Production technology of Cabbage -- Ankit Gadhiya

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Production technology of Cabbage by Ankit Gadhiya Cultivation practices of Cabbage


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Wel -come  Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 1


ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry Navsari Agricultural University Navsari-396450 Production Technology Of Cabbage Speaker : Ankit Gadhiya Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 2


Content Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 3 Botanical classification I ntroduction Botany Cultivated forms of cabbage Cultivars of cabbage Climate Soil Seedling Bed Transplanting and spacing Fertilizer Irrigation Other practice Methods of Seed Production P lant protection Measures Harvest ing Yield Post harvest handling and storage Value added product N utritional values of cabbage References


Botanical classification Common Name: Cabbage Botanical Name: Brassica oleracea v ar. c apitata Linn. Family:   Cruciferae / Brassicaceae Chromosome no. : 2n=18 Origin : Western Europe & Mediterranean region. Edible Part: Head. 4 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 4


I ntroduction Cabbage is one of the most popular winter vegetables grown in India. It is difficult to trace the exact history of cabbage, but it was most likely domesticated somewhere in  before 1000 BC. Cabbage has been under cultivation since 2500 BC to 2000 BC. The major cabbage producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Assam, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Karnataka. Among these states West Bengal contributes 1.93 M MT of cabbage from 65,000 ha area with an average productivity of 29.6 MT/ha. 5 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 5


I ntroduction It is a biennial in nature having 2 specific periods of growth namely vegetative and reproductive phases to complete its life cycle. In the first season crop remains in the vegetative phase characterized by the formation of heads where as the reproductive phase is completed in the second season only after getting the necessary stimuli of low temperature of 4.4 0 C-10 0 C for about 5-7 days to break the dormancy of the heads. Cabbage is commonly used fresh as salad, boiled vegetable , cooked in curries and processed. 6 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 6


Botany 7 The word cabbage is derived from the French word ' coboche ', meaning head. A cabbage head is made up of numerous thick,overlapping smooth leaves which cover smooth terminal bud. Normally it is biennial but it is grown in India as annual crop. Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 7


Cabbage flowers are borne in terminal raceme, flowers are yellow in colour . The flowers are perfect, regular with 4 sepals, 4 petals, 6 stamens, ovary two celled with several ovules per cell. Cabbage starts flowering in the month of February- march or earlier. The stigma remains receptive for about 5 days before and 4 days after anthesis . 8 Floral Biology Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 8


Fruit of cabbage The fruit is a  siliqu a  that opens at maturity through  dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape.   Cabbage fruits is siliqua , having a thin partition dividing it lengthwise, along with it dehisce when fully mature and dry. Pod contains about 12-20 seeds. Self-pollination is impossible, and plants are cross-pollinated by insects . 9 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 9


Cultivated forms of cabbage White cabbage : Brassica oleraceae v ar. c apitata L . f. alba White (also called Dutch) – Smooth, pale green leaves . 10 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 10


Green cabbage Green cabbage : B rassica oleracea var. capitata L . Light to dark green, slightly pointed heads . This is the most commonly grown cultivar . H eads that are heavy for their size (which can range from softball to almost basketball size), with tightly packed, moist looking leaves. The queen of slaws, green cabbage can stand up to even the heaviest, creamiest, or spiciest of dressings. 11 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 11


Savoy cabbage Savoy cabbage : Brassica oleraceae v ar. sabauda L . I t is also known as curly cabbage. With deeply ridged leaves, Savoy cabbages are perhaps the  prettiest  cabbages around. Characterized by crimped or curly leaves, mild flavor and tender texture . The leaves are more loosely layered and less tightly packed than green or red cabbage, although its uses are similar. It is delicious thinly sliced in salads or quickly stir-fried. 12 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 12


Red cabbage Red cabbage : Brassica oleraceae v ar. c apitata L. f. rubra Smooth red leaves, often used for pickling or stewing . I t looks like green cabbage except it's red. Red cabbage heads tend to be a bit smaller than green cabbages, but look for similarly tightly packed, moist-looking leaves and heads that feel heavy for their size. 13 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 13


