Category: Education

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School Management,Action Research in School Management, Classroom interaction, using brainstorming, joyful learning useful for B.Ed.,M.Ed., DSM students.


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Action Research Prof. Namita S. Sahare S.P. Mandali’s Tilak College of Education Pune 30 , India Kurt Lewin , a professor at  MIT , first coined the term “action research” in about 1944. In his 1946 paper “Action Research and Minority Problems” he described action research as “a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action”.

Stephen Corey (1953) described action research as a process for practitioners to study and solve their own problems.:

Stephen Corey (1953) described action research as a process for practitioners to study and solve their own problems. A more formal definition and explanation of action research is: A continual disciplined inquiry conducted to inform and improve our practice as educators. Action research asks educators to study their practice and its context, explore the research base for ideas, compare what they find to their current practice, participate in training to support needed changes, and study the effects on themselves, their students, and colleagues (Calhoun, 2002, p.18).

“PAPA” Research:

“PAPA” Research Pure research/ Primary Research Applied research Policy research ,SSA, RTE Action research The concept emerged from the work of Kurt Lewin Look at the situation: Gather relevant data Build a picture to describe the situation

Think about the situation: :

Think about the situation: - Explore and Analyze Interpret and Explain (How and why are things the way they are Stringer , 1999) Act:- Plan, i.e., develop a logic Model- Implement, Evaluate (Stringer, 1999 ) Plan, Act, Observe, Reflect ( Kurt Lewin , 1946)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Action research  is a  reflective process  of progressive  problem solving  led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a " community of practice " to improve the way they address issues and solve problems . Action research is done simply by action, hence the name. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.

Johnson's process is characterized by the following::

Johnson's process is characterized by the following:   identifying a problem or research topic; setting the problem or research topic in a theoretical context; making a plan for data collection; beginning to collect and analyze data; if necessary, allowing the question or problem to change as you collect data; analyzing and organizing the data; reporting the idea; making your conclusions and recommendations; creating a plan of action.

Both pre service and in service teachers should engage in Action Research. :

Both pre service and in service teachers should engage in Action Research. Individual teachers, teams of student teachers & supervising teachers, a grade level team or content area deptt.can participate in Action Research. A school can work together to develop a focus question, explore research alternatives.Developing the AR habit empowers the teacher and allows them to become a teacher leader 

Benefits/Advantages of AR- What will Action Research accomplish?:

Benefits/Advantages of AR- What will Action Research accomplish? Action Research will help you improve instruction in your classroom. It will allow you to look critically at what goes on in your room and the impact that very small changes can make in student (and teacher) success. Action Research can help you focus on specific issues and address them with a plan. As a result, you'll know why something has changed-without having to guess at the causal relationships of your actions on student achievement. Action Research exposes you to current research and best practices that truly address your professional goals-not just what someone else thinks you need to read. It empowers you to make instructional decisions in your own classroom. When Action Research remains focused on student achievement, you have the ability to improve your practice and impact the success of your students.

The Purpose of Action Research:

The Purpose of Action Research Contributes to the theory & knowledge base to enhance practice Supports the professional development of practitioners Builds a collegial networking system Helps practitioners identify problems & seek solutions systematically Can be used at all levels & in all areas of education

Action research is a particular type of descriptive research that can be carried out by educators. (Slavin, 2006):

Action research is a particular type of descriptive research that can be carried out by educators. ( Slavin , 2006) Action research simultaneously assists in practical problem-solving and expands scientific knowledge, as well as enhances the competencies of the respective actors, being performed collaboratively in an immediate situation using data feedback in a cyclical process aiming at an increased understanding of a given social situation, primarily applicable for the understanding of change processes in social systems and undertaken within a mutually acceptable ethical framework.

