Rice Hybridization

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Hybridization Techniques of Rice:

Hybr i dizat i on T e c hni q u e s of Rice Eng l ish Name: Rice Scient i fic Name: Ory z a sa t iv a Famil y : Gram i n e ae P r ese n t ed b y: D r . Md. A b d ul l ah Al B ari Assi s t a n t P r o f . De p t . o f GPB B A U , My m ensingh

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 It is belie v e d ea s t ern Asia t hat ri c e originat e d in s o u t h  Rice is o ne o f the oldest cul t iv at e d cro p s, a n d has been cul t iv at e d for more than 500 0 y e ars  Ory z a sativ a mo s t l y grows in A s ia, Ameri ca, E u rope  Oryza glaberrima wi d ely gro w n in Africa Rice at a Glan c e

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 Whole g e nome s e qu e n c ed in 2005 thro u g h Hierarchical S h otgun Sequencing  Genot y pe is Nip p o n bare  Nu m ber o f gene is 37,544  Genome si z e is 49 0 Mbp Sour ce : N a ture 436 : 793 Ric e : Some bre a k -throughs

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 T o incre a s e grain y ie l d  T o dev elop e arly mature v a ri e tie s  T o ind u ce or improve resi st a nce to lod g ing and sha t t ering  Bre eding for gr a in cha r a c t e ri s tic s: s e ed d o rman c y , awn n es s , and pu b es c ence of the Breed i ng Obje c tiv e s of Rice h u ll

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 T o Improving grain si z e, shape, tr ans l ucence and chalkiness  T o Improve cooking cha r a c t e ri s tic s  Bre eding for str e s s t oler a nce: dro u g h t, s a lini t y and al k al i nity  Improving grain s iz e, shape, tr ans l ucence and Rice Breed i ng Obje c tiv e s cha l kine ss

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 Bre eding for r e sis t ance to dise a s es  Bre eding for r e sis t ance to inse c t s li k e ste m b o re r , g all midge, ri c e b u g, e t c.  T o improve n u trit i o n al q u al i t y ; breeding for aroma, finenes s, hig h er pro p ortions of prote i n, s t arch, oil, vit a min - A e t c. Rice Breed i ng Obje c tiv e s

Floral Biology:

Fl o ral Biol o gy  T h e i nflore s c ence is a t erminal p anicle bea r ing single flowe r ed spikel e ts  The flower is surroun d e d b y a lemma a n d pale a  The flower is bisexual hav i ng six s t ame ns, one b i- furc a t ed s t igma  The p a n i cle com ple t es e merg e n c e fr om f lag lea f in 2-4 da y s  Flore t s i n a si n g l e p a nicle take s a bout 7 t o 10 da y s t o complete blo o ming

Floral Biology:

Fl o ral Biol o gy Fig : A . P art of r i c e pan i c l e B. Open r i c e flo r e t Sou r c e: A. B r e e ding Fie l d C r o p s - by J .M. P oeh l man B. P r ac t i c als i n P l a nt B r e e ding - by M. M. Bhandari A B

Floral Biology:

Fl o ral Biol o gy and shed p o ll e ns just be f ore the flower opens.  Blo o ming s t arts fr om the apical spikel e ts and procee ds d o wn w ards  T h e f lower i s s urrou n ded by a lemma and a pale a  Maximum bloo m ing occurs between 8 a.m. to 1 1 a.m.; even thou g h depending u p on t e mperature and rela t ive h u midi t y  T h e f lowers remain open for 3 0 t o 70 minutes and clos e a f t er f erti l iz a t ion. Anthers dehisc e

Floral Biology:

Fl o ral Biol o gy h o urs at 5 4˚F with 9 5 % h u midit y .  Rec eptivity of stigma is max i mum during fir st thre e d a y s a f t er opening of the spikel e ts and then gra d u al l y dec r e a s e s and lost within se v e n da y s  Un d er natura l c o n ditions, p o ll e n grains re main vi a ble for f i ve minutes a f t er anthes i s.  Preservation of ri c e p o ll e n is p o s sible for 2 4

Materials Required:

Materials Re q uired Parents with de s ir able genet i c v a ri a bili t ies E q uipments: Sci s sors Nee dle s / For c e ps Polyth ene ba gs, bro wn ba gs T ag Clip - Thre a ds Stick et c . Magnif y ing gla s s

Procedure:

Pr o cedure 1. Sele c t ion of pa r enta l plants in the fie ld a. Hea l th y , d is e ase a n d i n s e ct fre e b. Plant i n which fl ower just o p en or g o ing t o o p e n c. Plants of o ptimu m s i ze a n d f r o m b o r der s ide were s ele c ted for e a se of work d. Representa tiv e plants of the va ri ety need to be selec t ed

Procedure:

Pr o cedure 2. Emascula t ion: - Before em as c ulat i on imma t u r e, o v er ma t u r e a n d op e n spi k elets were remov e d fr o m the pa n ic l e Kee ping o nly sp ik elets th at w ill bloo m Abo u t 2/3 of the selec t ed s pikelets were cu t out by sh a r p sc i s s o r s in s u c h a way th at the anth er a nd s t igma were u n a f fe c ted Then the a n th e rs we r e r e mo v ed e n ti r ely with the help of the p ointed n e e dles / tweeze r

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Pr o cedure 2. Emascula t ion(cont.): - Emas c ulat i on s h ould b e d o n e in t h e af t e r -noo n or e v en i ng to avoid un d e sir able po l len 3. Baggin g : - The emas c ulat e d p anic l es we r e cove r e d with b r own p a p e r b a g

Procedure:

Pr o cedure 4. T aggin g : - Emas c ulat e d a nd b a g g ed p anic l e was t a g g ed be a r ing t he fo l lowing info r mat i o n : Name of the p ar ent s : P 1 x Number of flowers e mas c ulated Date of emas c ulat i on Name of the b r e e d e r

Procedure:

Pr o cedure 5. P o llin ation: - Poll i n a ti o n i s tra n s fer of polle n g r ain f r o m the anth er of de sire d male p a r ents o nto the sti g ma o f fem ale p ar ent s . P ollen g r ains a r e c ollec t ed fro m fre sh , tu r gid a nt h e r s a n d d u s ted on em as c ulat e d fl ower sti g ma with the he l p of camel ha i r bru s h o r e v en with f o rc e ps. 6. Baggin g : - After pollina ti o n the pa n ic l e was a ga i n c o v ere d with b r own p a p e r b a g t o check c o n t amin a tion

Procedure:

Pr o cedure 7. T aggin g : - Emas c ulat e d a nd p oll i n ated p anic l e w as ta g g e d be a r ing t he fo l lowing info r mat i o n : Name of the cr os s: P1 x P2 Number of flowers e mas c ulated Numb e r of fl owers p oll i n ated Date of emas c ulat i on Date of p o ll i n a ti o n Name of the bre ed e r Bag sh o uld b e r emov e d af t er f r uiti n g of t he fem ale pa r ents

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Pr o cedure Har v e sting and s t orage: Cro s se d se e d s h ould b e h a r ves t ed at r i g h t matu r it y , d r ied and s t o r ed alon g with l a b e ls Precaut i o n s: A n ther sho u ld be p r ope r ly r em o v ed. Fl o w er shou l d be se l ec t ed b e f o r e a n thes i s P ol l i n a tion shou l d be done a t p r oper ti m e - Ba g ging shou l d be done i m med i at ely af t er emascu l a t i on and po l l in a t i on P ol l i n at ed flo r e ts shou l d be r out i ne l y i n spec t ed f or poss i b l e th r e a t f r om d i f f e r e n t i n sects, and pe s ts

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