Slide 1: Nature of Science Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Slide 2: How science tends to differ from other modes of knowing? Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD What is Science? : What is Science? As a way to explore nature
As a subject to understand the secrets of the universe
As a long list of facts to be memorized Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD The Nature of science : The Nature of science Science is a process of finding facts, laws, principles, and concepts but the content does not represent science.
Science is the quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself.
The nature of science is to investigate through experiences and then to logically explain the data gained through those experiences. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Three different facets of Science : Three different facets of Science Science can be described as a process (Inquiry), a set of ideas/ a body of knowledge (Content), and a set of attitudes (Context). Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD A Body of Knowledge (Content) : A Body of Knowledge (Content) Content knowledge is the background information that we use as the basis for further exploration and experimentation, and it is the foundation on which new technologies and practical solutions are built.
Content can be subdivided among the classic branches of science: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Facts & concepts : Facts & concepts Fact ... things that are observable and indisputable. something thought to be true, that actually exists. because of their actual existence facts can be checked; e.g water will not dissolve oil. Water has three phases. Metal piece jumps towards the magnet.
Concept.. is a specific idea abstracted from particular instances. e.g three states of matter. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Types of Concept : Types of Concept Concrete concept If a concept is constructed through direct experience with objects, event, or situation, the concept is called concrete. e.g All liquids can flow.
Abstract concept. If assumption, postulates are used to collect or interpret data leading to the conceptual understanding, the concept is abstract. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Hypothesis : Hypothesis It is a tentative answer to the scientific question.
A testable explanation for what was observed.
A hypothesis is not an observation, rather, a tentative explanation for the observation.
It is based on the previous knowledge, facts, and general principals. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Theory : Theory In popular usage, a theory is just a vague and fuzzy sort of fact and a hypothesis is often used as a fancy synonym to `guess'.
A theory is a generalization based on many observation and experiments. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Theory : Theory Theory: a very well verified and communicated explanation that links together a number of separate hypothesis. But to a scientist a theory is a conceptual framework that explains existing observations and predicts new ones. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Principle or Law... : Principle or Law... Stands the test of time, often without change
experimentally proven over and over
can create true predictions for different situations
has uniformity and is universal terms used to describe theories that are so well supported they are generally thought to be "facts". Theories become Laws (e.g., the Law of Gravity) when they are shown to be absolutely correct for the conditions to which they apply. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Principles and Laws : Principles and Laws Law of Gravity
Laws of Thermodynamics
Laws of Conservation of Matter and Energy
Mendel's Principals of Inheritance Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD The Nature of Science Part II - Science the Process(Inquiry) : The Nature of Science Part II - Science the Process(Inquiry) List as many scientific processes as you can.
After viewing the next slide describe how you used at least six of the processes within the past week. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Processes of Science : Processes of Science It is through the processes of science that knowledge is gained.
Scientists collect information by using process skills Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Part II- Science the Process : Part II- Science the Process Examples of Scientific Processes
Problem solving and applying
Observing and recording
Using equations and math
Interpreting data Examples of Scientific Processes
Inferring Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Part III Science as attitudes (Context) : Part III Science as attitudes (Context) Science includes a set of attitudes that encourage people to engage in scientific study. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Scientific Attitudes : Scientific Attitudes curiosity to explore their environment and question what they find
• keenness to identify and answer questions through carrying out investigations •
creativity in suggesting novel and relevant ways to solve problems •
open-mindedness to accept all knowledge as tentative and to change their view if the evidence is convincing •
perseverance in pursuing a problem until a satisfying solution is found •
concern for living things and awareness of the responsibility they have for the quality of the environment Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD What is not included in Science : What is not included in Science 1. Science does not make ethical or moral judgments.
2. There is no "good or bad", "right or wrong" in science.
3. Value judgments are made by people Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD The Nature of Science Part V... Responsibilities : The Nature of Science Part V... Responsibilities Science is a human endeavor. Science takes place within the context of human society, is influenced by sociological forces, is responsive to human needs, and has impacts on humans and their environment.
It is the responsibility of science to provide as much impartial information (knowledge) as possible on which to base decisions. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD The Nature of Science Part V... Responsibilities : The Nature of Science Part V... Responsibilities It the responsibility of "mankind" to understand how information is obtained through the scientific processes and to make informed ethical decisions on the use of that information. Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD The Three Facets of Science are Interrelated : The Three Facets of Science are Interrelated Inquiry begins with an understanding of current content knowledge.
Inquiry produces new content understanding.
Context sets the goals and rationale for inquiry.
Content knowledge is used in new technologies that affect the societal context.
Content knowledge influences policy-making Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Conclusion : Conclusion These three facets of science should form the framework of any understanding of what science is, what science does, and how science education should be planned, conducted, and evaluated, from kindergarten through graduate school. In schools, we often teach only what a specific field of science knows, not the genuine nature of science Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD Slide 24: content process concept fact theory generalization hypothesis Nature of
science context Laws or
principals Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD If you have any Question? : If you have any Question? Abdul Ghuffar GCET FSD