History of India

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Area - 3.28 million square kilometers Coast line – 7516 kms 29 STATES , 5 UNION TERRITORRIES Population – 1,156,897,766 population GROWTH RATE – 1.407 PCNT 325 SPOKEN LANGUAGES 18 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES 1652 DIALECTS 2ND BIGGEST CONTRY IN POPULATION

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3 PARTS : 

3 PARTS Ancient Civilization Kingdoms European Rule

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Ancient Civilization 3300 bc – 500 bc The Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro civilization 3300 bc – 1300 bc Aryan civilization 2500 bc – 322 bc Vedic age 1200 bc – 500 bc

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Kingdoms The Mouryas Gupta Period Muslim Period 322 bc – 1700 ad 322 bc – 188 bc 320 ad – 647 ad 1175 ad – 1707 ad

Early CivilizationsofAncient India : 

Early CivilizationsofAncient India

Indus Valley : 

Indus Valley The harappan culture existed along the Indus River in what is Present day Pakistan. It was named after the city of Harappa. Harappa and the city of mohenja-daro were important centers of the Indus Valley civilization. This indus valley Civilization flourished around 3300 bc – 1300 bc

Natural Resources : 

Natural Resources The indus valley contained numerous natural resources that were important of harappan civilization. Resources Included: Fresh water and timber. Materials such as gold, silver, semi precious stones. Marine Resources.

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Great bath

people : 

people male priest

Early harappan – Ravi phase 3300 bc – 2800 bc : 

Early harappan – Ravi phase 3300 bc – 2800 bc This distinctive, regional culture which emerged is called early or pre- harappan. Trade networks linked this culture with related regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials, including lapis lauzil and other materials for bead-making. Domesticated crops include peas, sesame seeds, dates and cotton. Domestic animals also used, such as water buffalo. Mud brick for building.

Middle harappan – integration era 2600 bc – 1900 bc : 

Middle harappan – integration era 2600 bc – 1900 bc By 2500 bce, communities had been turned into urban centers (integration). Six such urban centers have been discovered including : harappa, mohenja-daro and dicki in pakistan, along with gonorreala, dokalingam and manglore in india. In total, over 1052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the ghaggar-florence river and its tributaries.

Male skeleton : 

Male skeleton

Female skeleton : 

Female skeleton

Late harappan – cemetry h 1700 bc – 1300 bc : 

Late harappan – cemetry h 1700 bc – 1300 bc Expansion of setttlements into the east. Rice became a main crop. Continued use of mud brick for building. Cremation of human remains. The bones were stored in painted pottery burial urns. This is completely different to the indus civilization where bodies were buried in wooden coffins.apparent breakdown of the widespread trade of the indus civilization with materials such as marine shells no longer used.

Burial urns : 

Burial urns

Harappan script still undecipherable : 

Harappan script still undecipherable

Collapse of harappan civilization : 

Collapse of harappan civilization Intense flodding Decrease in population Dessication of sarasvati river Aryan invasion Four theories of collapse :

Aryans : 

Aryans Group of nomadic tribes who had originally inhabited central asia. Tall, faor haired, with clear cut features, they setted in punjab in indus valley region. Fought with the original people of the indus valley civilization who were dar sin and nown as dasyus or dravidians. The superiority of aryans resulted in the dravidian submission and retirement to the south.

Aryan migration : 

Aryan migration

Sanskrit writing : 

Sanskrit writing

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The aryan society was very well organized, ruled by monarch. Practiced the four vedas. Caste system was introduced and practiced based on one’s profession: Brahmins: priests, teachers, intellectuals Shatriyas: warriors, soldiers Vashya: traders, merchants, peasants Shudras: people in service of others Outcastes: the untouchables Aryan period is washed out the end of 322 bc

Cultural impact of aryans: : 

Cultural impact of aryans: The culture of aryan period exist today and has been an integral part of hindus all oner the world. All hindus accept vedas as their most sacred scripture. Hindu religion originated with aryans. With the invasion of persian kings cyrus and darius in the 500 bc there were significant changes and commingling of aryan and persian culture

The vedic age : 

The vedic age The foundations for hinduism were established

The vedas : 

The vedas 1200 bce - 600 bce Written in sansrit Hindu core of beliefs: Hymns and poems Religious prayers Magical spells List of gods and goddesses Rigveda – oldest wor

The caste system : 

The caste system Who is the . . . The mouth ? The arms ? The legs ? The feet ? What is jati ?

