Presentation On Microprocessor 8085

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It provides 16 address lines so it can access 2^16 =64K bytes of memory. It generates 8 bit I/O address so it can access 2^8=256 input ports. It provides 5 hardware interrupts:TRAP, RST 5.5, RST 6.5, RST 7.5,INTR. It provides Acc ,one flag register ,6 general purpose registers and two special purpose registers(SP,PC). It provides serial lines SID ,SOD.So serial peripherals can be interfaced with 8085 directly.

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PowerPoint Presentation:

Presentation On Microprocessor 8085 By: Anoop Bhalwal

8085 INTRODUCTION:

8085 INTRODUCTION The features of INTEL 8085 are : It is an 8 bit processor. It is a single chip N-MOS device with 40 pins. It has multiplexed address and data bus.(AD 0 -AD 7 ). It works on 5 Volt dc power supply. The maximum clock frequency is 3 MHz while minimum frequency is 500kHz. It provides 74 instructions with 5 different addressing modes.

8085 INTRODUCTION:

8085 INTRODUCTION It provides 16 address lines so it can access 2 ^ 16 =64K bytes of memory. It generates 8 bit I/O address so it can access 2 ^8=256 input ports. It provides 5 hardware interrupts:TRAP, RST 5.5, RST 6.5, RST 7.5,INTR. It provides Acc ,one flag register ,6 general purpose registers and two special purpose registers(SP,PC). It provides serial lines SID ,SOD.So serial peripherals can be interfaced with 8085 directly.

8085 PIN DIAGRAM:

8085 PIN DIAGRAM

8085 PIN DESCRIPTION:

8085 PIN DESCRIPTION Some important pins are : AD 0 -AD 7 : Multiplexed Address and data lines. A 8 -A 15 : Tri-stated higher order address lines. ALE : Address latch enable is an output signal.It goes high when operation is started by processor . S0,S1 : These are the status signals used to indicate type of operation. RD ¯ : Read is active low input signal used to read data from I/O device or memory. WR ¯ : Write is an active low output signal used write data on memory or an I/O device.

8085 PIN DESCRIPTION:

8085 PIN DESCRIPTION READY :This an output signal used to check the status of output device.If it is low, µ P will WAIT until it is high. TRAP :It is an Edge triggered highest priority , non mask able interrupt. After TRAP, restart occurs and execution starts from address 0024H. RST5.5,6.5,7.5 :These are maskable interrupts and have low priority than TRAP. INTR ¯&INTA :INTR is a interrupt request signal after which µP generates INTA or interrupt acknowledge signal. IO/M ¯ : This is output pin or signal used to indicate whether 8085 is working in I/O mode(IO/M¯=1) or Memory mode(IO/M¯=0 ).

8085 PIN DESCRIPTION:

8085 PIN DESCRIPTION HOLD&HLDA :HOLD is an input signal .When µ P receives HOLD signal it completes current machine cycle and stops executing next instruction.In response to HOLD µ P generates HLDA that is HOLD Acknowledge signal. RESET IN ¯: This is input signal.When RESET IN ¯ is low µp restarts and starts executing from location 0000H. SID : Serial input data is input pin used to accept serial 1 bit data . X 1 X 2 :These are clock input signals and are connected to external LC,or RC circuit.These are divide by two so if 6 MHz is connected to X 1 X 2 , the operating frequency becomes 3 MHz. VCC&VSS :Power supply VCC=+ -5Volt& VSS=-GND reference.

8085 ARCHITECTURE:

8085 ARCHITECTURE

Arithmetic and Logical group :

Arithmetic and Logical group Accumulator : It is 8 bit general purpose register. It is connected to ALU. So most of the operations are done in Acc. Temporary register : It is not available for user All the arithmetic and logical operations are done in the temporary register but user can’t access it. Flag : It is a group of 5 flip flops used to know status of various operations done. The Flag Register along with Accumulator is called PSW or Program Status Word.

Arithmetic and Logical group:

Arithmetic and Logical group Flag Register is given by: S :Sign flag is set when result of an operation is negative. Z :Zero flag is set when result of an operation is 0. Ac :Auxiliary carry flag is set when there is a carry out of lower nibble or lower four bits of the operation. CY :Carry flag is set when there is carry generated by an operation. P :Parity flag is set when result contains even number of 1’s. Rest are don’t care flip flops. S Z X AC X P X CY

Register Group:

Register Group Temporary registers (W,Z): These are not available for user. These are loaded only when there is an operation being performed. General purpose :There are six general purpose registers in 8085 namely B,C,D,E,H,L.These are used for various data manipulations. Special purpose :There are two special purpose registers in 8085: SP :Stack Pointer. PC :Program Counter.

