Educational Management: Educational Management Applications of Educational Management In Academics and Evaluation Prof. Namita S. Sahare Tilak College of Education , Pune 30 PowerPoint Presentation: Educational Management can be implemented through Classroom management, curriculum management, Evaluation management so that school can produce better performance of students in the form of academic achievements,sports achievements,cocurriular ahievements Management : Management Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning , organizing , staffing , leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources , financial resources, technological resources and natural resources . As organizations: Schools can be viewed as systems , management can also be defined as human: Teachers action, including design: curriculum , to facilitate the Students production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, & to manage others. Student-teacher relationships: S tudent-teacher relationships The relationship between a teacher and his or her students is essential in providing a solid foundation for classroom management. Because studies prove that classroom management is important to student achievement , student-teacher relationships should not be left to chance Part of the task of building an effective classroom plan consists of communicating rules and procedures in a manner that is easily understood by the students. In addition to motivating their students to learn, effective classroom managers teach and review procedures which they also back up with feasible consequences. Be Progress oriented: Be Progress oriented Higher education is undergoing changes much like primary and secondary education has in the past. We in academia must learn from the higher secondary experiences and place an increased focus on our curriculum and the results of our labors, namely, well-educated students. This will require changes in the way we operate and in the tools that we use. WHO IS INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROCESS IN A SCHOOL? : WHO IS INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROCESS IN A SCHOOL? WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT LEVELS AT WHICH MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING TAKE PLACE? CREATING A SUPPORTIVE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT FOR CURRICULUM CHANGE…. Sharing responsibilities: Sharing responsibilities What is the link between phase organisers and programme organisers? How do phases/grades choose programme organisers? How do schools ensure the continuous assessment process within grades, and across phases? Should provinces consider standardised reporting and recording processes for schools? How do expanded opportunities support teaching and learning? What provision and plans should schools make to increase performance and attainment? What is the role of HOD’s/Subject Heads in planning and managing meetings? How would the HOD/Subject Head monitor decision-making processes and report ? What role does the school curriculum co-ordinator play What responsibilities at this level can be shared with other staff members? Knowing the relation between teaching the content ( Instructional strategies), learning out-come & evaluation: Knowing the relation between teaching the content ( Instructional strategies), learning out-come & evaluation Feedback has been recognized as a tool to enhance the teaching-learning process. Both teachers and students may benefit from relevant information which highlights strengths and achievements as well as areas for improvement. Constructive feedback should be systematic. Feedback for teaching and learning should be relevant, immediate, factful, helpful, confidential, respectful, tailored and encouraging if it is going to be effectively used to achieve successful teaching and learning. Furthermore, input from instructors themselves, students and peers should be sought in order to provide constructive feedback. The Communication of the contents or the behaviour of the pupil and the teacher may be of two Types - Verbal and Non - Verbal.: The Communication of the contents or the behaviour of the pupil and the teacher may be of two Types - Verbal and Non - Verbal. The nonverbal behaviour is symbolic in which the learner and the teacher contribute in development of the lesson through their facial expressions, gestures displaying , the body parts and sort of signals. let us learn the conclusions made after the studies as how we retain information and recall it in an interval of time. 10 % of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see 50% of what we see and hear 70% of what we talk and say 90% of what we say as we do a thing The above statistics show that on an average 50% information can be retained only due to seeing and hearing into the classroom. PowerPoint Presentation: Learning must be meaningful and appropriate for the child’s cultural environment. Learning experiences must be varied and an atmosphere of support must be provided. The active involvement of the whole child : the cognitive, aesthetic, physical and social dimensions, is key in a comprehensive school. Evaluation : Assessment practices : Evaluation : Assessment practices Critical to any initiative in teaching and learning are the accompanying assessment practices: ‘assessment is frequently the engine that drives pedagogy and the curriculum’ (Hildebrand 1996:149). It shapes learners’ motivation, their sense of priorities and their learning tactics. Assessment practices should not be tacked on as addenda, but integrated into the teaching-learning-curriculum design process. Educational measurement means: Process of quantifying students’s achievement, personality, attitudes, habits and skills Evaluation means: : Evaluation means: Qualitative aspect of determining the outcomes of learning. Process of ranking with respect to attributes or trait Appraising the extent of learning Judging effectiveness of educational experience Interpreting and analyzing changes in behaviour Describing accurately quantity and quality