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The Owner: 

The Owner Owner: HSB Malmö, branch of Sweden’s HSB Founded in 1925 One of Sweden’s oldest cooperative housing authorities The Torso is their largest project to date Total cost was approximately $235 million About half for construction alone Site cost was $3.25 million (30,500 ft2)

Residential Living: 

Residential Living Cubes 3 through 9 147 total living units Area ranges from 45 to 190 m2 Available to residents: Sauna Exercise room Guest rooms Wine cellar Special Event room


Commercial/Business Cubes 1 and 2 Total approximate area: 4,000 m2 Rent half, whole, or multiple floors Turning Torso Meeting Top two floors reserved just for meetings Two to three rooms per floor

Political/Urban Planning Issues: 

Political/Urban Planning Issues Safety concerns for falling door and piece of crane Park, traffic, bus stop, walk ways Legally could be sold as two units, one residential and one commercial Residents and unused office space Residents and economy Was the building a good idea? 40% yes, 60% no Would you live in it? 47% yes, 53% no

The Architect: 

The Architect Santiago Calatrava - Winner of 2005 AIA Gold Medal - Architect, Engineer, Artist - Designed Milwaukee Art Museum and Olympic Velodrome in Athens - Offices in Zurich, Paris and Valencia


Tallest building in Scandinavia, second tallest apartment complex in Europe, Calatrava’s tallest building built Designed to look like human body 9 stacked cubes twist to make 90 degrees bottom to top Steel structure represents spine and ribs Façade of aluminum and 5500 sq. meters of glass (2,500 windows)

Architectural Style: 

Architectural Style Structural Expressionism with more naturalistic style Displays structural elements on outside - Steel support and exposed core Unusual and complex shapes that requires unique engineering - Building twists

Fire Safety: 

Fire Safety Fireproof concrete structure Advanced sprinkler system with double water supply Independent reserve power supplies for every security system Divided into 6 fire zones, prevents fires from spreading to other zones for 120 minutes Takes at least 60 minutes for fire to get through an apartment or office


5 elevators located in core - 3 service apartment floors (cubes 3-9), travel at 5 m/s - 2 service offices (cubes 1&2), travel at 3.5 m/s - Bottom floor to top in 38 seconds - One elevator designed for rescue crews and evacuation with emergency power supply - Stairwell goes to all floors in core with increase air pressure if fire occurs Egress

Structural Engineering: 

Structural Engineering Engineer of Record: Santiago Calatrava Structural Review: SWECO-Stockholm Largest consultant in Nordic Region Engineering, environmental technology, architecture 100 years of experience Offices in 8 countries and projects in 45 countries worldwide

Structural Overview: 

Structural Overview Spine column Structural columns Steel exoskeleton 9 cubes stacked vertically 5 floors per cube 10º rotation per cube 2 m between cubes 54 floors 1.6 º rotation per floor Height: 190m (623.3ft)

Spine Column: 

Spine Column Steel reinforced concrete Inner radius: 10.6 m Wall thickness: 2.5 m at base 0.4 m at top Dist. to back walls: 5 m Dist. to front walls: 10 m

Structural Columns: 

Structural Columns Front Walls [2] 1 Perimeter column Reinforced concrete Diameter: 0.6 m 100 steel reinforcement Rotates with building Rear Walls [3] Concrete cantilever 1st Floor (cube) 90 cm thick at core 40 cm thick at edge Structural steel columns 2nd-5th Floors (cube) 11 columns per floor

Steel Exoskeleton: 

Steel Exoskeleton Main column Rotates with building 360 tons Connected to 2 stabilizing elements per floor Truss tubes ‘Cigars’ 20 horizontal (8 tons ea) 18 diagonal (12-20 tons ea) Anchored to shear walls at rear (top two floors of cubes)


Loadings Dead & Live Loads Front (apex) Spine column Perimeter column Back (cubes) Steel columns (floors 2-5) Concrete cantilever (floor 1) Spine Column Wind Loads Spine Column Ability to carry total load Exoskeleton Adds stiffness to core Dampens building’s vibrations Carries wind loads in some circumstances Reduces wind displacement Max Displacement: 30 cm w = 44 m/s; a = 0.02g

Construction Engineering: 

Construction Engineering Contractor Firm: HCC Construction Project Manager: Ingvar Nohlin HCC performed: - Structural core - Floor slabs - Concrete works for reflection pool


Foundation Steel plates driven 15m into ground + 3m into limestone bedrock Concrete injections made around steel-encased shaft Foundation slab (30m diameter x 7m thick) poured for 3 continuous days - meant having a full cement truck on hand every fourth minute

Structural Core: 

Structural Core Customized formwork used because geometry changed from floor to floor Core cast with a sliding form Walls enclosing lifts and staircase were poured into forms suspended from the sliding form Pie-shaped forms were pieced together to form structural slabs that cantilevered out from the core to create the floors

Steel Support: 

Steel Support Normal crane from above did not work with twisting Used lifting yoke that stood on concrete slabs Welders used specialized platforms to protect from weather


Facade Double-curved panels because of twisting Glass and aluminum construction In total there were 2,800 panels and approx. 2,250 windows

Time of Construction: 

Time of Construction Began in summer 2001 Foundation completed by June 2002 Concrete framework done October 2004 Official opening: August 27, 2005 Floor #’s

Finished Structure: 

Finished Structure 4,400 metric tons of concrete reinforcement steel used 25,000 cubic meters of concrete poured 900 metric tons of steel in spine and ribs

MEP Summary: 

MEP Summary Energy Considerations Unique Design Features

Energy Considerations: 

Energy Considerations Electricity Wind power Biogas Heating Geothermal Solar

Unique Internal Systems: 

Unique Internal Systems LED Lighting Waste Management Rainwater harvesting Residential monitoring



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