Register Group:

Register Group Stack Pointer : This is a temporary storage memory 16 bit register. Since there are only 6 general purpose registers, there is a need to reuse them . Whenever stack is to be used previous values are PUSHED on stack and then after the program is over these values are POPED back. Program Counter : It is 16 bit register used to point the location from which the next instruction is to be fetched. When a single byte instruction is executed PC is automatically incremented by 1. Upon reset PC contents are set to 0000H and next instruction is fetched onwards.

INSTRUCTION REGISTER,DECODER & CONTROL:

INSTRUCTION REGISTER,DECODER & CONTROL Instruction register :When an instruction is fetched , it is executed in instruction register.This register takes the Opcode value only. Instruction decoder : It decodes the instruction from instruction register and then to control block. Timing and control :This is the control section of µP. It accepts clock input .

INTERRUPT CONTROL:

INTERRUPT CONTROL It accepts different interrupts like TRAP INT5.5,6.5,7.5and INTR. SERIAL IO CONTROL GROUP It is used to accept the serial 1 bit data by using SID and SOD signals and it can be performed by using SIM & RIM instructions.

INSTRUCTIONS SET OF 8085 :

INSTRUCTIONS SET OF 8085 DATA TRANSFER GROUP MOV Rd, Rs .(Move data from Rs to Rd). Example: MOV C,B. Move the content of register B to C. Initially After execution B=10H. B=10H. C=20H. C=10H. Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Register.

DATA TRANSFER GROUP:

DATA TRANSFER GROUP MOV Rd, M (Move data from Memory to Rd). Example: MOV C,M. Move the content of Memory i.e. “H or L” to C. Suppose the Data at memory pointed By HL pair at C200H is 10H. Initially After execution H=C2,L=00,C=30H H=C2,L=00,C=10H. Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Indirect.

DATA TRANSFER GROUP:

DATA TRANSFER GROUP MVI R, Data .(Move Immediate data to Register). Example: MVI B, 30H. (Move the data 30 H to Register B) Initially After execution B=40H B=30H Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Immediate.

DATA TRANSFER GROUP:

DATA TRANSFER GROUP LXI Rp,16 bit .(Load 16 bit data to Register pair Immediate). Example: LXI SP, C200H. (Load Stack pointer with C200H). Initially After execution SP=C800H SP=C200H. Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Immediate.

DATA TRANSFER GROUP:

DATA TRANSFER GROUP STA address .(Store Acc data to address). Example: STA C200H. (Move the data from Acc to C200H). Suppose in Acc the data is 10H. Initially After execution A=10H, C200=20H C200=10H , A=10H Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Direct.

DATA TRANSFER GROUP:

DATA TRANSFER GROUP LHLD address .(Load HL pair with data from address). Example: LHLD C200H. (Move the data from C200 to HL pair). Suppose at C200 the data is 20H,30H . Initially After execution H=10H,L=20H H=20H,L=30H. C2=20H,00=30H C2=20H,00=30H Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Direct.

DATA TRANSFER GROUP:

DATA TRANSFER GROUP XCHG (Exchange the data from HL pair to DE pair) Example : XCHG Initially After execution H=20H,L=30H, H=40H,L=70H. D=40H,E=70H. D=20H,E=30H. Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Register.

DATA TRANSFER GROUP:

DATA TRANSFER GROUP IN 8 bit address (Move the data from address to Acc) Example: IN 80H Move the data from 80H port address to Accumulator. Suppose data at 80H is 39H. Initially After execution A=20H. A=39H Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Direct.

DATA TRANSFER GROUP:

DATA TRANSFER GROUP OUT 8 bit address (Move the data from Acc to address) Example: OUT 80H Move the data from Acc to port address 80H. Suppose data at Acc is 39H. Initially After execution A=39H. 80=10H. A=39H,80=39H. Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Direct.

DATA TRANSFER GROUP:

DATA TRANSFER GROUP Example:Write a program to exchange contents of memory location D000H to D001H LDA D000H Load Acc with data from D000 MOV B,A Move the data to B LDA D0001H Load Acc with data from D001 STA 2000H Store Acc data at D000 MOV A,B Move B’s data to A STA 2001H Store data from D000 to D0001 RST1 Stop.

