Possibilities and constraints HETEROSIS IN COTTON

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Possibilities and constraints for the exploitation of heterosis in cucurbits

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INTRODUCTION

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Cucurbits ( Cucurbitaceae ) are among the most important plant family supplying edible products and useful fibers. Cucurbits are of tremendous economic importance and are cultivated throughout the world from tropical to subtropical regions. Cucurbits are cultivated worldwide in a range of environments. The cucurbitaceae consists of about 118 genera and 825 species. In India, It is represented by about 34 genera and 108 species of which 38 species are endemic.(Rai., 2006) This shows availability of rich genetic diversity in species of cucurbits. Cucurbits are considered to be versatile material for botanical, genetical, plant breeding and production technology studies. Cucurbits are among the largest and most diverse plant families, have a large range of fruit characteristics, Cucurbits are associated with the origin of agriculture and human civilizations and are also among the first plant species domesticated in both new and old world. .

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Vegetables (India)* : Area : 3.4 million hectares Production : 35.0 million tonnes Cucurbits (India)* : Area : 4.43 lakh hectares Production : 47.2 lakh tonnes * Source : FAO (2007)

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Table : 1. Area, production and productivity of major vegetable crops in India. Source : FAO (2007) Sr. No. Crop Area (000 ha) Production (000Mt) Productivity (t/ha ) 1 Brinjal 510 8200 16.07 2 Cabbage 280 6000 21.42 3 Cauliflower 280 4800 17.14 4 Okra 370 3550 9.59 5 Onion 530 5500 10.37 6 Peas 350 3200 9.14 7 Potato 1400 25000 17.85 8 Tomato 540 7600 14.07 9 Cucurbits 443.0 4720 10.7

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Table : 2. List of cultivated cucurbits. No. Common Name Local Name Botanical Name Ch. No. (2n) 1. Cucumber Kakri , Khira Cucumis sativus L. 14 2. Snap melon Phoot Cucumis melo var.momardica 24 3. Musk melon Kharbuza Cucumis melo L. 24 4. Long melon - Cucumis melo var.utilissimus 24 5. Squash Chappan Cucurbita pepo L. 40 6. Pumpkin kaddu Cucurbita maxima Dutch 40 7. Water melon Tarbuz Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) 22 8. Bitter gourd Karela Momordica charantia L. 22 9. Bottle gourd Lauki Lagenaria siceraria (mol) Stndyl 22 10. Ridge gourd Kali tori Luffa acutangula (Roxb.) L. 26 11. Sponge gourd Ghia tori Luffa cylindrica Roem 26 12. Snake gourd Chichinda Tricosanthes cucumerina 24 13. Pointed gourd Parwal Tricosanthes dioica Roxb. 24 14. Ash gourd Safed kaddu Benineasa hispida (Thumb.) dessert. 24 15. Ivy gourd Kundsru Coccinia cordifolia 24

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Table : 3. Average Chemical Composition ( Per 100gm Edible Portion ). Constituent Cucumber Ridge Gourd Bottle gourd Edible portion (g) 83 Moisture (g) 96.3 93.8 96.1 Proteins (g) 0.4 1.2 0.2 Fats (g) 0.1 0.20 0.1 Minerals (g) 0.3 0.4 Fibres (g) 0.4 0.50 0.2 Carbohydrates (g) 2.5 4.36 2.5 Calcium (mg) 10 18 20.0 Phosphorous (mg) 25 26 10.0 Iron (mg) 1.5 0.39 0.46 Thiamin (mg) 0.037 0.05 0.03 Riboflavin (mg) 0.2 0.06 0.01 Vit . C (mg) 7.0 12 12 Source: Vegetable and Spices- Narendra Singh

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Importance of Vegetables Vegetables are considered as " Protective Supplementary Food". Different Uses …..As a vegetable – cooking, salad, pickle and possess high medicinal value. Play an important role in national economy. Increase in vegetable production through hybrid vegetable production technology.

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Why hybrids are being adopted by the farmers ? Greater productivity. Longer harvest duration. Better adaptability to variable environment. Better tolerance to disease and pest. Better market acceptability. Better nutritional quality.

