Pedagogic resources in Mathematics & teaching mathematics through games

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Teaching Mathematics We all know that children enjoy playing games. Experience tells us that games can be very productive learning activities. But ...:

Teaching Mathematics We all know that children enjoy playing games. Experience tells us that games can be very productive learning activities. But ... What educational benefits are there to be gained from games?

What is a mathematical game? :

What is a mathematical game? Oldfield (1991) says that mathematical games are 'activities' which: involve a challenge, usually against one or more opponents; are governed by a set of rules and have a clear underlying structure; normally have a distinct finishing point; have specific mathematical cognitive objectives.

Benefits of Using Games The advantages of using games in a mathematical programme have been summarised in an article by Davies (1995) who researched the literature available at the time. :

Benefits of Using Games The advantages of using games in a mathematical programme have been summarised in an article by Davies (1995) who researched the literature available at the time. Meaningful situations - for the application of mathematical skills are created by games Motivation - children freely choose to participate and enjoy playing Positive attitude - Games provide opportunities for building self-concept and developing positive attitudes towards mathematics, through reducing the fear of failure and error; Increased learning - in comparison to more formal activities, greater learning can occur through games due to the increased interaction between children, opportunities to test intuitive ideas and problem solving strategies Different levels - Games can allow children to operate at different levels of thinking and to learn from each other. In a group of children playing a game, one child might be encountering a concept for the first time, another may be developing his/her understanding of the concept, a third consolidating previously learned concepts Assessment - children's thinking often becomes apparent through the actions and decisions they make during a game, so the teacher has the opportunity to carry out diagnosis and assessment of learning in a non-threatening situation Home and school - Games provide 'hands-on' interactive tasks for both school and home Independence - Children can work independently of the teacher. The rules of the game and the children's motivation usually keep them on task.

Innovations in Teaching Mathematics :

Innovations in Teaching Mathematics Innovations in teaching of mathematics can be diversified in terms of Methods, Pedagogic Resources Mastery Learning Strategy used in teaching-learning process.

Pedagogic Resources:

Pedagogic Resources Pedagogic resources are the resources that a teacher may integrate in a method for the transaction of a particular content and draw upon to advance the students’ learning. Teaching Aids Teaching aids are the materials used for effective teaching and enhancing the learning of students. It can be anything ready-made or made by the teacher or made by students.

Different teaching aids should be used in teaching mathematics like Charts, Manipulatives, Programmed Learning Material (PLM), computers and television. :

Different teaching aids should be used in teaching mathematics like Charts, Manipulatives, Programmed Learning Material (PLM), computers and television. Charts – It can be used to display formulae, symbols, mathematical and geometrical figures. Charts can be used for making students familiar to the symbols and for memorization of basic formulae. Even it can be used to bring to the students two-dimension geometry and the graphical representation in a better way. Manipulatives – They are objects or materials that involve mathematics concepts, appealing to several senses, that can be touched and moved around by the students (not demonstrations of materials by the teacher). Each student needs material to manipulate independently. With students actively involved in manipulating materials, interest in mathematics will be aroused. Models can be used to make things concrete like three dimension figures in geometry.

Activities -include all such work where in students play an active role, has to interact with different resources and generate knowledge. It includes Quiz competition, Projects, Role play, Seminars, Discussion, Mathematics club, Assignment, Field trips, etc. :

Activities - include all such work where in students play an active role, has to interact with different resources and generate knowledge. It includes Quiz competition, Projects, Role play, Seminars, Discussion, Mathematics club, Assignment, Field trips, etc. Quiz Competition- Logic, Properties of Numbers, Mathematical Rules & Results Projects- Contribution by Different Mathematicians Role Play - Arithmetical concepts like Profit & Loss, Simple & Compound Interest Seminars- Shortcuts through Vedic Mathematics, Application of Mathematics in other Disciplines Discussion- Properties of ‘Zero’, Difference between Rational and Irrational Numbers, Relating Different Concepts in Mathematics Mathematics Clubs- Application of the concept studied, Preparing Models, Paper Folding (Origami) Assignment- Self-Study, Extension of Knowledge Field Trips- Experiencing the Functional use of Mathematics in Bank, Insurance Company

PowerPoint Presentation:

In any curriculum, content and presentation of content are the two most important and inseparable components. It is difficult to say anything definitely about which method and pedagogic resource is going to be most effective for presentation of a particular type of content. Selection of method and pedagogic resource depends on many factors like type of content, objectives to be achieved, level of the students, entry behaviour, availability of resources . Also acceptance of innovative methods and positive attitude of teachers towards it, is an important factor for the selection of method and pedagogic resource.

The teacher can always ask himself two Q: 1.‘ Is there some new way in which I can present this material in order to make it more meaningful and more interesting?’ 2. ‘What activities, demonstrations, teaching aids, etc. would enrich the classroom presentation and direct attention of students to the important elements?’:

The teacher can always ask himself two Q: 1.‘ Is there some new way in which I can present this material in order to make it more meaningful and more interesting?’ 2. ‘What activities, demonstrations, teaching aids, etc. would enrich the classroom presentation and direct attention of students to the important elements?’ Involve the students in the process of learning by taking them beyond the process of listening to that of thinking, reasoning and doing. In order to promote self-study skills use of library and resource center needs to be encouraged. Receiving regular feedback for teaching and learning should be an inbuilt component of teaching-learning process. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation has to be ensured as it plays an important role for the required modification in teaching-learning process. Properly instruct and guide the students for carrying out different activities and precautionary measures should be taken so that students are not misguided.

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