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP ADD R (ADD register content with Acc and result in A ). Example: ADD C. (ADD the content of C with A). Suppose the Data at C register is 10H. Initially After execution . C= 10H ,A=10H A=20H,C=10H. Flags Affected :All flags are modified. Addressing mode: Register

ARITHMEIC GROUP:

ARITHMEIC GROUP ADD M (ADD H or L Reg content with Acc and result in A ). Example: ADD M. (ADD the content of HL with A). Suppose the Data at memory pointed by HL register 1020H is 10H. Initially After execution . H= 10H ,L=20H . H=10H,L=20H. A=20H,C=10H. A=30H. Flags Affected :All flags are modified. Addressing mode: Register Indirect.

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP ADI Data (ADD immediate data with Acc and result in A ). Example: ADI 30H. (ADD 30H with A). Initially After execution A=20H, A=50H. Flags Affected :All flags are modified. Addressing mode: Immediate.

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP ADC R (ADD register content with Acc and carry and result in A ). Example: ADC C. (ADD the content of C with A with carry). Suppose the Data at C register is 10H and carry is 01H. Initially After execution . C= 10H ,A=10H A=21H,C=10H. Flags Affected :All flags are modified. Addressing mode: Register

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP Example: Write a program to perform 16 bit addition of 1234H& 4321H. Store answer at H & L registers . MVI B,21H B=21H MVI A,34H A=34H MVI C,43H C=43H MVI D,12H D=12H ADD B A=34+21H MOV L,A L=55H MOV A,C A=43H ADC D A=43+12H MOV H,A H=55H RST1 STOP.

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP SUB R (Subtract register content from Acc and result in A ). Example: SUB B. (Subtract the content of B from A ). Suppose the Data at B register is 10H . Initially After execution . B= 10H ,A=20H A=10H,B=10H. Flags Affected :All flags are modified. Addressing mode: Register

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP SBB R (Subtract register content from Acc with borrow and result in A ). Example: SBB B. (Subtract the content of B from A with borrow). Suppose the Data at B register is 10H and borrow is 01H . Initially After execution . B= 0FH ,A=20H A=10H,B=0FH. Flags Affected :All flags are modified. Addressing mode: Register

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP SUI Data (Subtract immediate data from Acc and result in A ). Example: SUI 30H. (Subtract 30H from A). Initially After execution A=80H, A=50H. Flags Affected :All flags are modified. Addressing mode: Immediate

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP Example: Subtract data of C800 H from C200H.Store the result at 2C00. LDA C800H MOV B,A LDA C200H SUB B STA 2C00H RST1

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP DAD Rp (Add specified register pair with HL pair) Example:DAD D.(Add the content of E with L and that of D with H register and result in HL pair) Suppose the content of HL pair is H=20H ,L=40H and DE pair is D=30H, E=10H. Initially After execution H=20H ,L=40H H=50H ,L=50H D=30H, E=10H D=30H, E=10H Flags Affected :Only carry flag is modified. Addressing mode: Register.

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP DAA (Decimal adjust accumulator) Example: MVI A,12H ADI 39H DAA . This instruction is used to store result in BCD form.If lower nibble is greater than 9 ,6 is added while if upper nibble is greater than 9,6 is added to it to get BCD result. Initially After execution 12+39=4B 12+39=51 in BCD form. Flags Affected :All flags are modified. Addressing mode: Register

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP INR R (Increment register content by 1 ). Example: INR C. (Increment the content of C by 1). Suppose the Data at C register is 10H. Initially After execution C= 10H C=11H. Flags Affected :All flags are modified except carry flag. Addressing mode: Register.

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP DCR R (Decrement register content by 1 ). Example: DCR C. (Decrement the content of C by 1). Suppose the Data at C register is 10H. Initially After execution C= 10H C=0FH. Flags Affected :All flags are modified except carry flag. Addressing mode: Register.

