Learning disability :- An introduction : Learning disability :- An introduction Alendra Kumar Tripathi
NERC-NIOH, Aizawl Overview : Overview Education is a fundamental right of every child.
A large number of children with mild MR, borderline intelligence and specific learning disabilities face difficulties in coping with the academic demands of schools and their difficulty is invisible.
Most of them drop out from school.
Approximately 10% of children are estimated to have learning problem
Out of which nearly 5% are learning disabled.
There is no legislation to support children with learning problems. Learning problems : Learning problems The learning problem in the child may be due to below average intelligence. There capacity to learn is limited. - MR
There are children having borderline intelligence and are called slow learners.
Some children due to emotional disturbances or cultural or social disadvantage may also show poor scholastic performance.
Some children cannot learn efficiently due to specific break down in the learning process, involving listening, thinking, perceiving, memory and expression are called specific learning disabilities or difficulties.
More number of boys are affected by learning problems than girls. Learning Disabilities : Learning Disabilities Dr. Samuel Kirk was the first to use the term LD in 1963.
LD are found to be seemingly normal in their sensory, motor and even intellectual abilities but yet perform poorly in their scholastic areas.
This group is a puzzle for professionals as well as for parents as they do not have any obvious disability.
Hidden handicapped: - Anderson 1970
Other term generally used to refer LD are Children with Dyslexia, minimal brain dysfunction, reading retardation, organic brain damage, neurological handicapped, clumsy child syndrome, grey area children and ‘going nowhere’ children. LD: Definition : LD: Definition Generally children with LD may have specific problem in reading, writing and / or doing arithmetic's. They would tend to show a wide discrepancy between their actual performance and expected performance for their age and class.
According to Joan M. Harwell, LD and LH are term used interchangeably to describe individuals who: (1) can see, (2) can hear, (3) have general intelligence, (4) have educational difficulties that do not stem from inadequate educational experience or cultural factors; and (5) do not acquire and use information efficiently due to some impairment in perception, conceptualization, language, memory, attention or motor control. LD: Definition : LD: Definition To provide suitable educational facilities, the U.S. office of education (1977) defined LD as follows:
“ A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations.
The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicapped, brain injury, minimum brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia.
The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, motor handicapped or mental retardation or emotional disturbance or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.” LD: Definition : LD: Definition Learning disability is the term currently being used by educators, rehabilitation professionals and physicians to describe a group of conditions that interfere with a person’s learning functioning in life. According to me :
“ A child with learning disability is just like a cricket player who can hit a plenty of runs but he has been given a broken bat to use.” LD: Types : LD: Types Dyslexia (Reading disability):-
Omission of letters, syllables, words (Mauia for Mapuia)
Addition of sounds or words in sentences (ischool for school)
Transposing orders of words in a sentence. LD: Types : LD: Types Dysgraphia (Writing disabilities)
Slow in writing
Illegible, shabby handwriting
Awkward pencil grip
Difficulty in formation of letters
Variable letter size
Poor right/left orientation
Inability to maintain line
Mixing of capital and small letters
Reversal of letters (b/d) LD: Types : LD: Types Dyscalculia (Problems in mathematics)
Difficulty in pointing to small/big, more/less, tall/short when asked
Difficulty in arranging/grouping objects by color, shape, size.
Difficulty in pointing to the numeral when named
Difficulty in naming numerals
Difficulty in copying numerals
Difficulty in understanding concepts of units/tens/hundreds. LD: Causes : LD: Causes Child Vs Computer
Input (key board/mouse and in child vision, hearing, smell, touch, taste)
CPU (in child attention, perception, imagery, symbolization-verbal & nonverbal)
Output (Monitor and in child conceptualization)
A breakdown in any of these will lead to failure in learning.
Various causes of LD may include prenatal, natal, postnatal, genetic, biochemical and psychological factors. LD: Causes : LD: Causes Prenatal factors:
Bleeding during late pregnancy
Low birth weight,
Delayed birth cry (Anoxia)
Maternal age (less than 16 and above 40)
Consumption of drugs, alcohol, tobaco
Physical & emotional trauma
Maternal endocrine disorders LD: Causes : LD: Causes Postnatal factors:
Lead poisoning causing neurological damage,
Deprivation of sensory stimulation
Maturational lag of CNS LD: Causes : LD: Causes Genetic factors
There seems to be strong familial factor. It is not uncommon for parents to report that they or a close relative had learning problems.
Certain metabolic disorders including hypoglycemia and hypothyroidism are reported to be found in some cases with LD.
Children having LD tend to develop psychological problems as secondary symptoms as they are generally aware of their disabilities. LD: Summary : LD: Summary Children with LD have most of the following characteristics:
attention and concentration deficit
low frustration tolerance
poor impulse control
poor communication development
poor self concept
poor in studies: reading, spelling, counting etc.
poor motor coordination *********** : *********** THANK YOU