A simple action research spiral:

A simple action research spiral In each cycle there is action and critical reflection. During reflection people first examine what happened previously -- they "review". They then decide what to do next – they "plan". So action is followed by critical reflection:


Step 1 : is to examine the idea carefully in the light of the means available.   Step 2 : is composed of a circle of planning, executing, or fact finding for the purpose of evaluating the results Step3 :  is preparing the rational basis for planning  Step4 : is modifying again the overall plan

PowerPoint Presentation:

Action research certainly isn't the only research process. It isn't even the only process for researching change. However, it is a process well suited to situations where you wish to achieve change (the "action") and understanding (the "research") at the same time.

Formal Research vs. Action Research:

Formal Research vs. Action Research Skills needed Goals How the research problem is identified Literature review Selection of participants Research design Data collection Data analysis Application of results

Identifying the Problem:

Identifying the Problem First, select a general idea or area of focus: should involve teaching and learning should be within your locus of control should be something you feel passionate about should be something you would like to change or improve… Second Describe the Who, What, When & Where of the situation you want to change Explain the Why of the situation

The Process of Action Research:

The Process of Action Research Identify the problem; select an area of focus. Review the related research literature. Collect the data. Organize, analyze & interpret the data. Take the action (apply the findings).


Overview Identify the problem Review related research literature Collect data Organize, analyze & interpret Take action; apply findings

Identify the Problem Select the Area of Focus:

Identify the Problem Select the Area of Focus Determine & describe the current situation Discuss, Negotiate Explore opportunities Assess possibilities Examine constraints The researcher first assesses the existing situation. Through discussion and negotiation, one can narrow the focus of the research to the salient elements to be studied.

Review the Related Literature:

Review the Related Literature Become familiar with other research done on the area of focus Utilize the findings of others to help develop the plan Apply research findings through the lens of others’ experience It’s true that all research requires the foundation of prior research. Research often suggests  theory,  which can then be tested for its relevance to reality. The more one knows about the area of focus, the more precise will be the action research to be conducted.

Collect the Data:

Collect the Data Using a variety of data collection strategies, gather information that will contribute to the findings Data should be analyzed as it is collected. In AR, there are always multiple sources of data, multiple kinds of data, and multiple strategies for collecting data.

Organize, Analyze & Interpret the Data:

Organize, Analyze & Interpret the Data As the data is collected, it is also continually organized & analyzed As new perspectives are gained on the original area of focus, the problem statement may change Interpretation is based on analysis & reviewing the area of focus

Take Action; Apply Findings :

Take Action; Apply Findings Draw conclusions from the data analyzed Translate conclusions into actions or behaviors Plan how to implement the actions or behaviors. Do it!

Summary: Planning Action Research: These are the specific steps that you would take to plan out your action research.:

Summary: Planning Action Research: These are the specific steps that you would take to plan out your action research. Write an area-of-focus Statement/Title Write need & importance Develop Research Q./Write statement of the Problem Describe the intervention or innovation./Suggest solution, Remedy or strategy Write objectives. Define the variables/ write Functional definitions of Keywords Write Research Methodology- Sample, Variables Describe the action research group. Describe the Activities that need to happen. Develop a timeline. Put action plan into action. Develop data collection ideas/tools. Collect & Interpret the data Findings & Conclusion

Why participate in Action Research?:

Why participate in Action Research? Traditional classroom research generally does not assist individual teachers in improving their practice. However, teachers engaged in Action Research-looking closely at their classrooms, reflecting on their practice, developing their own questions, strategies and interventions-create an environment of renewal and improvement. This environment empowers participants and creates a positive school climate with teaching and learning at the core. The process also allows teachers to model being reflective and proactive in addressing classroom issues and concerns.

Ex: TEACHING BASED ACTION RESEARCH Healthy Practices for Student Engagement:

Ex: TEACHING BASED ACTION RESEARCH Healthy Practices for Student Engagement


JOYFUL LEARNING    Puppet show Fancy Dress Art & Craft Experiential Learning Trekking Gardening Excursion

Brainstorming Q.:

Brainstorming Q.

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