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“The superiority of F 1 hybrid in one or more characters over its parents”. Heterosis Types Of Heterosis Mid-parent Heterosis Heterobeltiosis Standard Heterosis

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Average heterosis: If the hybrid is superior to the mid-parent, it is regarded as average heterosis. Heterobeltiosis: This term was suggested Fonseca and Patterson (1968) to describe the increased performance of the hybrid over the better parent. Standard heterosis: The heterosis in relation to the best commercial hybrid of the crop; such an estimate is known as standard heterosis. Terminology

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Advantages of the commercial exploitation of heterosis: Low inbreeding depression. High heterosis percentage. Large number of seeds per fruit. Low seed rate requirement per unit area. Monoecious / Dioecious nature of the crop

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Objectives of heterosis Higher yield due to -Marketable size of the fruit. -Higher weight of the fruit. -More number of fruits per plant. Early maturity. Uniformity in size and shape. Good quality. Wider adaptability. Better resistance to - Disease. - Insect and pest. - Drought.

Constraints :

Constraints Production of less female flowers, ratio of female to male flowers is 1:12 . Sterile hybrid produced in Interspecific cross. Weak peduncle of flowers. Disease and pest incidence. Cytoplasmic male sterility. Insufficient germplasm in different cucurbitaceous crops and the need to augment indigenous and exotic-collections. Absence of basic/fundamental research programmes to accelerate the work on applied aspects. Lack of competent scientific manpower to manage the research programmes.

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Cucumber

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Cucumber Main breeding objectives: Height of the plant. Desirable fruit size. High productiveness. Earliness. Viability of seeds. Resistance to diseases and pests . For lower bitterness in fruits.

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Crosses Days to anthesis of 1 st female flower Nodal position of 1 st female flower Main shoot length No. of primary branches per vine No. of fruit per vine Fruit yield per vine (kg) HB SH HB SH HB SH HB SH HB SH HB SH PCUC-83 X PCUC-25 -15.1** -12.0** -23.0** -10.7 18.8** 1.0 5.0 21.0 67.7** 21.1* 43.7** 18.7* PCUC-83 X PCUC-15 0.6 2.2 -4.8 6.7 13.8* 18.2* -3.3 11.4 58.2** 22.2** 45.5** 20.2** PCUC-83 X DC-1 -11.7** -7.2 -13.8* 0.0 -16.5* -20.1** -45.5** -37.1** 4.9 -16.1 -19.2* -33.2** PCUC-25 X PCUC-28 -9.4* -6.9 -2.4 8.0 19.7** 9.5 46.1** 5.7 20.6* 7.2 -2.7 -16.8* PCUC-25 X PCUC-15 -0.4 1.2 -6.0 5.3 16.2* 11.2 37.6** 11.4 56.1** 20.6* 38.5** 20.0* PCUC-25 X DC-1 - 15.0** - 13.0 ** -24.7** -6.7 0.2 -8.5 -10.5 -35.2** 0.7 -19.4 -12.6 -33.6** PCUC-8 X PCUC-28 1.0 0.0 -6.2 0.0 12.8* 0.0 41.9** 0.0 12.5 0.0 17.2* 0.0 PCUC-8 X PCUC-15 5.1 4.0 2.5 9.3 6.8 10.9 4.7 -15.2 42.4** 14.7 19.8* -4.8 PCUC-28 X DC-1 -12.7** -10.3** -8.4 1.3 2.7 -8.9 -5.4 -33.3** -8.1 -18.3 -17.5* -29.5* PCUC-15 X DC-1 -10.6** -9.2* -3.6 8.0 -20.3** -17.3** -24.7* -39.0** 6.3 -15.0 -16.4 -33.6** Table : 4. Estimate of heterobeltosis and standard heterosis of cucumber hybrids for different horticultural traits. *,** Significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability level respectively. Pantnagar Bairagi and Ram (2005)