Spring Greens Spring Greens  – B rassica oleracea var. acephala L. Loose-headed, commonly sliced and steamed . The central leaves do not form a head or form only a very loose one. 14 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 14


Napa cabbage Napa cabbage: Bassica rapa sub-sp. pekinensis L . I t is sometimes called Chinese cabbage or celery cabbage. Napa cabbage doesn't look like head cabbages. It has long light green leaves that flower off of thick, white stalks. It looks a bit like a cross between romaine lettuce and pale Swiss chard. 15 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 15

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Bok Choy Bok Choy: Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis L . I t has distinct leaves growing from a central stalk. It looks a fair amount like Swiss chard but with pale green stalks and leaves. 16 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 16


Brussels Sprouts Brussels Sprouts: Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera L . I t just look like tiny cabbages . T hey will keep for several weeks if chilled. 17 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 17


C ultivars b ased on maturity time Earl yseason : It takes 60-70 days for maturity. e.g., Golden Acre, Pride of India, Copenhagen Market and Early Drumhead. Mid- season: Cabbage comes to harvest at 80-90 days. e.g., All Head Early, Wisconsin, All Green September. Late season: Require long winter season comes to harvest at 90-120 days . E .g., Pusa Drum Head, Indian Eclipse, Danish Ball Head, Late Flat and Dutch Sure Head. 18 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 18


Cu ltivars b ased on shape of heads Round head or Ball Head type (early): Golden Acre, Pride of India, Copenhagen Market, Mimmothi , Rock Red and Express. Flat head or Drumhead type (Late): Pusa Drumhead. Conical head (early to mid season): Jersy Wake Field Savoy type (late varieties): Chieftain . 19 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 19


20 Some images of cabbage cultivar Golden Acre Pride of India Chieftain All Head Cabbage Danish Ball Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 20


Climate Cabbage is a cool season crop. It grows well at the temperature of 15°C - 25°C. Optimum t emp. for germination is 25-30°C. Plants grow weak under high temperature conditions. However, some heat – tolerant varieties can grow well in a hot and rainy season. 21 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 21


Soil Cabbage thrives best on deep loam or sandy loam soil with pH 6- 7, rich in organic matter and good drainage. 22 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 22


Seedling Bed Apply 480 Kg. of dry manure in to a  Seedling bed  of 160 m², and then sow the seed on the seedbed. The seeds are sown in raised nursery beds. They are sown in August-September for the early crop and in September-October for the late crop. Usually 120 gm. seeds are required for one acre. This should produce sufficient seedlings for one acre of field.   The seed rate is 500 g/ha for the early crop and 375 g/ha for the late crop. Four to six weeks old seedlings areused for transplantation. 23 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 23


Transplanting and spacing Transplant the seedlings at 4- 5 true leaves stage, about 25 days after sowing. Usually space them 45 cm apart in double rows of 45-60 cm apart on each bed of 90- 100 cm wide. Spacing: Early maturity - Row to Row :45 cm Plant to Plant : 30 cm Late Maturity - Row to Row :60cm, Plant to Plant : 45 cm 24 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 24


Fertilizer It is better to use urea instead of Ammonium Sulphate where the soil is relatively acidic. If the soil is boron deficient, 5 –10 kg/ha borax should be applied before land preparation. For basal fertilizer, manure should be applied into the rows before chemical fertilizer. 25 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 25


Fertilizer Chemical Fertilizer  : Fertilizer application varies with soil fertility. Basal application before transplanting : 25:50:60 NPK kg / acre.   First top dressing 10-15 days after transplanting: 25:50:60 NPK kg / acre.     Second application 20 – 25 days after first top dressing: 25:00:00 NPK kg / acre. Third application 10-15 days after second application: 25:00:00 NPK kg / acre. Boron & Molybdenum should be sprayed at button stage. 26 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 26


Irrigation Cabbage cannot tolerant drought. Therefore irrigation should be applied frequently and evenly, especially in the head developing period. Uneven soil moisture can cause fluctuations in the uptake of nutrients and lead to tip burn or head-splitting. Drip irrigation is the most suitable method of irrigation, which provides uniform supply of water. Daily irrigation or on alternate days with On-line type of drippers is preferred. 27 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 27


