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Stigma and Discrimination…: 

Stigma and Discrimination…

Themes of presentation…: 

Themes of presentation… Suggesting some entry points for both What we do What we say Programmes Advocacy 14 To counter Stigma and Discrimination , as well as reminding us all of our agreed definitions , and showing some of the effects researched effects of these two evils…

تعريف الوصم بالعار والتمييز: 

تعريف الوصم بالعار والتمييز الوصم بالعار مواقف أو معتقدات اجتماعية سلبية أو الإزدراء تجاه ”اختلافات“ حقيقية أو وهمية إزاء الآخرين . وهو شعور لا يوجد بصورة طبيعية وإنما ينشأ لدى الأفراد وفي المجتمعات. والوصم بالعار هو سلوك يحط من قدر الآخرين. ومرض الإيدز وفيروسه يولّد ويقوي التحامل الموجود. كما أن الوصم بالعار يعمل على تقوية المظالم الاجتماعية خصوصا تلك التي ترتبط بالنوع والجنس والعرق. 5

تعريف الوصم بالعار والتمييز: 

تعريف الوصم بالعار والتمييز التمييز تؤدي فكرة الوصم بالعار بالناس إلى القيام (أو عدم القيام) بشيء ينكر الكرامة الشخصية أو الامتناع عن تقديم خدمة لشخص آخر أو حرمانه من حقوقه. وكثيرا ما يتعرض المصابون بمرض الإيدز وفيروسه وأسرهم للتمييز وتنتهك كرامتهم وحقوقهم لأنهم ببساطة مصابون أو يفترض أنهم مصابون بمرض الإيدز أو فيروسه. ويمثل هذا تمييز. 6

Defining stigma and discrimination: 

Defining stigma and discrimination Stigma Derogatory or negative social attitudes or beliefs towards the perceived or real 'differences' of others do not naturally exist, they are created by individuals and by communities. Stigma is a process of devaluation. HIV/AIDS builds upon and reinforces existing prejudices. It also plays into, and strengthens existing social inequalities – especially those of gender, sexuality and race. 5

Defining stigma and discrimination: 

Defining stigma and discrimination Discrimination Stigmatising thoughts frequently lead people to do (or not do) something that denies personal dignity, services or rights to another person. People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) and their families are frequently discriminated against and their dignity and rights violated simply because they are known or presumed to have HIV/AIDS. This is discrimination. 6

Stigma: 

Stigma Does stigma enhance risk? Consistent evidence that people experience discrimination and believe HIV is stigma bound. (Sherr & Sherr 99, 2000, Haour Knipe, Price 1992, Kraft 95, Altman 92, Leach 95, Young 94, Van der Ven 96, Herman 95) Psychological effects of felt and enacted stigma is low self esteem, depression, anxiety, isolation (Hall 92) Gold (2000) noted that negative mood and feeling bad about themselves in a sample of gay men in Australia was a predictor of risk Fear of disclosure linked with risk exposure But is it stigma or rejection that is the issue?

Some data from the European Study (Sherr & Sherr 2001): 

Some data from the European Study (Sherr & Sherr 2001) Data collected from 108 HIV positive individuals in UK (83.2% male, 87.3% UK born, x age 36.1 yrs, 30.6% minorities) 82.4% had fears or concerns of discrimination. Only 6.5% did not hesitate telling people their diagnosis 19.4% told not to tell at time of diagnosis

EXPERIENCE OF DISCRIMINATION: 

EXPERIENCE OF DISCRIMINATION Subtle Discrimination 57.4% Mild acts of discrimination, hard to quantify but hurtful 56.5% Obvious acts of discrimination 47.2% Acts of discrimination resulted in:- i. Hurt feelings 67.6% ii. Exclusion 49.1% iii. Loss 42.6% iv. Physical damage 12% v. Mental damage 54.6% vi. Financial damage 40.7%

Impact of Discrimination: 

Impact of Discrimination Emotional Trauma 63% Secondary Physical 38% Deterioration of health 44% Despair 55% Fear of recriminations 50% Reluctance to proceed 45% Stigma 48% Depressed 63% Confidentiality problems 46% Concern for dependants 31% Reluctance to seek help 59% Suicidal 37%

Action taken: 

Action taken 34.3% kept it to themselves 31.5% report to health care worker 25% seek formal legal advice 11.1% note legal action Only 5 people (4.6% of the sample) had gone to court on the issue.