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Parents Days to first female flower Days to first male flower No. of female flowers No. of male flowers Days to first fruit picking Length of fruit (cm) Diameter of fruit (cm) No. of fruit / vine Avg. fruit wt.(gm) Yield / vine (gm) Poona khira -0.25** -0.47** 0.57** 9.99** -5.18** -1.28 -0.21 -0.29 -9.38** -94.52 Junnar local 0.40* 1.69** 3.27** 3.89 -6.06** -0.55 0.42** 0.09 0.77** -20.05 Improved Long green 0.54 0.29** 0.72 -0.04** 3.32 0.86** 0.02 -0.37 -6.79** -11.17 Shubhangi -0.32** -0.57** -1.02 -13.90** -1.15** 0.80* -0.02 0.37** 3.73** 81.03** Japanese long green 0.74 1.69 3.52** 1.22 -1.84** 1.06 0.19** -0.82 11.47** -73.89 Talegaon local -1.52** -1.40** -0.25 -7.42* 0.81 -0.70 -0.05 0.24** 4.95 19.00** Himangi 0.92 1.49** -0.92 4.94** 3.27 -0.30 -0.10 0.06* -7.18 -8.08 Sheetal -0.02** -0.09** 0.60* -3.64** -1.14** 0.12** -0.13 0.89** -1.25 107.70** SE ( gi ) ± 0.202 0.17 0.175 0.212 0.11 4.11 1.509 4.801 0.135 0.115 CD at 5% 0.405 0.34 0.349 0.423 0.22 0.82 0.03 0.095 0.27 0.305 CD at 1% 0.535 0.452 0.463 0.562 0.292 0.108 0.039 0.127 0.359 -0.937 Table : 5. Estimation of GCA effect of parents in cucumber for ten characters. MPKV, Rahuri Kumbhar et al. (2005) *,** = Significant at 5 and 10 % level of probability, respectively

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Crosses Days to first female flower Days to first male flower No. of female flowers No. of male flowers Days to first fruit picking Length of fruit (cm) Diameter of fruit (cm) No. of fruit / vine Avg. fruit wt.(gm) Yield / vine (gm) Poona khira x Junnar local 0.50** 2.72 0.6 25.55 6.78 1.07** 0.47** 1.97** -15.13 229.3** Poona khira x Talegaon local -1.55** -1.97** 1.80** 29.68 -0.49** -1.03 0.20** -0.9** 0.20** 118.7** Junnar local x Talegaon local 1.27* -1.34** -2.23 38.45 -0.98** 0.27* 0.45 1.90** -11.73 174.2** Improved Long green x Himangi -1.32** - 2.64** 3.43** 63.41 1.22 -1.95 0.45** 1.25** 10.31** 247.3** Improved long green x Sheetal 2.3 -1.91** 4.43 -26.8** 4.09 29.0** 0.85** 0.37** 9.71** 67.4** Shubhangi x Japanese Long green -3.60** 0.35** 0.67 9.78 -1.31** 0.29** 0.30** 1.26** -14.2 158.9** Improved Long green x Talegaon local 2.27 -1.47** -4.76 -38.4** 3.39 0.48** 3.01** 31.9** -1.27 -27.9 Japanese Long green x Sheetal -0.22** 2.35 4.03 -7.14** 2.69 0.85** -0.08 15.7** -0.12 52.9** SE ( gi ) ± 0.402 0.256 0.321 0.412 0.213 7.054 2.859 8.052 0.265 0.221 CD at 5% 0.733 0.523 0.652 0.852 0.432 0.152 0.059 0.125 0.542 0.562 CD at 1% 1.023 7.52 0.841 0.987 0.531 0.192 0.079 0.231 0.568 1.802 Table : 6. Estimation of SCA effect of promising crosses in Cucumber for ten characters. MPKV, Rahuri Kumbhar et al. (2005) *,** = Significant at 5 and 10 % level of probability, respectively

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BOTTLE GOURD

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Swati Warad

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Bottle Gourd Main breeding objectives : Higher yield (early and total). Desirable fruit size, shape and colour (light green). Tender flesh fruit with soft skin. Resistance against common diseases and pests.

