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Interest, Personality, Values Testing/Work Samples: 

Interest, Personality, Values Testing/Work Samples BCE 545 (Seminar in Vocational Assessment) April 8, 2002

Assessment of Vocational Interests: 

Assessment of Vocational Interests

What is Interest?: 

What is Interest? Enjoyment of or liking an activity, which can vary according to: Situation and Environment Complexity of the Activity Frequency of the Activity

How do Interests Develop, and How do they Change over Time?: 

How do Interests Develop, and How do they Change over Time? Various career theorists have different ideas on development of interests. Common Themes: Socialization Gender (and Gender Biases) Culture/Geography/Socioeconomic Status Life Experience, Development, Maturity Change in Interests? As we grow older, our interests become more crystallized, because we learn more about ourselves and the world around us.

Types of Interests: 

Types of Interests Expressed Interests: What an individual says that they like to do. Caution: Outside influences, socialization, values and rewards other than interest can interfere with honest self-appraisal. Manifest Interest: What an individual does, how they spend their time, or what they do well. Caution: Avocations/Hobbies may not be as interesting when they become 'work.' Tested Interests: Interest measured by an interest inventory (don’t say 'Interest Test') Good as a counseling tool or for 'breaking the ice' around vocational interests.

Interest Inventories: 

Interest Inventories Types: Checklists (USES Interest Checklist; Gordon Occupational Checklist): Good for measuring or obtaining clearer expressed interests. Non-Verbal (Picture) Inventories vs. Verbal (Written) Inventories (Reading Level 5-6 grade necessary for most written inventories) Verbal Inventories (Holland-based and Others)

Non Verbal Interest Inventories: 

Non Verbal Interest Inventories Use with individuals who have less than a sixth grade reading capacity. Use pictures instead of words (individual picks the picture that they are most interested in) In general, not as practical, have less utility than verbal interest inventories. Examples: WRIOT, Geist Pictures, Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory

The Wide Range Interest Opinion Test (WRIOT): 

The Wide Range Interest Opinion Test (WRIOT) 150 sets of three pictures; individual marks answer form (bubble sheet) according to 'most' and 'least liked' items. About an hour for administration and hand scoring. Eighteen scales of interests (Office Work, Art, etc.) and seven scales of work attitudes (Risk, Ambition, Agreement, Interest Spread) No special norms for persons with disabilities May be the best non-reading inventory available. Does not crosswalk well to occupational information resources (GOE, DOT, etc.) Scoring is cumbersome. Normative data and validation is questionable.

Geist Picture Interest Inventory-Revised: 

Geist Picture Interest Inventory-Revised Assesses 11 'male' and 12 'female' general interest areas (persuasive, clerical, musical, scientific, outdoor, literary, computational, artistic, social service, dramatic, personal service). 44 sets of three pictures, individual circles the one they like most. Motivational questionnaire, helping to explain why persons made the choices they did Good to use with individuals who are at a lower level of cognitive functioning. Results cannot be 'crosswalked' from to other occupational information

Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory, Revised: 

Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory, Revised 55 triads of three pictures. Indicates interest primarily in trade areas (automotive service, patient care, etc.) Normative data is extensive (gender, grade level, different levels of MR, learning disabilities).

Verbal/Written Interest Inventories: 

Verbal/Written Interest Inventories Holland-Based Tests (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) Strong Vocational Interest Inventory Self-Directed Search Career Assessment Inventory Career Decision Making System Revised All give a RIASEC profile


Holland’s Personality/Interest Types(RIASEC): 

Holland’s Personality/Interest Types (RIASEC) R: Realistic: Enjoy work with concrete outcomes, like working with the hands (construction trades, farming). I: Investigative: Enjoy working with data, information; scientific pursuits. A: Artistic: Enjoy creative activities (music, art, drama, literature, technical writing) S: Social: Enjoy working with people (teachers, counselors, clergy) E: Enterprising: Enjoy leadership, commerce (business, sales, politics, administration) C: Conventional: Enjoy orderly, practical work (clerical positions)

Holland: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Interests: 

Holland: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Interests We all have some of each of these characteristics in varying degrees. Three are most important: Primary Interest: One of the six types is dominant. Secondary Interest: One of the six types is stronger than all but the primary interest. Tertiary Interest: The strongest of the remaining four types. These three types form a code for the individuals work personality (REC; SAI, etc.)

