The Language of Medicine Chabner Ch5 Ann...


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Chapter 5Digestive System : 

Chapter 5Digestive System Digestion: Absorption: Elimination: Great website: Food is broken down mechanically and chemically. Digested food passes into the bloodstream and nutrients travel to all cells of the body. Solid waste materials are removed from the body.



Slide 3: 


the oral cavity: the mouth : 

the oral cavity: the mouth teeth soft palate tonsil tongue lip gums hard palate uvula

Teeth : 

Teeth molar: 1,2,3,14,15,16 premolar : 4,5,12,13 canine: 6, 11 incisor: 7,8,9,10 1& 16 also called “wisdom teeth”

A Tooth : 

A Tooth dentin crown cementum pulp bone gingiva periodontal membrane root canal


SALIVARY GLANDS parotid sublingual submandibular

PHARYNX (throat) : 

PHARYNX (throat)


DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Copyright © 2005-2008 - Bernard Dery. All rights reserved.


DIGESTIVE SYSTEM SUMMARY Digestive system: set of organs involved in the digestion of food.Pharynx: part of the digestive tract between the mouth and the esophagus.Esophagus: part of the digestive tract between the larynx and the cardia of the stomach.Stomach: pocket-like part of the digestive tract, where food is mixed and stored.Pancreas (tail): gland connected to the digestive tract which produces digestive enzymes.Duodenum: beginning of the small intestine.Small intestine: part of the digestive tract between the stomach and the large intestine.Descending colon: part of the large intestine in which food travels downward.Sigmoid: last part of the descending colon.Anus: end of the large intestine, through which the human body expels solid waste.Rectum: last part of the large intestine, between the sigmoid colon and the anus.Appendix: hollow diverticulum fastened to the caecum.Cecum: blind gut formed by the part of the large intestine between the small intestine and the ascending colon.Ascending colon: part of the large intestine where food travels upward.Transverse colon: part of the large intestine where food travels horizontally.Gallbladder: small sac that contains the bile.Liver: digestive gland that produces bile.Tooth: organ set in the jaws and used to cut and crush food.Tongue: organ of taste.


VOCABULARY absorption anus appendix bile bilirubin bowel cecum passage of nutrients through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body pouch hanging from the cecum digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder pigment (color) released by the liver in bile intestine first part of the large intestine


VOCABULARY colon common bile duct defecation deglutition digestion duodenum elimination esophagus large intestine carries bile to the duodenum expulsion of feces through the anus swallowing breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms first part of small intestine removal of waste from the body tube that connects the throat to the stomach


VOCABULARY feces gallbladder Ileum incisor jejunum liver lower esophageal sphincter (LES) AKA stolid wastes; stools small sac under liver; stores bile third part of small intestine front tooth second part of small intestine large organ in RUQ of abdomen ring of muscles between esophagus and stomach, AKA cardiac sphincter also known as


VOCABULARY rectum rugae saliva salivary glands sigmoid colon sphincter stomach uvula villi last section of the colon ridges (hard palate, stomach wall) digestive juice produced by salivary gland glands that produce saliva lower part of colon ring of muscle fibers organ that receives food from esophagus tissue hanging from soft palate at the back of the mouth tiny projections in wall of small intestine that absorb nutrients


COMBINING FORMS -an/o perianal -append/o appendectomy -appendic/o appendicitis bucc/o buccal mucosa anus around the anus appendix removal of the appendix appendix inflammation of the appendix cheek mucosal lining of the cheek


COMBINING FORMS cec/o cecum cecal celi/o celiac cheil/o chelosis cholecyst/o cholecystectomy col/o, colon/o colostomy colonoscopy first part of the large intestine (colon) pouch at the beginning of the large intestine (colon) pertaining to the cecum abdomen pertaining to the abdomen lip scaling and cracking of the lips gallbladder removal of the gallbladder colon (large intestine) an opening from the colon to the outside of the body visual examination of the colon