Other practices S taking : To keep the plants in an upright position. Rouging : First at the time of handling of mature heads. The second rouging is done before the head start bursting. A ll off type plants, diseased or undesirable plants are removed. Pruning : It is necessary to remove the side shoots as soon as possible. 28 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 28


Other practices Weeding : Weeds must be removed as early as possible by hoeing but not too deep to damage the roots. Hoeing should not be done during the latter part of the growing season.  Herbicide   can be used for weed control in the cabbage field. Plastic mulch is also effective in restricting weed population. 29 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 29


Mulching : Straw mulching should be applied after transplanting to prevent soil erosion during the rainy season. B lack plastic mulch is also useful in cabbage. 30 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 30


31 Different Types of Mulching in Cabbage Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 31


Methods of Seed Production Being a biennial, the cabbage requires two seasons to produce seed. In the first season the heads are produce, and in the following season seed production follows. The seed crop can be left in situ or transplanted during autumn. In situ method is usually followed for certified seed production and the latter for nucleus production. 32 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 32


Conti. In the in situ method , the crop is allowed to over-winter and produce seed in their original position, that is, where they are first planted in the seedling stage. In the transplanting method , the mature plants are uprooted. After removing whorls the plants are immediately reset in a well-prepared new field, in such a way that the whole stem below the head goes underground with the head resting just above the surface. 33 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 33


Methods to produce seed of cabbage. Stump Method: In this method, when the crop in the first season is fully mature, the heads are examined for trueness to type. The plants with off-type heads are removed. Then heads are cut just below the base by means of a sharp knife, keeping the stem with outer whorl of leaves intact. The beheaded portion of the plant is called “stump”. The heads are marketed and the stumps either are left in situ, or replanted in the second season i.e., during autumn. The following spring, after the dormancy is broken, the buds sprout from the axils of all the leaves and leaf scars. 34 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 34


Advantages: 1. Gives extra income by way of sale of heads. 2. The crop matures twelve to fifteen days earlier than the head intact method. 3. Seed yield is slightly increased. Disadvantages: In this method, flowering shoots are decumbent and require very heavy staking, otherwise they breakdown very easily while inter culturing or spraying. 35 Advantages and Disadvantage of Stump Method Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 35


Stump with Central Core Intact Method In this method, when the crop is fully mature in the first season. The heads are examined for trueness to type. Plants with off-type heads are removed and rejected. Then the heads are chopped on all sides with downward perpendicular cuts in such a way that the central core is not damaged. During the last week of February and until 15th March when the heads start bursting, two vertical cross-cuts are given to the head, taking care that the central growing point is not injured. 36 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 36


Advantage & Disadvantage In the absence of such cuts, the heads burst out irregularly and sometimes the growing tip is broken. The operation is completed by going around the field twice or thrice during this period. Advantages: 1. Shoots arising from the main stem are not decumbent, hence very heavy staking is not required. 2. Seed yield is increased. Disadvantages: 1. The chopped heads cannot be marketed. 37 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 37


Head Intact Method In this method, when the crop is fully mature in the first season the heads are examined for trueness to type. The plants with off-type heads are removed from the field. The head is kept intact and only a cross-cut is given to facilitate the emergence of a stalk. Advantages: 1. The removal of heads (stump method) or chopping of heads on all sides (central core intact method) is not required. This saves time and labour . 2. Very heavy staking is not required. Disadvantages: 1. The seed yield is slightly low as compared to stump, or stump with central core intact method. 38 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 38


P lant protection Measures Diseases of cabbage: 1) Club root of c abbage : Plasmodiophora brassicae Symptoms : Characteristic symptoms become apparent in advanced stage of root infection as spindle like, spherical, knobby, or club-shaped swellings. The swellings may be few, or they coalesce and cover the entire root system . Management : H ave a pH slightly above neutral (usually about pH 7.2) Add hydrated lime to soil to increase pH to 7.2 ( 6weeks before planting @2.5T/ha) 39 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 39


