Breeding Genotypes sustanibility for sri culti

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1 Breeding Genotypes Suitable for “SRI” cultivation


2 CONTENTS…. Introduction History of SRI What is SRI? Principles of SRI Useful features of SRI Physiological studies Plant characters required of SRI Advantages of SRI Limitations Breeding methods Conclusion & Future perspectives

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4 Rice : Oryza sativa L. 2n = 24 Family : Poaceae Name Area (mha) Production (mt) Productivity (kg/ha) World 152 586 3880 India 44.92 93.00 2000 Gujarat 0.66 1.01 1553 Anonymous (2004)

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5 Water is an important natural resource which is becoming scarcer because of population pressure & inefficiency of the developed water infrastructures. Rice cultivation consumes 70% of water available for Agriculture hence economizing water use in rice production has become important. The System of Rice Intensification offers much scope in that direction ( Thiyagarajan et al . 2004 ). The System of Rice Intensification is an alternative to the existing practices where field are kept wet and not flooded with water. This system seems to be promising to overcome the shortage of water in irrigated rice . The practices of SRI are helpful in improving soil quality and soil biodiversity. It appears to be an environment friendly approach of rice cultivation ( Pathak et al . 2004 ).

History of SRI:

6 History of SRI SRI methodology for growing rice, was developed by a French priest, Fr. Henri de Laulanie, S.J. in the early 1980 in Madagascar, after 20 years of working with farmers to assess and learn from their rice-growing practices.

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7 With SRI methods farmers in Madagascar-where rice yields average about 2 tons/ha even with irrigation- have been able to get yields averaging around 8 tons/ha, with top yields in the 15 to 20 tons/ha range, above what has usually been considered to be the biological maximum (Khush & Peng, 1996).

What is SRI ?:

8 What is SRI ? The System of Rice Intensification is a methodology for increasing the productivity of irrigated rice by changing the management of plant, soil, water and nutrients . This methodology which is based on agro-ecological principles with good scientific foundation is of interest because of its potential to achieve higher yield of lower cost of production along with saving of water ( Rao & Satyanarayana, 2004).

Table 1: The main differences in cultural measures between SRI and TRC:

9 Practice SRI TRC Seedling age (days) 8-12 25-35 Seedling/hill (no.) 1 5-6 Plant spacing (cm) 25×25 - 50×50 16.7×20 - 20×26.7 Weeding (no.) 4 3 Types of fertilizer Organic source Organic and Chemical fertilizer Irrigation pattern Discontinuous irrigation (unflooded) continuous irrigation (flooded) Hunan, China Yan Quingquan (2002) Table 1: The main differences in cultural measures between SRI and TRC

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11 Rice is not an aquatic plant. Although rice can survive when growing under flooded (hypoxic) conditions, it does not really thrive in such a soil environment. Under continuous submergence, most of the rice plant’s roots remain in the top 6-10 cm of soil and most degenerate by start of the plant’s reproduction phase. Rice seedlings lose much of their growth potential if they are transplanted more than about 15 days after they have emerged in their nursery. Their potential for greater tillering & root growth can be preserved by early transplanting in conjunction with the other SRI practices.

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13 (8 to 12 days old seedling) SRI method (20 to 25 days old seedling) TRC method

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14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Fig 1: Dry matter distribution of roots in SRI and TRC plant at flowering stage in hybrids Hangzhou, China Tao Longxing et al. (2002) (Three line hybrid ) ( Two line hybrid)

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15 During transplanting, avoid trauma to seedlings & especially to their roots. Stresses such as drying out seedling roots, will delay the resumption of plant growth after transplanting & reduce subsequent tillering, root development & grain filling. If germination is high enough, direct seeding can be used with SRI practices instead of transplanting as direct seedling can avoid root trauma entirely . Wider spacing of plants will lead to greater root growth & associated tillering, provided that other favourable conditions for growth, such as soil aeration are provided.

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16 (20 ×20cm) (33 ×33cm) (SRI) (TRC)

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18 Treatment SRI TRC (16.7×26.7cm) I (33.3×33.3cm) II (40×40cm) Maximum number of tiller/hill 62.1 68.2 13.0 Total grain/panicles 200.2 221.6 218.1 Filled grain/panicles 170.1 197.4 184.0 Rate of seed setting (%) 85.0 90.1 84.5 1000-grain weight (gm) 25.5 26.1 25.2 Actual yield (t/ha) 12.15 11.25 10.02 Theoretical Yield (t/ha) 17.56 15.85 11.32 Yield increase over TRC (%) 21.3 12.3 - Table 2 : Comparison of agronomic and yield of Liangyoupi 9 with SRI Hefei, China Ang Shengfu et al. (2002)

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19 Soil aeration & organic matter create beneficial conditions for plant root growth & for consequent plant vigor & heath. This results from having a greater abundance & diversity of microbial life in the soil, helping plants resist pest and disease damage. Increased root exudation enhance soil biotic populations.