Holland Types and Occupations: 

Holland Types and Occupations Occupations, like people, tend to be oriented toward a primary, secondary and tertiary occupational type. Persons will feel most comfortable (most 'adjusted') in occupations that match their personality type. SO… If you know the person’s interest orientation And you know which occupations fit this orientation You have a good idea of occupations they would be interested in (in theory, of course)

Using Holland Typology and the GOE: 

Using Holland Typology and the GOE 1st two digits of a Guide for Occupational Exploration code are related to a particular Holland type: GOE: Holland Code: 01: Artistic Artistic 02: Scientific Investigative 03: Plants and Animals Realistic 04: Protective Realistic 05: Mechanical Realistic 06: Industrial Realistic 07: Business Detail Conventional 08: Selling Enterprising 09: Accommodating Social 10: Humanitarian Social 11: Leading/Influencing Social 12: Physical Performing Social

Strong Vocational Interest Inventory (formerly the Strong Campbell): 

Strong Vocational Interest Inventory (formerly the Strong Campbell) Long test, best used with persons interested in formal academic training Mailed away for administration Provides RIASEC code, list of level of match of interests with persons employed in very wide variety of occupations. 25 Occupational Scales (I.E., Academic Comfort)

Self-Directed Search: 

Self-Directed Search Self Administered and scored, can be completed in about a half hour. Booklet used with test to interpret RIASEC profile; jobs listed for each three-letter type. Better to use with persons who are not going to attempt college training. Will take this in Dr. Stephen’s Career Development class.

Non-Holland Verbal Inventories: One Example: 

Non-Holland Verbal Inventories: One Example Kuder Occupational Interest Survey: Measures interests in ten occupational categories and seven 'personal-oriented' areas (dealing with work situations and characteristics).

Assessment of Interests: Considerations: 

Assessment of Interests: Considerations Interest does not equal ability, aptitude, or temperament. Interest inventories are subject to issues of validity and reliability as any other psychometric test. Interest inventories are only one means of assessing interests—expressed and manifest interests should never be discounted when choosing vocational goals. Vocational maturity strongly related to stability of interests—compare adolescents to persons in their 40’s. Tested, expressed and manifest interests will tend to be similar in persons who are vocationally mature, more vocationally adjusted. Interest is essential in making a good career choice—persons may not 'fit' well (be well adjusted) to work they find boring or monotonous.

Personality and Values Assessment: 

Personality and Values Assessment

What is Personality?: 

What is Personality? 'The way you are'—thinking, feeling, acting, locus of control--infinite dimensions. Mental Health vs. Mental Illness—one dimension of personality; often a point of interest for psychologists/psychiatrists in assessing personality. In vocational counseling, variations in 'normal' personality are considered in relation to temperament—the ability to handle situations that place demands on the personality.

Why is personality assessment important? : 

Why is personality assessment important? FOR THE PSYCHOLOGIST: Determining necessary programming to achieve desired goals (diagnosis, adjustment, mental illness) FOR THE REHABILITATION COUNSELOR/VOCATIONAL EVALUATOR: Job Satisfaction (including work values) Temperaments: What can the person handle on a job from an emotional standpoint? THE RATIONALE FOR GIVING THE PERSONALITY INVENTORY SHOULD MATCH THE INTENDED PURPOSE OF THE INVENTORY

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): 

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) The 'BIG ONE.' Must be interpreted by a psychologist/ psychiatrist Ten major scales and numerous supplementary scales, which are used to form a 'graph' across a page; the shape of this graph is a basis for interpretation. Hypochondriasis (Hs) - Paranoia (Pa) Depression (D) - Psychasthenia (Py) Conversion Hysteria (Hy) - Schizophrenia (Sc) Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) - Hypomania (Ma) Masculinity-Femininity (MF) - Social Introversion (O or SI) Used for diagnostic purposes, when there is a strong suspicion of mental illness—not a tool simply for vocational assessment.

