Marshak NUSEL Homestake

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UNO and Underground Laboratories: 

UNO and Underground Laboratories Marvin L. Marshak University of Minnesota April 10, 2004

Brief History of U.S. Underground Labs: 

Brief History of U.S. Underground Labs Several mines used to measure cosmic ray underground muon flux Late 1960’s, Davis installed neutrino detector in Homestake Mine About 1980, several mines used for proton decay detectors: Fairport Harbor, Soudan, Silver King. Al Mann advocates for “National Underground Lab” Late 2000, Homestake Mine announces closure. Ken Lande advocates for “National Underground Lab” at Homestake

Brief History of U.S. Underground Labs: 

Brief History of U.S. Underground Labs March 2001: Bahcall Committee designates Homestake as first-choice site 2001-2004: Homestake falters; other sites emerge March 2004: NSF announces new process to advance U.S. deep underground lab

No Agreement on Purpose of the Lab: 

No Agreement on Purpose of the Lab Do everything you can think of Focus on “breakthrough” research Advance outreach and/or policy objectives

No Agreement on Characteristics of the Lab: 

No Agreement on Characteristics of the Lab Compact vs. extensive Moderately deep vs. ultra-deep Horizontal access vs. vertical access Location relative to accelerators and/or beam

No Agreement on What Gets Done First: 

No Agreement on What Gets Done First Large and moderately deep Small and ultra-deep Access to extensive rock Neutrino beam

Nine Sites: 

Nine Sites “O’Hare Airport”: baseline site Kimballton: limestone mine in Virginia Soudan: existing lab and NUMI beam Ash River: off-axis on NUMI beam Homestake: access to depth, knowledge of rock, infrastructure Henderson: modern infrastructure WIPP: DOE-owned, modern infrastructure San Jacinto: escarpment Icicle Creek: escarpment

Why Homestake?: 

Why Homestake? Risk: Knowledge of rock, state support Broader Impacts: EPSCoR Time: Existing access to depth Cost: Some existing infrastructure

Why Soudan?: 

Why Soudan? Risk: Existing lab, demonstrated project management Broader Impacts: Ongoing outreach program Time: Existing lab, can do some things immediately Cost: Existing infrastructure

Ash River: 

Ash River Off-Axis version of Soudan

What Happens Next?: 

What Happens Next? UNO must advocate for Henderson Submit NSF Phase 2 proposal Do studies related to site UNO should also participate in Phase 1. How? What then?

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