Transdermal Drug delivery

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Introduction TDDS is delivery of drug through the skin for achievement of systemic effect. Also it is a transport of drug to epidermal or dermal tissue for local effect. It has several advantages over oral , a) Limitation to first pass effect. b) More Therapeutic efficiency. c) Maintenance of steady plasma level of drug.

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The evidence of percutaneous drug absorption found through, Blood level of drug. Detectable excretion of drug. Metabolite in Urine. Clinical response of patient to therapy.

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Drug permeation across the skin depend upon following factors. Physicochemical properties of drug such as, Molecular weight Solubility Partition coefficient Pka Characteristics of pharmaceutical vehicle. Skin condition.

Permeation Through Skin.:

Permeation Through Skin. Percutaneous drug absorption generally result from direct penetration of drug through the Stratum Corneum. Thickness- About 10 to 15 micrometer. Composed of, Approx. 40% Protein ( Keratin), 40% Water, Also it has Lipid, Triglycerides, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Phospholipids. It has about 15 to 25 layer of flattened Corneocytes having thickness upto 10 micrometer.

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Stratum Corneum covered by one film which is compose of Sebum & Sweat. After passing through this layer, the drug molecule pass through deeper epidermal tissue. Then from epidermis to Dermis. When drug reaches to dermis layer then it is available for General circulation. Drug molecule penetrate through skin by Passive Diffusion.

Formulation approaches:

Formulation approaches TDDSs are categorize into 2 types, Monolithic Systems, Membrane controlled transdermal system. MONOLITHIC SYSTEMS It involve incorporation of Drug matrix layer in between Backing & Frontal layer. Drug Matrix layer consist of polymeric material into which drug is disperse.

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The polymeric material control drug release for percutaneous absorption. PREPARATION Drug & Polymer dissolved & blended together . Dried & Gel of the Matrix is produced in Cylindrical shape. Cut them into individual dosage. Finally pack them into the Backing & Frontal layer.


MEMBRANE-CONTROLLED TRANSDERMAL SYSTEM It contain Drug reservoir or pouch. E.g. Transderm nitro Transderm scopo PREPARATION Preconstruction of Drug Reservoir. Filling Sealing.

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COMPONENTS OF TDDS OCCLUSIVE BACKING MEMBRANE a. To protect the drug from environment. b. To protect the drug from moisture of skin. 2) DRUG RESERVOIR OR MATRIX To store the Drug. 3) RELEASE LINER Which remove before application. 4) ADHESIVE LAYER To maintain contact with the skin after application.


EVALUATION PARAMETERS 1. Interaction studies. 2. Thickness of the patch. 3. Weight uniformity . 4. Folding endurance. 5. Percentage Moisture content.

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6. Percentage Moisture uptake. 7. Water vapour permeability (WVP) evaluation. 8. Drug content. 9. Uniformity of dosage unit test. 10. Polariscope examination. 11. Shear Adhesion test. 12. Peel Adhesion test.

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13. Thumb tack test. 14. Flatness test. 15. Percentage Elongation break test. 16. Rolling ball tack test. 17. Quick Stick (peel-tack) test.


References ANSEL’S Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms & Drug Delivery Systems. Advances in Controlled & Novel Drug Delivery By N. K. JAIN. “REVIEW ARTICLE” International Journal Of Biopharmaceutical & Toxicological Research, Volume-1, Issue- May-2011

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