ARITHMETIC GROUP:

ARITHMETIC GROUP INX Rp (Increment register pair content by 1 ). Example: INX SP (Increment the content of Stack pointer pair by 1). INX B. (Increment the content of BC pair by 1). Suppose the Data at BC register is 1010H and SP is C200H Initially After execution BC= 1010H BC=1011H. SP=C200H SP=C201H. Flags Affected :No flags are modified. Addressing mode: Register.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP ANA R (Logically AND register content with Acc and result in A ). Example: ANA C (AND the content of C with A). Suppose the Data at C register is 10H. Initially After execution C= 10H ,A=10H A=10H,C=10H. Flags Affected :S,Z,P are modified Cy=reset,AC=set. Addressing mode:Register.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP ANI Data (Logically AND immediate data with Acc and result in A ). Example: ANI 10H (AND 10H with A). Initially After execution A=10H A=10H Flags Affected :S,Z,P are modified Cy=reset,AC=set. Addressing mode: Immediate.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP ORA R (Logically OR register content with Acc and result in A5 ). Example: ORA C (OR the content of C with A). Suppose the Data at C register is 17H. Initially After execution C= 17H ,A=10H A=17H,C=17H. Flags Affected :S,Z,P are modified Cy=reset,AC=reset. Addressing mode:Register.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP ORI Data (Logically OR immediate data with Acc and result in A ). Example: ORI 10H (OR 10H with A). Initially After execution A=30H A=30H Flags Affected :S,Z,P are modified Cy=reset,AC=set. Addressing mode: Immediate.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP XRA R (Logically XOR register content with Acc and result in A ). Example: XRA C (XOR the content of C with A). Suppose the Data at C register is 17H. Initially After execution C= 17H ,A=10H A=07H,C=17H. Flags Affected :S,Z,P are modified Cy=reset,AC=reset. Addressing mode:Register.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP CMP R (Compare register content with Acc and result in A ). Example: CMP C (Compare the content of C with A). Suppose the Data at C register is 17H. Initially After execution C= 10H ,A=17H A=17H,C=17H. Flags Affected :S=0,Z=0,P=0, Cy=reset,AC=reset. Addressing mode:Register.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP CPI Data (Compare immediate data with Acc ). Example: CPI 10H (Compare the content of C with A). Initially After execution A=17H A=17H. Flags Affected :S=0,Z=0,P=0, Cy=reset,AC=reset. Addressing mode:Immediate.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP RLC (Rotate accumulator left ). Example: MOV A,03H. RLC (Rotate accumulator left). Initially After execution A=03H A=06H. Flags Affected :Only carry flag is affected. Addressing mode:Implied.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP RAL (Rotate accumulator left with carry ). Example: MOV A,03H. RAL (Rotate accumulator left with carry). Initially After execution A=03H , carry =01H A=07H. Flags Affected :Only carry flag is affected. Addressing mode:Implied.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP RRC (Rotate accumulator right ). Example: MOV A,03H. RRC (Rotate accumulator right). Initially After execution A=03H , A=81H. Flags Affected :Only carry flag is affected. Addressing mode:Implied.

LOGICAL GROUP:

LOGICAL GROUP Write a program to reset last 4 bits of the number 32H Store result at C200H . MVI A, 32H A=32H ANI F0H 00110010 AND 1111000 =00110000=30H STA C200H. C200=30H RST1 Stop

BRANCH GROUP :

BRANCH GROUP JMP address (Unconditional jump to address) Example: JMP C200H. After this instruction the Program Counter is loaded with this location and starts executing and the contents of PC are loaded on Stack. Flags Affected :No Flags are affected. Addressing mode:Immediate.

CALL address(Unconditional CALL from address):

CALL address(Unconditional CALL from address) Example: CALL C200H. After this instruction the Program Counter is loaded with this location and starts executing and the contents of PC are loaded on Stack. Flags Affected :No Flags are affected. Addressing mode:Immediate

BRANCH GROUP:

BRANCH GROUP Conditional Jump Instructions. JC (Jump if Carry flag is set) JNC (Jump if Carry flag is reset) JZ (Jump if zero flag set) JNZ (Jump if zero flag is reset) JPE (Jump if parity flag is set) JPO (Jump if parity odd or P flag is reset ) JP (Jump if sign flag reset ) JM (Jump if sign flag is set or minus)

BRANCH GROUP:

BRANCH GROUP Conditional Call Instructions. CC (Call if Carry flag is set) CNC (Call if Carry flag is reset) CZ (Call if zero flag set) CNZ (Call if zero flag is reset) CPE (Call if parity flag is set) CPO (Call if parity odd or P flag is reset ) CP (Call if sign flag reset ) CM (Call if sign flag is set or minus)

BRANCH GROUP:

BRANCH GROUP RET (Return from subroutine) Example: MOV A,C RET After this instruction the Program Counter POPS PUSHED contents from stack and starts executing from that address . Flags Affected :No Flags are affected. Addressing mode:Register indirect .

