Chilli thrips by Ankit Gadhiya

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complete details, Seminar on Chilli thrips, Complete study of Chilli thrips by Ankit D Gadhiya, From Aspee College of Horticulture and forestry, N.A.U, Navsari

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PowerPoint Presentation:

Welcome

PowerPoint Presentation:

Chilli Thrips Submitted To Dr. K. D. Parmar Ankit Gadhiya Reg No : 2-159-2009 Aspee college of Horticulture and Forestry 9 72 72 5 71 72 S.N : Scirtothrips dorsalis

PowerPoint Presentation:

Content - Introduction -Eco. Important -Host Range -Minor Host -Area & Distribution -Yield loss -ETL -Scientific classification -Marks of I.D -Life cycle -Nature of Damage -Vector -Management -References

Introduction:

Thrips cause serious economic losses in many agricultural systems each year including vegetables and ornamentals. Scirtothrips dorsalis is a widespread pest, described as a new species by Hood in 1919. S. dorsalis is a very small (0.5 to 1.2 mm), pale yellow-colored thrips that can be found feeding on leaves, flowers, and calyxes of fruit on a wide variety of host crops. It is difficult to recognize this thrips with the naked eye, and definitive identification is best accomplished at approximately 40 to 80 x magnification. Introduction

Economic important:

Economic important According to Mound and Palmer (1981), S. dorsalis is a pest of strawberries in Queensland, Australia; a pest of tea in Taiwan; a major pest of citrus in Japan and Taiwan (Chiu et al. 1991, Tatara and Furuhushi 1992, Tschuchiya et al 1995); cotton in the Ivory Coast ( Bournier 1999); soybeans in Indonesia (Miyazaki et al.1984) and a serious pest of chillies and castor bean in India. It is a major pest of peanuts in several states in India (Mound and Palmer 1981). Severe infestations of S. dorsalis can result in total defoliation and potentially heavy crop loss. Ananthakrishnan (1984) also reports damage to the following hosts: cashew, tea, chillies , cotton, tomato, mango, castor bean, tamarind, and grape.

Host Range:

Host Range Scirtothrips dorsalis is a polyphagous species with more than 100 recorded hosts from about 40 different families It is a significant pest of chilli pepper, Tomato, sun flower, mango, citrus, castor bean, cotton, onion, and other crops in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, eastern Europe and Japan .

Minor Host:

Minor Host Okra, Asparagus, Cucumber, water melon, Pumpkin, Soybean, Balsam, Bean, Mung bean, Brinjal .

Area and Distribution:

Area and Distribution Asia: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Africa: Ivory Coast and South Africa. NorthAmerica : United States (Florida, Hawaii, and Texas). Oceania: Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands.

Area and Distribution:

Area and Distribution

Yield loss:

Yield loss Yield losses attributable to S. dorsalis in chilli have ranged from 20% ( Ahamad et al., 1987) to nearly 50% ( Sanap and Nawale , 1987; Varadharajan and Veeravel , 1996).

ETL (Economic threshold Level):

ETL (Economic threshold Level) 3 Nymphs or adult per leaf ETL : (Economic threshold Level) The level at which control measure should be undertaken otherwise it will cause significant economic loss.

Scientific Classification:

Scientific Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Super order :Exopterygota Order : Thysanoptera Genus : Scirtothrips Species : dorsalis

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification Eggs: Typically oval, whitish to yellowish, narrow anteriorly. Eggs are about 0.075 mm long and 0.070 mm wide, and are inserted inside plant tissue.

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification Larvae: Two larval stages (first and second instar ) last for 6 to 7 days. The larvae are off-white in color. First instar : transparent; body short, legs longer; antennae short, swollen; mouth cone bent and short; and antennae seven-segmented and cylindrical. (CABI*, 2007) *Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification 1 st Instars

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification 1 st Instars

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification Second instar : Antennae longer, cylindrical, seven-segmented; mouth cone longer; three-segmented; body setae longer than the first instars; head and thorax reticulate with sclerotization of head (CABI, 2007).

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification 2 nd Instars

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification Pre-pupae : Yellowish; antennae swollen, short, with distinct segmentation; two pairs of external wing buds on each meso - and metathorax (CABI, 2007). The pre- pupal period is short (~24 hours).