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Parents Lines Node bearing first female flower Days to first harvest Average weight of edible fruit Number of fruit / vine Vine length Number of primary branches/ vine Yield/vine NDBG -1 0.40 3.44** 0.04* -0.48** 0.25** 1.81** -0.24** NDBG-4 -0.11 -0.56 0.03 -0.53** 0.12 0.28 -0.26** NDBG-10 1.28** 3.44** -0.02 -0.96** -0.18* -1.89** -0.72** NDGB-20 0.25 -1.90** 0.02 0.04 0.28** -0.18 0.05 BDGB-57 0.40 -1.01 -0.07** 0.45** -0.03 0.46 0.07 NDGB-104 0.46 -0.12 -0.03 0.56** 0.13 0.58 0.32** NDGB-106 0.00 -0.12 0.00 0.47** -0.22** 0.19 0.30** PSPL 0.11 0.32 0.06** 0.28* 0.19* 0.94* 0.43** BTG-1 -1.10** -2.34** 0.03 0.25* -0.46** -0.37 0.32 NDGB-60 0.02 -0.56 -0.3 -0.25 -0.16 -0.51 -0.26** S.E.( gi ) ± 0.28 0.57 0.02 0.12 0.09 0.45 0.08 S.E.( gi-gi )± 0.49 0.99 0.02 0.21 0.15 0.79 0.14 NDGB-1C -0.14 -0.02 -0.01 -0.04 -0.07 -0.90** -0.02 BDBG-56 0.16 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.39* 0.01 Pusa navin -0.02 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.50** 0.01 S.E.( gi ) ± 0.12 0.23 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.18 0.03 S.E.( gi-gi )± 0.23 0.47 0.01 0.10 0.07 0.37 0.05 Table:7. Estimate of General combining ability effect for seven characters of Bottle Gourd. * significant at 5% probability level, ** significant at 1% probability level Faizabad (U P) Kumar and Singh (1997) Testers

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Crosses Node bearing first female flower Days to first harvest Average weight of edible fruit Number of fruit / vine Vine length Number of primary branches/ vine Yield/vine NDBG -1 x NDBG-1C 0.81* 0.46 0.01 0.29 -0.12 1.24 0.27* NDBG -1 x BDBG-56 -0.06 0.92 -0.04 0.50** 0.35** -0.45 0.28* NDBG -1 x Pusa Navin -0.75 0.46 0.02 -0.78** -0.23 -0.79 -0.56** NDBG-56 x NDBG-1C 1.00* -3.13 ** -0.09** -0.40* 0.11 -2.29** -0.48** NDBG-15 x NDBG-1 -1.24** -1.54 -0.05* 0.71** -0.51** -1.64* 0.36** NDBG-20 x Pusa Navin 0.09 0.46 -0.12** 1.59** 0.26* 0.86 0.68** NDBG-55 x NDBG-1 -0.08 0.91 0.02 0.53** -0.43** 1.04 0.35** NDBG-10 x Pusa Navin 0.00 -4.87** 0.00 1.09** -0.16 3.01** 0.76** NDBG-57 x BDBG-56 1.11** 3.52** -0.05* 0.13 0.06 -0.36 -0.06 S.E.( gi ) ± -- 0.80 0.02 0.17 0.13 0.64 0.12 Table:8. Estimation of SCA effect for seven characters of Bottle Gourd. * significant at 5% probability level, ** significant at 1% probability level Faizabad (U P) Kumar and Singh(1997)