2) Downy Mildew – Peronospora parasitica Symptoms : Small purplish brown spots on under surface of leaves . Small, pale yellow angular spots on upper surface of leaves, with downy growth on the under surface. Management : Destruction of infected plant debris . Avoidance of thick sowing and excessive moist conditions . Spray Metalaxyl @ 0.25% or COC@ 0.3% or Mancozeb @ 0.2% at 10 days interval . 40 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 40


3 ) Alternaria leaf spot: Alternaria brassicola Symptoms : Spots are small, dark coloured . Spots develop concentric rings . Management : Hot water treatment at 50 0 c for 30min . Seed treatment with agrosan Foliar spray with Mancozeb @ 0.2% or COC @ 0.3% . 41 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 41


4 ) Black rot – Xanthomonas campestris pv . Campestris Symptoms : 1st appear near the leaf margins as chlorotic or yellow (angular) areas . The yellow area extends to veins & mid rib forming characteristic ‘v’ shaped chlorotic spots . Management : ST with Hg Cl 2 solution for 30 min or Agrimycin or Aureomycin 0.01% . R.V: Cabbage: Cabaret, Defender, Gladiator, Pusa Muktha . 42 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 42


5 ) White rust – Albugo candida ( Syn : Cystopus candidus ) Symptoms : White, shiny raised blisters (pustules) on the lower surfaces of leaves, stems & flowers. Management : Sanitary measures . Crop rotation . Spray 0.8% B.M or any copper fungicide. 43 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 43


P est of cabbage 1 ) Cruciferous flea beetle  - Phyllotreta cruciferae Flea beetles feeding on emerging cabbage crops cause seedling death, uneven growth and maturity. Control measures include crop rotations of more than three years with non-cruciferous crops . Flea beetles can be controlled chemically by using foliar applied Matador, Sevin . 44 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 44


2 ) Cabbage Maggot - ( Delia radicum ) I t feeds on the roots of the host plants . Cabbage maggots can severely stunt growth or kill seedlings, and can lower quality and reduce yields of more mature plants. The main chemical control for cabbage maggots is an insecticide drench placed near the seed at planting. Control products include foliar applied Lorsban , Pyrinex , or Sniper. 45 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 45


3) Cabbage Worm and Cabbage Looper / cabbage butterfly   Cabbage worm larvae chew large holes in the leaves and head of cabbages . The main chemical control is repeated foliar applications of the one of the following products: Diazinon , Endosulfan , Lannate , Malathion . 46 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 46


4) Diamondback Moth  - ( Plutella xylostella ) Larvae chew irregular patterns into the lower leaves. The larvae may also into the head of the cabbage, hurting its market potential. Control measures include : Monitoring the crop for arrival of adults and eradicating any cruciferous plants, including weeds and the refuse left over from early harvests of cruciferous crops. Chemical controls include Diazinon , Dipel , Dylox , Endosulfan , Lannate . 47 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 47


P hisiological disorder in cabbage 1 ) Internal Tip burn : Tip burn is a nonpathogenic internal disorder that is associated with the death of leaf tissue, usually along the leaf margins in the interior of the head. The affected tissue loses moisture and takes on a papery appearance. T h is problem was associated with excessive nitrogen fertilization , by a lack of Ca in the soil . 48 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 48


Tip burn Perhaps the most promising control of tip burn is through the development of resistant varieties. 49 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 49


2) Black Petiole As heads approach maturity, the dorsal side of the internal leaf petioles or midribs turns dark gray or black at or near the point where the midrib attaches to the core. T his disorder is associated with a potassium (K)-phosphorus (P) imbalance and results when the K level in the soil is low and the P concentration high. High rates of nitrogen may contribute to the problem. 50 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 50


Black Petiole C ontrol : D evelopment of resistant varieties. B alance fertilization of N, P & K. 51 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 51