Other Personality Inventories: 

Other Personality Inventories Can be used to measure differences in 'normal' personality traits. Have more value in vocational assessment, measuring temperamental capacity; ability to tolerate or adjust to work situations/environment. Examples: Edwards Personal Preference Survey Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 16 PF.

Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS): 

Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) Measures more 'normal' personality traits Fifteen scales (achievement, deference, order, exhibition, autonomy, affiliation, intraception, succorance, dominance, abasement, nurturance, change, endurance, heterosexuality, and aggression). Can be group administered; takes about fifty minutes to complete.

The Myers Briggs Type Indicator: 

The Myers Briggs Type Indicator Gives four bipolar scores: Extroversion (E) vs. Introversion (I) Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N) Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F) Judgement (J) vs. Perception (P) 'Types' are given as a four-letter code (ESFP, for instance)

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF): 

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) Measures sixteen personality factors: Warmth, Reasoning, Emotional Stability, Dominance, Liveliness, Rule Consciousness, Social Boldness, Sensitivity, Vigilance, Abstractness, Privateness, Apprehension, Openness to Change, Self-Reliance, Perfectionism, Tension.

Values Assessment as part of Personality Assessment: 

Values Assessment as part of Personality Assessment Question: How do values differ from personality, and why are values important? Values can be assessed both formally (through testing) or informally (through interviews and questioning, see page 161).

Values Inventories: 

Values Inventories Work Value Inventory: creativity, intellectual stimulation, economic return, security, prestige, altruism. Survey of Work Values: Intrinsic/Extrinsic work values. Minnesota Importance Questionnaire: Status, Altruism, Safety, Comfort, Achievement, Autonomy

Concerns in Personality Assessment: 

Concerns in Personality Assessment Most inventories require reading at least at a 5th-6th grade level. Tests used for formal diagnosis (ie, mental illness) should only be administered and interpreted by a psychiatrist/psychologist. Do not crosswalk well to occupational information; subjective interpretation by counselor/evaluator in relating to vocational choice is usually necessary.

Work Samples: 

Work Samples

What are Work Samples?: 

What are Work Samples? A simulated work activity that is very similar to what an individual might do on an actual job. Work samples typically have standardized instructions, materials, and norms, just like paper and pencil tests. Work samples are usually scored on two criteria: Time (Quantity of Work or Rate of Work Pace) Correctness (Quality of Work) May be purchased (work sample systems such as Valpar, JEVS, Singer, TOWER, etc.) or developed 'In-House' by a vocational evaluator (job analysis used to develop work sample; norms developed locally).

Kinds of Work Samples: 

Kinds of Work Samples SIMULATED WORK SAMPLES Single-Trait Work Sample: Measures only one trait; similar to a specific aptitude test. Cluster Trait Work Sample: Measures numerous traits simultaneously, may lack face validity. Simulated Work Sample: A general sample of an 'occupation,' not related to a specific position in the community. Actual Work Sample: A sample of a job in the laboratory derived from an actual job in the community, using the same tools and materials. REAL WORK SAMPLES Situational Assessment: Observation of individual working in a job setting (ie, working on the line in a sheltered workshop). On-the-Job Tryout: Placing an individual in an actual job in the community for a trial period.

Advantages of Using Work Samples: 

Advantages of Using Work Samples Observation of individual actually doing work. High face validity Less likelihood of cultural bias than psychometric tests Lets consumer and evaluator experience an actual activity and see how they like it, how well they can do it. Can be used to establish: Learning curves Learning styles Local development allows for very relevant of assessment of 'fit' with occupations in the local community.

Disadvantages of Work Samples: 

Disadvantages of Work Samples Reliability and Validity can be concerns Still are based primarily on psychometric principles (especially simulated work samples—be careful of norms!). Difficult to capture all elements of a job in a work sample (especially when done in a laboratory/vocational evaluation unit). May need to be modified to allow persons with disabilities to use them--just like many psychometric tests

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