of thing Summing up results of measurement or tests giving meaning based on value judgments Systematic process of determining the extent to which instructional objectives are achieved Considering evidence in the light of value standard and in terms of particular situations and goals which the group of individuals are striving to attain. TESTING : TESTING TESTING : A technique of obtaining information needed for evaluation purposes. Tests, Quizzes, measuring instruments – are devices used to obtain such information FUNCTIONS OF MEASUREMENTS: FUNCTIONS OF MEASUREMENTS 1 . INSTRUCTIONAL a) Principal (basic purpose) - to determine what knowledge , skills, abilities, habits and attitudes have been acquired - to determine what progress or extent of learning attained - to determine strengths , weaknesses, difficulties and needs of students b) Secondary (auxiliary functions for effective teaching & learning) - to help in study habits formation - to develop the effort-making capacity of students - to serve as aid for guidance, counselling, and prognosis FUNCTIONS OF MEASUREMENTS : FUNCTIONS OF MEASUREMENTS 2. ADMINISTRATIVE/SUPERVISORY - to maintain standards - to classify or select for special purposes - to determine teachers efficiency , effectiveness of methods, strategies used ( strengths, weaknesses, needs); standards of instruction - to serve as basis or guide for curriculum making and developing Administrative / supervisory Function: Administrative / supervisory Function - to serve as guide in educational planning of administrators and supervisors - to set up norms of performance - to inform parents of their children’s progress in school - to serve as basis for research Functions of Evaluation: Functions of Evaluation 1 . Evaluation assesses or make appraisal of - Educational objectives, programs, curricula, instructional materials, facilities - Teacher - Learner - Public relations of the school - achievement scores of the learner 2. Evaluation conducts research Principles of Evaluation: Principles of Evaluation Evaluation should be 1. Based on clearly stated objectives 2. Comprehensive 3. Cooperative 4. Used Judiciously 5. Continuous and integral part of the teaching – learning process Types of Evaluation used in classroom instruction: Types of Evaluation used in classroom instruction Diagnostic Evaluation – detects pupil’s learning difficulties which somehow are not revealed by formative tests. It is more comprehensive and specific. Formative Evaluation – It provides feedback regarding the student’s performance in attaining instructional objectives. It identifies learning errors that neded to be corrected and it provides information to make instruction more effective . 3. Placement Evaluation – It defines student’s entry behaviors . It determines knowledge and skills he possesses which are necessary at the beginning of instruction. 4. Summative Evaluation – It determines the extent to which objectives of instruction have been attained and is used for assigning grades/marks and to provide feedback to students. Qualities of a Good Measuring Instrument: Qualities of a Good Measuring Instrument VALIDITY Content, concurrent, predictive, construct RELIABILITY adequacy, objectivity, testing condition, test administration procedures USABILITY ( practicality ) ease in administration, scoring, interpretation and application, low cost, proper mechanical make – up Purpose of formalized classroom assessment: Purpose of formalized classroom assessment Classroom assessment helps individual teachers obtain useful feedback on what, how much, and how well their students are learning Teachers use this information to refocus their teaching to help students learn more effectively Purpose of formalized classroom assessment: Purpose of formalized classroom assessment Learner-centered, teacher-directed, mutually beneficial, formative, context-specific, ongoing and firmly rooted in good practice Student centered Teacher directed: Student centered Teacher directed Focuses attention of students and teachers on observing and improving learning, not teaching Help students develop meta-cognitive skills If students become more independent, lifelong learners, students must take full responsibility of their learning Classroom assessment respects the autonomy, academic freedom, and professional judgment of teacher Individual teacher decides when, what and how to assess and how to respond to material gathered from assessment Benefits of Evaluation management: Benefits of Evaluation management How do students directly benefit from classroom assessment? How do teachers directly benefit from classroom assessment? Meta-cognitive skills – describe students’ awareness and understanding of their own learning skills, performance and habits Understand what they are learning and why they are learning it Good learners engage in more meta-cognitive activities than poor learners do “The more time and effort students invest in the learning process, the more intensely they engage in their own education, the greater their educational experiences, persistence in college, and continuation of learning” Process and content based feedback Benefits to students = benefit to teachers Develop a culture of openness and consistent feedback Constantly monitor student views on process and understanding of content Answer difficult questions such as: “How can I find out whether my students are learning the essential skills and knowledge I am trying to teach” “How can I help students learn better?” Reduce uncertainty of student learning between exams Improve teaching skills and gain new insights Increase overall learning Relation between curriculum , T-L Process and Evaluation: Relation between curriculum , T-L Process and Evaluation Managing Evaluation : Choosing The Right Assessment: Managing Evaluation : Choosing The Right Assessment Considerations: Time & Energy Preparation Student Response Teaching Goals Achieving Long term objectives of education Student Achievements-School effectiveness ---------------------------------------------------------------------- All the Best….