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3) Black speck /Pepper Spot Development of individual specks, randomly distributed over the leaf, begins at the stomata on either side of the leaf. It occurs with varying severity on the outer leaves of the head, but often can be seen deep in the center of the head. It usually becomes visible only after cabbage has been stored under cool conditions for a period of time. Although the cause is unknown, high rates of fertilizer, cultural conditions promoting vigorous growth, and temperature fluctuations have been reported to increase plant susceptibility. 52 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 52


3) Black speck /Pepper Spot High rates of potassium in the soil have been shown to significantly reduce the severity of the disease. 53 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 53


4) Cabbage splitting Cabbage splitting is mainly a problem with early cabbage. A problem can develop when moisture stress is followed by heavy rain. The rapid growth rate associated with rain, high temperatures and high fertility cause the splitting. Proper irrigation may help prevent splitting. 54 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 54


Harvest ing Cabbage is usually harvested when the heads reach full size and are firm. However, for the early market heads are harvested as soon as they have attained sufficient size since price is usually more important th a n size. When harvesting cabbage, pull back the two or three outer wrapper leaves. Then, with a sharp knife, cut the stem at the base of the cabbage. Be careful when handling cabbage so as to not damage the product. Damaged outer leaves can be removed. This will allow the product to still be marketed, but it reduces the weight of the head. Pack the heads when the cuts are dry. 55 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 55


Harvesting seed and Threshing Cabbage starts seed stalk elongation from 10-20th March when the mean temperature rises to 10-13 0 C. Flowering and pod formation starts during the first week of April at mean temperature of 13-18.5 0 C. From 15th April to 15th May, the crop is in full flush of flowering and fruiting. The ripening of pods commences by 15th June to 20th June and the harvesting continues up to second week of July. At mean temperatures below 20 0 C during June and July, the maturity of crop is delayed at least by a fortnight and the harvesting may continue up to July end. 56 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 56


To avoid shattering of seeds, the whole crop is harvested in two or three lots with sickles. Generally, the early plants are harvested first and when the pod colour in about 60-70 per cent of the rest of the crop changes to yellowish-brown it is harvested completely and piled up for curing. After 4-5 days, it is turned upside down and allowed to cure for another 4-5 days, in the same way. It is then threshed with sticks and sifted with hand sifters. After thoroughly drying the seeds they are cleaned and stored. Seed yield: 500 to 650 kg per hectare . 57 Harvesting seed and Threshing Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 57


Yield T he yield of cabbage variety from 15 to 25 tons per hectare. The yield of cabbage depends upon the variety, growing season and management practices, Hybrid cabbage yields upto 50 tonner per hectare . The yield of early varieties ranges between 12 to 15 tones/ha. The yield of late season varieties is about 20 to 25 tones /ha. 58 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 58


Post harvest handling and storage Cabbages stored at 0°C and at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity (1°C for processing cabbages) will last for four to six months depending on the cultivar. Temperatures lower than 0°C will cause freezing damage. Cabbage will shrink during extended storage, and the outer leaves may shrivel. The outer leaves can be trimmed, increasing weight loss in the stored crop. Grade-out or cull any heads that are diseased before they enter storage. All cabbages should be clean before going into storage. Cabbage can be sold in Canada under the following grades: Canada No. 1 and Canada No. 2. 59 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 59


Value added product Sauerkraut is a fermented cabbage dish. Sauerkraut  , directly translated: "sour cabbage", is finely cut  cabbage  that has been fermented by various  Lactic acid bacteria, including  leuconostoc , etc. It has a long shelf-life and a distinctive sour flavor. It is used to cure scurvy. 60 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 60


REFERENCES   Delahaut , K.A. and Newenhouse , A.C . (1997).  "Growing broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and other cole crops in Wisconsin (PDF). University of Wisconsin. p. 1. Retrieved 2012-08-12., " Brassica oleracea  L. – Cabbage“. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2012-08-10. Dixon, Geoffrey R. (2007).  Vegetable Brassicas and Related Crucifers . Crop Production Science in Horticulture. Volume 14. CAB International. ISBN 978-0-85199-395-9 61 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari 61


Thank you 62 Ankit D Gadhiya, NAU, Navsari

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