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Definitions of the three pillars and relationship among the three Significant methods of measurement of each one of them Challenges in implementation of these norms Indian scenarioWhat is "Basel III": What is "Basel III " A global regulatory standard on bank capital adequacy stress testing and market liquidity risk With a set of reform measures to improve Regulation supervision and risk managementReasons for formulation of Basel III : ( failure of basel II ) R easons for formulation of Basel IIIPowerPoint Presentation: Reducing profitability of small banks and threat of takeover Lack of comprehensive approach to address risks Self-regulation in area of asset securitization Lack of safety Inability to strengthen the stability of financial system Failure to achieve large capital reductions Failure in enhancing the competitive equality amongst banksAim : Aim To minimize the probability of recurrence of crises to greater extent To improve the banking sector's ability to absorb shocks arising from financial and economic stress. To improve risk management and governance To strengthen banks' transparency and disclosures .Target: Target Bank-level, or micro prudential, regulation, which will help raise the resilience of individual banking institutions to periods of stress . Macro prudential, system wide risks that can build up across the banking sector as well as the procyclical amplification of these risks over time .Micro- prudential elements: Micro- prudential elements To minimize the risk contained with individual institutions The elements are: Definition of capital Enhancing risk coverage of capital leverage ratio International liquidity frameworkMacro- prudential elements: Macro- prudential elements T o take care of the issues relating to the systemic risk The elements are: Leverage ratio Capital conservation buffer Countercyclical capital buffer Addressing the procyclicality of provisioning requirementsCont’d: Cont’d Addressing interconnectedness Addressing the too- big to- fail problems Addressing reliance on external credit rating agencies.Definition of the three pillars: Definition of the three pillarsPowerPoint Presentation: Pillar 1- Minimum Capital Requirements calculate required capital Required capital based on Market risk Credit risk Operational risk Used to monitor funding concentrationPowerPoint Presentation: Pillar 2- Supervisory Review Process Bank should have strong internal process Adequacy of capital based on risk evaluationPowerPoint Presentation: Pillar 3 – Enhanced Disclosure Provide market discipline Intends to provide information about banks exposure to riskThe relationship among the three: The relationship among the three Second pillar – supervisory review process to ensure the first pillar - intended to ensure that the banks have adequate capital Third pillar – compliments first and second pillar - a discipline followed by the bank such as disclosing capital structure, tier- i and tier-ii capital and approaches to assess the capital adequacy i.e. assessment of the first pillar. Model of commercial banks interpret first pillar as a closure threshold rather than bank’s asset allocationSignificant Methods of Measurement: Significant Methods of MeasurementPowerPoint Presentation: The pillar is divided in three types of risk for which capital should be held. Credit Risk Operational risk Market riskCredit Risk…: Credit Risk… Credit risk is the risk that those who owe you money will not pay you back. Historically credit risk is the larger risk banks run. BIS II proposes three approaches by which a bank may calculate its required capital for credit risk. Standardized approach Internal rating based (IRB) advanced Internal rating based (IRB) foundationOperational Risk…: Operational Risk… Operational risk is defined as the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events. Comparable to credit risk, BIS II proposes three methods for measuring operational risk. Basic indicator approach Standardized approach Advanced measurement approach (AMA)Market Risk…: Market Risk… Market risk is the risk of losses due to changes in the market price of an asset. Market risk will only have to be calculated for assets in the trading book. Foreign exchange rate risk and commodities risk are part of the market risk. Two methods may be used: Standardized measurement method Internal models approachChallenges in implementation of basel 3 norms: Challenges in implementation of basel 3 normsPowerPoint Presentation: The new and stricter regulations of the basel3 like higher capital requirements, the new liquidity standard, the increased risk coverage, the new leverage ratio or a combination of the different requirements will be difficult to adopt by the banks Banks have to take a number of actions to meet the various new regulatory ratios, restoring of data , B anks must be able to calculate and report the new ratios. Which requires the huge implementation effort.PowerPoint Presentation: Challenges of basel3 implementation: Banks usually have 3 types of challenges Functional challenges Technical challenges Organizational challengesFunctional challenges : Functional challenges D eveloping specifications for the new regulatory requirements, such as the mapping of positions (assets and liabilities) to the new liquidity and funding categories in the LCR and NSFR calculations. the specification of the new requirements for trading book positions and within the CCR framework (e.g. CVA) as well as adjustments of the limit systems with regard to the new capital and liquidity ratios . Crucial is the integration of new regulatory requirements into existing capital and risk management as some measures to improve new ratios (e.g. liquidity ratios) might have a negative effect on existing figures .Technical challenges: Technical challenges The technical challenges includes the availability of data, data completeness, and data quality and data consistency to calculate the new ratios . The financial reporting system with regard to the new ratios and the creation of effective interfaces with the existing risk management systems .Operational challenges : Operational challenges The operational challenges includes stricter capital definition lowers banks’ available capital. At the same time the risk weighted assets (RWA) for securitizations, trading book positions and certain counterparty credit risk exposures are significantly increased. The stricter capital requirements, the introduction of the LCR and NSFR will force banks to rethink their liquidity position, and potentially require banks to increase their stock of high-quality liquid assets and to use more stable sources of funding .PowerPoint Presentation: Basel III also introduces a non-risk based leverage ratio of 3 percent. Group1 banks are failed in maintaining the this leverage ratio The banks will experience increased pressure on their Return on Equity ( RoE ) due to increased capital and liquidity costs, which along with increased RWAs will put pressure on margins across all segmentsIndian Scenario: Indian ScenarioCapital…: Capital… Indian banks need to raise Rs 1.5 lakh crore to Rs 1.75 lakh crore as capital to meet the BASEL-III requirements. Can PSU banks mobilize this sort of capital? - Probably NO, The alternate to the government is either to reduce shareholding below 50% or slowdown PSU growth Can private banks raise this sort of money? - They probably can, because Rs 500 billion was raised in last 5 yearsProblems for PSUs: Problems for PSUs Capital adequacy ratio - has been stipulated at 9%, unchanged from what the regulator requires in India currently, banks here will need to raise more money than under the current Basel II norms because several capital instruments cannot be included under the new definition. Ex: Perpetual Bond Maintaining an 8% tier I capital ratio More additions to non-performing assets Unamortized expenditure on pension liabilitiesPowerPoint Presentation: The Indian economy is also expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 8-9% for next 10 years or so. This would undoubtedly necessitate a considerable growth in bank capital.Issues relating to SLR and LCR ….: Issues relating to SLR and LCR …. India, banks are statutorily required to hold minimum reserves of high-quality liquid assets at 24% of net demand and time liabilities. The proportion of liquid assets in total assets of banks will increase substantially, if the SLR reserves are not reckoned towards the LCR (Liquidity coverage ratio) and banks are to meet the entire LCR with additional liquid assets, thereby lowering their income significantly. RBI is examining to what extent the SLR requirements could be reckoned towards the liquidity requirement under Basel III.PowerPoint Presentation: Retail banks will be affected least, though institutions with very low capital ratios may find themselves under significant pressure. Corporate banks will be affected primarily in specialized lending and trade finance. Investment banks will find several core businesses profoundly affected, particularly trading and securitization businesses. Balance sheet restructuring and business-model adjustments could potentially mitigate up to 40 percent of Basel III’s RoE impact, on an average. Government banks may have to sacrifice growth Profitability ….Cont’d…: Cont’d… The impact of credit requirements on the profitability of banks would depend upon sensitivity of lending rates to capital structure of banks and sensitivity of the credit growth to the lending rates. When banks with low core Tier I shore up their capital to around 9% required, their return on equity ( RoE ) could drop by 1-4%. Basel III will force banks to plough back a larger chunk of their profit into the balance sheet. Banks might have to rationalize dividend policies so that more profit could be retained and used as capital, indicating a lower dividend for the government.Benefits of Implementation…: Benefits of Implementation… Demonstrate that the banking system is recovering well from the global financial crisis of 2008 and has been developing the resilience to future shocks. Contribute to a bank’s competitiveness by delivering better management insight into the business, allowing it to take advantage of future opportunities. Strengthen the financial system of both developing and developed countries by addressing the weaknesses in the measurement of risk under Basel II framework revealed during the crisis.Cont’d…: Cont’d… Delivers a much safer financial system with reduced probability of banking crises at affordable costs. The impact of costs is minimized through long phase-in. It is expected that as the proportion of equity in the capital structure of banks rises, it would reduce the incremental costs of raising further equity as well as non-common equity capital.PowerPoint Presentation: The Reserve Bank’s approach has been to adopt Basel III capital and liquidity guidelines with more conservatism and at a quicker pace. The impact of these rules is not going to be onerous and there will be considerable advantage in adopting Basel III by our banks. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.