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification Pre pupa

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification Pupae: Dark yellow with eyes and ocelli bearing red pigmentation; wing buds are elongate; antennae short and reflected over the head; female pupae with larger pointed abdomen; males have a smaller, blunt abdomen (CABI, 2007). The pupal period lasts 2 to 3 days.

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification Pupal Stage

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification Adults: Almost white on emergence, turning yellowish subsequently with incomplete dark stripes on the dorsal surface where the adjacent abdominal segments meet.

Marks of Identification:

Marks of Identification Adult

Mixed Stages of Chilli Thrips:

Mixed Stages of Chilli Thrips 1 st instars 2 nd instars Adult

Male and Female (larger):

Male and Female (larger)

Adult:

Adult

Development Egg to Egg (Days):

Development Egg to Egg (Days)

Life cycle:

Life cycle The pest is active throughout the year except during the monsoon season. A female lay about 45 to 50 eggs inside the tissues of the leaves and shoots. Eggs hatch in 4-9 days. The larva/Nymph start feeding and Larval/ Nymphal period lasts for 4-6 days. After larval/ Nymphal stage they descend to the ground and pupate at the depth of 25 mm. Pupal stage last for 3-6 days. Entire life cycle is completed in 15-40 days. It has several overlapping generations in a year.

Life cycle:

Life cycle

Life Stages:

Life Stages

Nature of Damage:

Nature of Damage Chilli thrips attacks all the above ground parts of its host plants. It prefers young leaves, buds and fruits. Thrips feed by roughly rubbing ( rasping ) emerging and new plant parts. The lacerating breaks plant tissue that oozes sap on which the insect feeds. Feeding may cause leaves to curl upward and become distorted appearing much like herbicide damage. Feeding also causes leaf, bud, and fruit tissue to turn bronze in color . Infested plants become stunted and severe infestations can result in total defoliation of the host. The symptoms may be confused for a fungal disease.

Damage:

Damage

Damage:

Damage

Vector:

Vector Scirtothrips dorsalis also possesses strong viruliferous behavior for seven recorded viruses. This species transmits Chilli leaf curl (CLC) virus , and peanut necrosis virus (PBNV) (Mound and Palmer 1981, Ananthakrishnan 1993). In 2003, Rao et al. found chilli thrips as vectors of tobacco streak virus (TSV) in groundnut crops in India. Recently, in Thailand its role as a vector of three tospoviruses (i.e., melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), watermelon silver mottle virus ( WsMoV ), and capsicum chlorosis virus ( CaCV ) in field crops was confirmed ( Chiemsombat et al. 2008).

Management:

Management 1 ) Cultural Method : Deep ploughing to expose the pupa from soil Summer Soil Solarization. Use nylon net in nursery to protect seedling from Thrips infestation and reduce Leaf curl incidence.

Management:

Management 2 ) Mechanical : Collection and destruction of infected plant and plant part

Management:

Management 3) Biological control  Natural enemies : 1) Predatory thrips : S. indicus, Franlinothrips megalops 2) Predatory bugs : Geocoris ochropterus 3) Preadatory mite : Neoseiulus cucumeris 4) Predatory mite : Amblyseius swirskii

PowerPoint Presentation:

Table 1

Management:

Management 4) Chemical control : Seed treatment with imidacloprid 70 WS @ 2.5 gm/kg of seed to protect the crop from infestation up to 25-30 days Root dipping of seedling in imidacloprid @ 2.5 ml/ 10 lit water before planting gives protection for 30 days. Apply carbofuran 3 G @ 17 kg/ha around the plant base after 15 days of transplanting. Foliar spray of thiamethoxam @ 50 gm a.i / ha during pre-flowering stage and during fruiting stage. In severe infestation spray diafenthiron 50 WP @ 10 g or Spinosad 45 SC @ 3 ml /10 lit of water.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Anand (2003) B. H. PATEL, D. J. KOSHIYA et al. 2

PowerPoint Presentation:

3 Anand (2003) B. H. PATEL, D. J. KOSHIYA et al.

References:

References Anonymous, 2003, Vegetable Research in Gujarat, 1972 to 2003, Main Vegetable Research Station, A.A.U. Anand, Gujarat (India). https://www.wpdn.org/common/news_events/scirtothrips_dorsalis/Scirtothrips_dorsalis_NPAG_et_Report_060310.pdf http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/thripslinks.htm

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