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20 Micro- organisms Conventional practices SRI practices Total bacteria 88 x10 6 105 x10 6 Azospirillum 8 x10 5 31 x10 5 Azotobacter 39 x10 3 66 x10 3 Phosphobacte r 33 x10 3 59 x10 3 Source : Thigayarajan (2004) World Rice Research Conference in Nov. 2004 Table 3 : Microbial population in the rice rhizosphere with different practices

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SRI solves the water scarcity problems :

22 SRI solves the water scarcity problems ♦ The CAU evaluation of SRI in a Sichuan village found that SRI reduced water requirements by 45.8% with increased yield. ♦ The TNAU evaluation of SRI in Tamiraparani delta of India found that SRI reduced water requirement by 40-50%. ♦ From the data in the IWMI evaluation of SRI in Sri Lanka, it can be calculated that the hours of irrigation were reduced by 21%. Given higher SRI yields, water productivity (kg of rice produced per irrigation hour) increased by 90% with SRI.

SRI is more resistance to other biotic & abiotic stresses besides drought thereby reduces farmers’ risk:

23 SRI is more resistance to other biotic & abiotic stresses besides drought thereby reduces farmers’ risk ● A cold spell in Andhra Pradesh in February 2004 had no effect on SRI plots, while it had an adverse impact on conventionally-grown rice . ● Farmers in many countries report that their SRI crops are more resistant to pests and diseases , perhaps because of the more robust root systems . The CNRRI calculated that in its Zhejiang trials, SRI methods reduced the incidence of sheath blight , the main disease affecting rice in that province, by 70%. ● Researcher at TNAU have documented significant decrease in rice pests, both in nurseries and in the field: cutworm, thrips, green leaf hopper, brown plant hopper, whorl maggot and gall midge.

SRI works with Hybrid varieties & HYVs:

24 SRI works with Hybrid varieties & HYVs Because SRI reduces seed requirements by 80-90%, it can reduce the higher costs of production when adopting hybrids or HYVs which have more expensive seed. SRI not only gives higher yield from these seeds but very few seeds are needed to plant the crop (Norman Uphoff, 2005).

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25 Variety Spikelets/ Panicles Grain Setting (%) 1000 Grain wt. (gm) Theoretical Yield (t/ha) Actual yield (t/ha) Yield compared to TRC (%) Pei’al 64S/171 205.2 81.9 26.4 11.28 11.97 + 2.57 Pei’al64S/004 209.8 80.0 26.5 10.94 10.98 - 5.91 38S/9311 194.9 84.6 26.2 11.08 11.48 - 1.63 Zhun S/572 218.5 92.0 29.8 12.13 12.23 + 4.80 Yaza 1 233.0 84.9 27.5 13.07 12.79 + 9.60 Yaza 2 229.0 83.2 27.5 11.87 10.61 - 9.08 Pei’al 64S/9311 (TRC mehtod) 238.3 92.2 26.8 11.97 11.67 - Hunan, China Yan Qingquan (2002) Table 4 : Grain yield & its components with two line hybrid rice varieties ( medium duration)

Table 5: Results of SRI:

26 Table 5: Results of SRI Countries Conventional tons/ha SRI tons/ha %increase Gambia 2.3 7.1 209 Madagascar 2.6 7.2 177 Myanmar 2.0 5.4 169 Sri Lanka 3.6 7.8 116 Sierra Leone 2.5 5.3 112 Nepal 4.2 8.5 102 India 4.0 8.0 100 Cambodia 2.7 4.8 78 Cuba 6.2 9.8 58 Indonesia 5.0 7.4 37 Bangladesh 4.9 6.3 29 China 10.9 12.4 14 CIIFAD Uphoff Norman (2003)

SRI work as Diversification:

27 SRI work as Diversification Many rice farmers consider SRI to be an important means for diversifying their rice-based farming system. As soon as they can harvest higher yield from their small plot, farmer can convert some of their rice field to grow other upland crops or dig a pond and canal to produce fish.



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29 Treatment Development Stage Content of Soluble Sugar (umol/gFW) Content of Non-protein Nitrogen (g/kg DW) Content of MDA nmol/gFW) Proline (ug/gFW) TRC Tillering 30.32 5.7 7.37 13.54 Flowering 198.51 7.7 10.25 14.53 SRI Tillering 46.84 7.1 9.78 15.13 Flowering 320.63 9.5 20.89 18.38 Table 6: Content of soluble sugar, NPN & Proline in leaves of SRI & conventional rice (Wuxianggeng 9 NPN = Non protein nitrogen, FW = Fresh weight, DW = Dry weight Nanjing, China Wang Shao-hao et al. (2002)

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30 Physiological demand of water by the rice plants is indispensable for normal metabolic activities, but ecological water demand has certain flexibility. The reduced ecological water supply under SRI create a slight drought stress , as seen with the increased content of soluble sugar and non protein nitrogen (Wang Shao-hao, 2002).