Kingdoms : 


The mouryan empire : 

The mouryan empire

The mouryans : 

The mouryans The first empire to successfully unite most of the subcontinent is the mourya which ruled from 322 bc – 188 bc

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Founder : chandra gupta mourya Advisor : kautilya Chandra gupta, the great defeated the persian general selucs Divided his empire into provinces, then districts, for tax assessments and law enforcement. He feared assassination In 3o1 bc he gave up his throne and became a jain

asoka : 

asoka Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of kalinga. Dedicated his life to buddhism Extension of roads Plantation of trees Buddhist principles dominate his laws

Cultural impact of the mouryans : 

Cultural impact of the mouryans Origin of non violence in india Asoka promoted non violence along with Buddhism Spread of Buddhism to the neighboring countries of china, thailand, japan etc…, Education and intellectual movement World’s first university is established

The gupta empire : 

The gupta empire

Gupta rulers : 

Gupta rulers The gupta period is known as golden age of indIa Era of the most advanced civilization, flush with wealth, higher education, trade with foreign countreis and overall happy life. Period of hindu renaissance

Extensive trade : 

Extensive trade

Gupta art : 

Gupta art

Impact of gupta period : 

Impact of gupta period Showed preference to hindu religion Music, architecture, sculptures, paintings were at its best. Various copper status images of buddha reflect the craftsmanship of the gupta period.

Islam arrives in India : 

Islam arrives in India

turks period : 

turks period turks from central asia invadede india and ruled from 1175 to 1340 ad. attracted by india’s wealth, looted and destroyed temples. More interested in wealth rather than politics and were soon replaced by mughals. The turks’ dominance in 1526 with the invasion of mughals from central asia

Babur akbar : 

Babur akbar

Muslim period : 

Muslim period nomadic people of central asia. The first invader was babur, related to genghis khan. He defeated rajputs and afghans and ruled in india Babur’s successors: akbar and shahjahan are the most prominent in indian history. Akbar is known to be the first muslim empire to unite the muslims and the hindus and marrying a hindu woman Shahjahan is nown in history fir building the world famous minument tajmahal.

Declining of the mughal : 

Declining of the mughal slaAurangazeb’s reign begins the decline of mughalindia he was an orthodox muslim who reinstituted the jizyahand attempted to conquer the deccan.

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The British East India Company: 1700 - 1947

British East India Company Agents : 

British East India Company Agents 1-E

Coins of the British East India Co. : 

Coins of the British East India Co. 1719 coin 1804 coin

Coffee House in British India : 

Coffee House in British India

Sepoy soldiers : 

Sepoy soldiers 1-F

Why wasBritainso successfulin Indiaby the endof the 18c?? : 

Why wasBritainso successfulin Indiaby the endof the 18c?? 1-I

Sir Warren Hastings : 

Sir Warren Hastings r. 1773 - 1784

India in mid-18c : 

India in mid-18c

Lord Cornwallis : 

Lord Cornwallis r. 1786 - 1793 1-J

Lord Bentinck : 

Lord Bentinck r. 1828 - 1835 1-K

British Soldiers in India, 1830s : 

British Soldiers in India, 1830s

British Opium Warehouse in Patna, India : 

British Opium Warehouse in Patna, India Selling Patna Opium in China

Lord Dalhousie : 

Lord Dalhousie r. 1848 - 1856 1-L

India: 18c-early 19c : 

India: 18c-early 19c

Execution of Sepoys:“The Devil’s Wind” : 

Execution of Sepoys:“The Devil’s Wind”

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The Raj: "Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire

1876: Queen Victoria Becomes “Empress of India” : 

1876: Queen Victoria Becomes “Empress of India” 2-D

Queen Victoria in India : 

Queen Victoria in India PAX BRITANNICA

Bengal Medical Service, 1860 : 

Bengal Medical Service, 1860

A LifeofLeisure! : 

A LifeofLeisure!

Chartered Bank of Calcutta, 1915 : 

Chartered Bank of Calcutta, 1915

Vasco da gama : 

Vasco da gama

Why vasco da gama discovered india? : 

Why vasco da gama discovered india?

What were the BENEFITS of British rule in India?? : 

What were the BENEFITS of British rule in India?? 2-F

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The Rise of Indian Nationalism

the Indian National Congress : 

the Indian National Congress 1885  The Indian National Congress was founded in Bombay. swaraj  “independence.” * the goal of the movement.

Jawaharlal nehru : 

Jawaharlal nehru 1889 - 1964

the Muslim League : 

the Muslim League 1905  partition of Bengal based on religions and languages. 1906  creation of the Muslim League.

Mohammed Ali Jinnah : 

Mohammed Ali Jinnah 1876 - 1948

Young Mohandas K. Gandhi, 1876 : 

Young Mohandas K. Gandhi, 1876 1869 - 1948

Salt March, 1930 : 

Salt March, 1930 MakingSalt

Gandhi spinning cloth : 

Gandhi spinning cloth Indian weaving was ruined by the competition of British machine-made textiles!

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The End of the Raj: August 15, 1947

Last Viceroy of India : 

Last Viceroy of India Lord Louis & Lady Edwina Montbatten

Partition! : 


References cited: : 

References cited: http://www.pppst.com http://www.indianhistory.com http://www.geocites.com http://en.wikipedia.org http://www.britishindia.com

thank you : 

thank you

By: : 

By: Amzad ali . E

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