COMBINING FORMS -dent/i -duoden/o -enter/o enterocolitis parenteral esophag/o esophageal faci/o facial tooth duodenum intestines (usually small) inflammation of the large & small intestines placed or happening outside the intestines esophagus pertaining to the esophagus face pertaining to the face


COMBINING FORMS gastr/o gastrostomy gingiv/o gingivitis gloss/o hypoglossal hepat/o hepatomegaly ile/o ileostomy stomach incision into the stomach gums inflammation of the gums tongue under the tongue liver enlarged liver ileum an artificial opening of the ileum into the anterior abdominal wall


COMBINING FORMS jejun/o jejunorrhaphy labi/o labial lapar/o laparoscopy lingu/o sublingual mandibul/o submandibular jejunum (small intestine) suture of the jejunum lip pertaining to the lip abdomen visual examination of the inside of the abdomen tongue under the tongue lower jaw under the lower jaw


COMBINING FORMS odont/o orthodontist or/o stomat/o oral palat/o palatoplasty pancreat/o pancreatitis peritone/o peritonitis tooth a dentist who straightens teeth mouth mouth pertaining to the mouth palate (roof of the mouth) repair of the palate pancreas inflammation of the pancreas peritoneum inflammation of the peritoneum


COMBINING FORMS proct/o proctologist pylor/o rect/o rectocele sigmoid/o sigmoidoscope stomat/o stomatitis anus and rectum specialist in treatment of the rectum pyloric sphincter: opening from the stomach into the intestine rectum herniation of the rectum into the vagina sigmoid colon an endoscope used to examine the sigmoid colon mouth inflammation of the mouth


COMBINING FORMS bil/ biliary bilirubin hyperbilirubinemia chol/e /lith/ cholelithiasis glu/co, gly/co glucosuria hyperglycemia gall, bile pertaining to bile and the organs making, storing, and releasing it bile pigment excess bilirubin in the blood gall/bile stone gallstones sugar sugar in the urine too much sugar in the blood


COMBINING FORMS lip/o lipoma lith/o cholelithiasis prote/o proteinuria fat tumor of fatty tissue stone gallstones protein protein in the urine


SUFFIXES -ase lipase -iasis cholelithiasis -prandial postprandial p.c. enzyme (a chemical that starts and regulates a process) an enzyme that aids in breaking down fats abnormal condition gallstones pertaining to a meal after a meal post cibum (after eating)


PATHOLOGY: SYMPTOMS anorexia ascites constipation diarrhea dysphagia eructation flatulence jaundice lack of appetite abnormal fluid in the abdomen difficultly in passing stools (feces) before eating frequent, loose, watery stools difficultly in swallowing belching, burping (gas is passed through the mouth) excessive gas in the stomach and intestines yellowish skin due to hyperbilirubinemia


PATHOLOGY: SYMPTOMS melena nausea steatorrhea black, tarry stools containing blood feeling that one wants to vomit fat in the feces


PATHOLOGY: CONDITIONS canker sores dental caries herpetic stomatitis oral leukoplakia periodontal disease, pyorrhea esophageal varices gastric carcinoma small, painful sores in the mouth tooth decay inflammation of the mouth with the herpes virus white plaques or patches in the mouth inflammation and degeneration of gums and teeth swollen varicose veins in the esophagus or stomach malignant tumor of the stomach


PATHOLOGY: CONDITIONS hernia peptic ulcer anal fistula diverticulosis dysentery hemorrhoids irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) protrusion of an organ or part through muscle open sore of the lining of the stomach or duodenum abnormal opening in the lining of the anus abnormal side pockets in the intestinal wall painful, inflamed intestines swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectum GI (gastrointestinal) symptoms related to stress


PATHOLOGY: CONDITIONS cholelithiasis cirrhosis pancreatitis gallstones in the gallbladder chronic disease of the liver inflammation of the pancreas

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