transmitter Clock Input : Input signal, controls the rate of transmission. TxRDY - Transmitter Ready : Output signal, indicates the buffer register is empty and the USART is ready to accept the next data byte. TxE - Transmitter Empty : Output signal to indicate the output register is empty and the USART is ready to accept the next data byte.

5. Receiver Section :

5. Receiver Section Accepts serial data on the RxD pin and converts them to parallel data. Has two registers : Receiver input register Buffer register Receive Buffer Receive control Input Register RxRDY RxC RxD

PowerPoint Presentation:

When RxD goes low, the control logic assumes it is a start bit, waits for half bit time, and samples the line again. If the line is still low, the input register accepts the following data, and loads it into buffer register at the rate determined by the receiver clock. RxRDY - Receiver Ready Output: Output signal, goes high when the USART has a character in the buffer register & is ready to transfer it to the MPU. RxD - Receive Data Input : Bits are received serially on this line & converted into a parallel byte in the receiver input register. RxC - Receiver Clock Input : Clock signal that controls the rate at which bits are received by the USART.

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