BRANCH GROUP:

BRANCH GROUP RST (Restart instruction) Example: MOV A,C RST 1. After this instruction the Program Counter goes to address 0008H and starts executing from that address . Flags Affected :No Flags are affected. Addressing mode:Register indirect.

BRANCH GROUP:

BRANCH GROUP The addresses of the respective RST commands are: Instruction Address RST 0 0000H RST 1 0008H RST 2 0010H RST 3 0018H RST 4 0020H RST 5 0028H RST 6 0030H RST 7 0038H

STACK AND MACHINE CONTROL:

STACK AND MACHINE CONTROL PUSH Rp.(Push register pair contents on stack). Example:LXI SP FFFFH. PUSH H. (Move the content of HL pair on Stack). Suppose at HL pair the data is H= 20H,L= 30H & SP is initialized at FFFFH Initially After execution H=20H,L=30H H=20H,L=30H. SP=FFFF H FFFD=30H,FFFE=20H Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Register indirect.

STACK AND MACHINE CONTROL:

STACK AND MACHINE CONTROL POP Rp.(Pop register pair contents from stack). Example:POP D(POP the content of DE pair from Stack). Suppose at DE pair the data is H= 20H,L= 30H SP was initialized at FFFFH Initially After execution D=20H,E=30H D=10H,E=80H. FFFD=80H,FFFE=10H Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Register indirect

STACK AND MACHINE CONTROL:

STACK AND MACHINE CONTROL XTHL (Exchange HL register pair contents with top of stack). Example:XTHL(Exchange top with HL pair). Suppose at HL pair the data is H= 20H,L= 30H & SP =FFFFH & at locations FFFF=10H and at FFFE= 80H. Initially After execution H=20H,L=30H H=10H,L=80H. SP=FFFF =10H,FFFE=80H FFFD=20H,FFFE=30H Flags Affected :No flags affected. Addressing mode: Register indirect.

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085:

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085 Immediate addressing: Immediate data is transferred to address or register. Example: MVI A,20H. Transfer immediate data 20H to accumulator. Number of bytes: Either 2 or 3 bytes long. 1 st byte is opcode. 2 nd byte 8 bit data . 3 rd byte higher byte data of 16 bytes.

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085:

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085 Register addressing: Data is transferred from one register to other. Example: MOV A, C :Transfer data from C register to accumulator. Number of bytes: Only 1 byte long. One byte is opcode.

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085:

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085 Direct addressing: Data is transferred from direct address to other register or vice-versa. Example: LDA C200H .Transfer contents from C200H to Acc. Number of bytes: These are 3 bytes long. 1 st byte is opcode. 2 nd byte lower address. 3 rd byte higher address.

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085:

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085 Indirect addressing: Data is transferred from address pointed by the data in a register to other register or vice-versa. Example: MOV A, M: Move contents from address pointed by M to Acc. Number of bytes: These are 3 bytes long. 1 st byte is opcode. 2 nd byte lower address. 3 rd byte higher address.

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085:

ADDRESSING MODES OF 8085 Implied addressing: These doesn’t require any operand. The data is specified in Opcode itself. Example: RAL: Rotate left with carry. No.of Bytes: These are single byte instruction or Opcode only.

PROGRAM:

PROGRAM Write a program to transfer a block of data from C550H to C55FH. Store the data from C570H to C57FH . LXI H ,C550H LXI B ,C570H MVI D,0FH UP MOV A,M STAX B INX H INX B DCR D JNZ UP RST1

PROGRAM:

PROGRAM Find out errors in the following : MVI B,D =Immediate addressing doesn’t have register as operand .Therefore, MVI B,80H. INX L=Increment operator always acts on the higher memory address in register pair .Thus ,INX H. JP 80H = Conditional jump instructions doesn’t have any immediate operand .Thus, JP UP. If Flag contents are AB H, what is flag status If flag contains AB H then it’s values from D 7 to D 0 are 10101011. By comparing it with flag register we get S=1,Z=0,AC=0, P=0,Cy=1.

PROGRAM:

PROGRAM 11. What are the instructions for the following actions? Load the PC with second and third byte of instruction. LXI H, C200H PCHL Load PC with HL content Thus PC= L,PC +1=H. No change in normal execution except increment the PC. NOP (No operation) This instruction has no effect on code only used to cause delay .