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31 Treatment Item Net accumulation in spike (kg/ha) Translocation of assimilates from organ (kg/ha) Leaf Stem & sheath Leaf, stem & sheath TRC Dry matter 9403.2 110.1 518.9 629.1 Carbohydrate 7376.6 76.9 343.1 419.9 Nitrogen 90.9 12.4 18.1 30.5 SRI Dry matter 9889.3 341.1 887.7 1228.8 Carbohydrate 8414.9 242.4 488.2 730.6 Nitrogen 95.3 21.8 29.2 50.9 Nanjing, China Wang Shao hua et al. ( 2002) Table 7: Translocation of assimilates in SRI & conventional rice Wuxianggeng 9

Aerenchyma Distribution in Rice roots :

32 Aerenchyma Distribution in Rice roots Kai noi Chinet 1 Kai noi Chinet 1 KDML 105 KDML 105 Water logged condition Aerobic condition

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33 Hyderabad Vijaykumar et al. (2005)

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34 The reported success of SRI is based on the synergetic development of tillers and roots Phyllochron : It is the time interval or period of time, separating the onset of two successive leaves on the same tiller. Phytomer : A set of tillers, leaf and root which emerge from base of plant.

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35 inflorescences PHYTOMER Adventitious root Leaf blade Tiller bud internode Phytomer 2 Phytomer 1 Phytomer 3 Phytomer 4 bud

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36 Phyllochrons 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th 11 th 12th phyllochrons 1 0 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 12 20 31 Total no. of tillers 1 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 33 53 84 Tokyo de Laulanie (1995) Table 8 : Emergence of tiller as the number of phyllochrons increase (Theoritcally)

Table 9: Different type of tillers produced in successive phyllochrons :

37 Table 9: Different type of tillers produced in successive phyllochrons Phyllochrons Tillers (number per plant) Primary Tiller Secondary Tiller Tertiary Tiller Total tillers 4 1 0 0 1 6 4 1 0 5 7 6 5 0 11 8 9 7 1 17 10 11 8 4 23 12 12 10 7 29 Hangzhou, China Zhu Defeng et al. ( 2002)

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38 China Zhu Defeng et al . (2002)

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39 Hangzhou, China Zhu Defeng et al. (2002)

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42 SRI supplies very favourable conditions for vigorous growing and fully brings out latent yield potentials of rice. Yan Quingquan (2001), HAU, China conduct experiments in two medium duration hybrid rice using SRI method. According to him, compared hybrid varieties for the higher yield potential with SRI method should possess the following plant characters.

Strong Tillering Capacity:

43 Strong Tillering Capacity If a variety's tillering capacity is weak, the subsequent number of effective panicles , which are the main factor influencing yield will not be numerous enough to achieve expected target yield.

Lodging Resistance:

44 Lodging Resistance ● Stems are strong & elastic ● Lead sheath surrounds the stem ● More silicon in stem ● Quick growth of Spikelets & high degree of grain filling SRI TRC

Greater Stress Resistance:

45 Greater Stress Resistance ♦ There should be strong ability to resist losses due to diseases & insects such as rice blast, bacterial blight, stem borer & rice plant hopper .

Enormous Yield Potential :

46 Enormous Yield Potential ♦ Very strong photosynthesis capacity ♦ Ideal plant type ♦ Optimum canopy

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48 1. Higher Milling Outturn - SRI paddy gives less chaff (fewer unfilled grain) & there is less shattering (fewer broken grain) - SRI paddy gives 16% more milled rice as compared to conventional grown rice. 2. SRI reduces seed requirement by 80-90%

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49 3. SRI reduces the costs of production - Organic Agriculture - Save water - Labour 4. SRI plant matures quickly: SRI paddy matures 7-10 days earlier than the conventionally grown rice. 5. SRI improve environment quality & human health - Reduced use of agrochemical should enhance the health of cultivators & will also by diminishing chemical residue on rice. - In SRI application of nitrogen fertilizer can be reduced, this should enhance ground water quality by diminishing nitrate concentration.

Limitations :

50 Limitations 1) Root feeding nematodes 2) Depletion of soil nutrients

Breeding Methods:

51 B reeding M ethods

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52 Introduction It is a rapid method of breeding in which genotypes of rice which are high yielding are introduced from elsewhere. A. Conventional Methods

2. Selection:

53 2. Selection Wide range of cultivars differing in their origin is grown in SRI conditions and then selection is done with respect to suitability of genotype. The plants are selected having more number of primary and secondary tillers and more Spikelets per panicles which can be further used in hybridization programme.


54 CONCLUSION & FUTURE PERSPECTIVES ● SRI shows that there is huge biological potential in rice plant that remains to be tapped. ● This potential can be effective exploited if knowledge to improve plant, water, soil, nutrient and pest management is shared with farmers. Better management captures synergies between root and tiller growth, which in turn lead to greater grain filling. ● SRI is not just a way to maximize rice yield, but also as a way to diversify the rice based farming system in the rainfed low land. This is essential for the improvement of nutrition, income & landscape diversity. ● By getting much higher yield from small unit of land, SRI can enhance food security, drought resistance is of special relevance to poor farmers, who usually are more vulnerable to this catastrophe.

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