Use of the Law Sherr L Sherr A Orchard et al JAMA 1999: 

Use of the Law Sherr L Sherr A Orchard et al JAMA 1999 76 Clients recounted at least one experience 35.5% believed not actionable in law 22% lack of energy 17% time barrier 19% expense 22% exhaustion 20% confidentiality worries

Accepting the challenge - internationally: 

Accepting the challenge - internationally Overall objectives accepted at the Federation's General Assembly '01, agreeing to scale-up HIV/AIDS action Coalition being built with partners including UNAIDS, and the Global Network of People living with HIV/AIDS (GNP+) Campaign design undertaken by Secretariat – presenting message, graphics, actions, advocacy, tools, events etc. in discussion with National Societies, and partners Subsequent role of the Secretariat to motivate, guide and co-ordinate work with National Societies, and globally 9

Accepting the challenge - nationally: 

Accepting the challenge - nationally Present and integrate the campaign into your National Society programmes in accordance with the General Assembly decision, co-ordinating regionally wherever possible Build partnerships for the campaign, including the national and local networks of people living with HIV/AIDS Prepare national campaign strategy, adapting the global materials as appropriate for your needs and sensitivities Motivate, guide and co-ordinate the campaign at national and local levels 10

Building your campaign : 

Building your campaign Establish your campaign task force, appoint a campaign co-ordinator, prepare your strategy Build partnerships especially with PLWHA Identify and provide direction on agreed advocacy issues Promote 'profile programmes' e.g. peer education, support groups, and initiate or strengthen prevention and care programmes Plan ongoing media campaign with peaks at key dates Organise and co-ordinate activities, events, seminars, Red Cross/Red Crescent ambassadors and spokespersons at national and local levels 13

Visibility and credibility: 

Visibility and credibility Keeping the balance What we do What we say Programmes Advocacy 14

Red Cross Red Crescent visibility and credibility : 

Red Cross Red Crescent visibility and credibility Ensure your Society is a 'safe' environment for your members and volunteers living with HIV/AIDS. Put appropriate policies in place Strengthen or initiate prevention and care/support programmes organised by your society, making sure Red Cross/Red Crescent is seen as a 'safe house' for PLWHA Cooperate, learn from, share ideas and initiatives with other groups and organisations working with HIV/AIDS programmes and advocacy Organise specific events, communications and activities to raise awareness on stigma and discrimination among targeted groups and the general public, and advocate for specific objectives wherever possible 15

Stigma and Discrimination…: 

Stigma and Discrimination… All is now revealed ! This is me nearly 20 years ago. Myself and 30 others dressed as nuns, priests, monks formally exorcised the spirits of AIDSPHOBIA and HOMOPHOBIA from the Anglican Church by performing an excorcism ceremony with PRESS coverage (TV, film crews, photographers) outside the official residence of the Head of the Church of England . I am not suggesting you do anything like this – but do think creatively please …remembering and aligning to…

Global campaign objective: 

Global campaign objective Your action and communications will work to change perceptions, attitudes, policies, behaviour in order to: ensure that those people who are already HIV+ or have AIDS are able to receive the appropriate care and support, have access to affordable drugs, and can live full and useful lives within their communities prevent a further spread of the infection and increase every individual's willingness to be tested, to protect him or herself, and their loved ones This might mean you getting it wrong occasionally, taking a few risks ,…’ pushing the envelope’ 7

An opportunity to partner at the strategic level…: 

An opportunity to partner at the strategic level… The criminalisation of HIV transmission in Europe and Central Asia We (GNP+ Europe) needs partners to help map and monitor the existing situation ..

Aims of the Project: 

Aims of the Project To map the use of the criminal or state law in prosecuting persons for the transmission of HIV. Specifically to record the rate of prosecutions/convictions and the type of laws used. To map who is being prosecuted and how this compares to national epidemiology of HIV. To identify local organisations working on these issues. To examine the ease of access to this information.

Use of the Law : 

Use of the Law At least 36 countries have laws that can be used to prosecute individuals ‘transmitting’ HIV – and 14 of these have created specific legislation or amended existing legislation to ‘criminalise’ transmission in certain circumstances Exceptions are: Albania, Bulgaria, Luxembourg, Slovenia

What is punishable?: 

What is punishable?

Punishments: 

Punishments Differed widely From payment of medical treatment of the person you ‘infected’ to Life imprisonment in four countries And deportation as well as imprisonment

Next Steps: 

Next Steps We would like to finish off this research by Filling in the gaps – for which we need your help Publishing a brief overview of this report Making the complete report – including the country by country data – available electronically Want to get involved possibly? - contact me

Global campaign objective: 

Global campaign objective Your action and communications will work to change perceptions, attitudes, policies, behaviour in order to: ensure that those people who are already HIV+ or have AIDS are able to receive the appropriate care and support, have access to affordable drugs, and can live full and useful lives within their communities prevent a further spread of the infection and increase every individual's willingness to be tested, to protect him or herself, and their loved ones This might mean you getting it wrong occasionally, taking a few risks ,…’ pushing the envelope’ 7

And you know that you can do it …: 

And you know that you can do it … So keep on doing it …but find ways of worker SMARTER not HARDER and broaden what you do …and involve all the objectives of the global campaign at all levels

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