PROGRAM:

PROGRAM Write a program to add 10 data bytes. Data is stored from locations C200. Store result at C300H. LXI H,C200 H MVI C, 0A H UP MVI A,00 H MOV B,M ADD B INX H DCR C JNZ UP STA C300H RST1.

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM:

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM The µP operates with reference to clock signal.The rise and fall of the pulse of the clock gives one clock cycle. Each clock cycle is called a T state and a collection of several T states gives a machine cycle. Important machine cycles are : Op-code fetch. Memory read. Memory write. I/Op-read. I/O write .

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM:

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM Op-code Fetch :It basically requires 4 T states from T 1 -T 4 The ALE pin goes high at first T state always. AD 0 -AD 7 are used to fetch OP-code and store the lower byte of Program Counter. A 8 -A 15 store the higher byte of the Program Counter while IO/M ¯ will be low since it is memory related operation. RD ¯ will only be low at the Op-code fetching time. WR ¯ will be at HIGH level since no write operation is done. S 0 =1,S 1 =1 for Op-code fetch cycle.

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM:

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM Op-code fetch cycle :

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM:

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM Memory Read Cycle : It basically requires 3T states from T 1 -T 3 . The ALE pin goes high at first T state always. AD 0 -AD 7 are used to fetch data from memory and store the lower byte of address. A 8 -A 15 store the higher byte of the address while IO/M ¯ will be low since it is memory related operation. RD ¯ will only be low at the data fetching time. WR ¯ will be at HIGH level since no write operation is done. S 0 =0,S 1 =1 for Memory read cycle.

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM:

TIMING AND STATE DIAGRAM Memory write Cycle : It basically requires 3T states from T 1 -T 3 . The ALE pin goes high at first T state always. AD 0 -AD 7 are used to fetch data from CPU and store the lower byte of address. A 8 -A 15 store the higher byte of the address while IO/M ¯ will be low since it is memory related operation. RD ¯ will be HIGH since no read operation is done. WR ¯ will be at LOW level only when data fetching is done. S 0 =1,S 1 =0 for Memory write cycle.

SUBROUTINE:

SUBROUTINE Calculation of Delay using 8 bit counter: Consider following example: MVI C, count(8 bit) H 7 T states UP DCR C 4 T states JNZ UP 10/7 T RET 10T Here loop UP is executed (N-1) times. Thus delay is Td=M+[(count)x N) -3. Where M= no.of T states outside loop. N=no.of T states inside loop.

SUBROUTINE:

SUBROUTINE Here value of M= 17, N= 14. The maximum delay will occur if count is 255 or FF H. Thus Td max =17+[255x14]-3= 3584 T states. For 0.5 µsec delay for a T state, we get Td max=0.5 µsec x 3584= 1792 µsec or 1.792 m sec.

8085 Memory Interfacing:

8085 Memory Interfacing Generally µ P 8085 can address 64 kB of memory . Generally EPROMS are used as program memory and RAM as data memory. We can interface Multiple RAMs and EPROMS to single µ P . Memory interfacing includes 3 steps : Select the chip. Identify register. Enable appropriate buffer.

8085 Memory Interfacing:

8085 Memory Interfacing Example: Interface 2Kbytes of Memory to 8085 with starting address 8000H . Initially we realize that 2K memory requires 11 address lines (2^11=2048). So we use A 0 -A 10 . Write down A 15 –A 0 A 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 ADD 8000H 87FFH

8085 Memory Interfacing:

8085 Memory Interfacing Address lines A 0 -A 10 are used to interface memory while A 11 ,A 12 ,A 13 ,A 14 ,A 15 are given to 3:8 Decoder to provide an output signal used to select the memory chip CS ¯or Chip select input. MEMR¯ and MEMW¯are given to RD¯and WR¯pins of Memory chip. Data lines D 0 -D 7 are given to D 0 -D 7 pins of the memory chip. In this way memory interfacing can be achieved.

8085 Memory Interfacing:

8085 Memory Interfacing The diagram of 2k interfacing is shown below: A15-A8 Latch AD7-AD0 D 7 - D 0 A 7 - A 0 8085 ALE IO/M RD WR 2K Byte Memory Chip WR RD CS A 10 - A 0 A 15 - A 11 3:8DECODER

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