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cross No. of primary branches per vine Days to first picking Length of fruit (cm) Girth of fruit (cm) No. of fruit per vine Yield (kg / vine) BP SC BP SC BP SC BP SC BP SC BP SC Pattiwali X Pusa manjari 11.50 -5.01 -3.73 -2.22 0.08 -24.41** -40.29** 24.21 0.31 -2.99 14.44 -14.22 Pattiwali x Bottle Dang 16.40** 17.99** -7.25** -5.79 14.10** -13.82** -3.07 12.46 28.64** 69.29** 34.66** 38.76 * Pattwali X JLT 14.40* 14.81* -3.31 -1.79 -3.72 -3.72 -1.20 15.17 50.05** 50.04** 28.50 28.58 Pattiwali X J.Sel.1 -5.36 12.53* -8.31** -6.87** 12.45** -10.80** 4.18 21.45 21.79* 51.55** -4.13 29.69 BP-11 X J.Sel.1 -43.10** -30.35** -8.33** -6.29** -4.93 -24.58** -56.81** -5.93 -7.45 15.15 -29.48* -4.61 Pusa manjari X J.Sel. 1 -49.43** -39.86** -5.61* -6.15** -6.70 -25.99** -40.10** 24.61 -4.01 19.44 -22.92 -4.27 Bottle Dang X J.Sel.1 -9.39 7.74 -2.47 6.65** 11.76** -11.34** -2.68 12.91 2.12 34.40* -10.81 20.65 JLT X J Sel. 1 -7.09 10.48 -7.37** -7.37** -1.43 -1.43 -2.31 12.57 -11.78 39.08* 03.13 39.51** SE ± 1.32 … 1.58 …. 1.50 ….. 2.32 … 1.58 … 1.46 … Mean -13.04 -9.13 -4.91 -4.16 -2.20 -25.55 23.85 23.97 3.67 20.48 -2.11 6.20 *,** show significant at 1% and 5% level, respectively. GAU , Junagadh Kathiria and Ghevaria(1998) Table : 9. Heterosis over better and standard check for different characters in bottle gourd.

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Table : 10. Percent heterosis over the better parent of selected seven crosses for eight characters in long fruited bottle gourd. *,** Significant at P=0.05 & 0.01 level, respectively. P.A.U. (Ludhiana) Singh et al . (1998) Crosses Yield per hactare Days to 1 st female flowering (earliness) Days to 1 st harvest Fruit length Fruit girth Weight per fruit Number of fruits per vine Vine length ARBGH-7 X Pusa Naveen 84.53 * 2.029 0.60 - 9.72 * 16.69 * 13.18 58.63 * - 20.09 * ARBGH-7 X LC 2-1 72.50 * - 5.23 * - 2.87 * - 5.92 9.95 * 30.97 * 29.87 * -20.47 * KBG-16 X Pusa Naveen 43.28 * 1.87 1.58 * 6.43 28.94 * - 15.49 51.07 * - 3.24 * ARBGH-7 X KBG-16 37.41 * - 4.27 - 2.42 * - 8.76 * 10.27 * - 12.68 27.79 * - 13.73 * PSPL X LC 2-1 31.27 * - 5.09 * - 4.90 * - 3.88 - 8.78 * - 3.38 29.03 * - 22.05 * PBOG-61 X LC 2-1 29.90 * - 2.12 2.02 * - 16.90 * - 17.57 * 2.64 16.01 * 8.13 * NDBG-56 X LC 2-1 25.59 * - 0.28 - 1.79 * 0.45 4.31 4.45 12.20 * 5.27 * C.D. at 5 %. 14.07 4.40 0.87 7.49 0.88 18.82 2.99 0.69

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RIDGE GOURD

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Gaurav

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Ridge Gourd Main breeding objectives: Higher yield (early and total). Higher number of fruits per plant. Medium sized, non-bitter, tender and non-fibrous fruit. Resistance to diseases (especially virus) and pests (fruit fly).

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Table : 11a. Estimation of heterosis in Ridge gourd K.A.U., Thrissur Mole et al. (2001) * , ** Significant at 5 and 1% levels, respectively. BH- Heterobeltiosis, SH- Standard heterosis Crosses Vine length Days to first female flower Yield per vine BH (%) SH (%) BH (%) SH (%) BH (%) SH (%) LA 81 x LA 43 -5.24 6.13 8.50 -4.89 -1.35 30.64 LA 81 x LA 44 -11.56 1.03 4.89 -8.07 50.81** 99.71** LA 81 x LA 87 -5.51 22.24 -2.90 -2.90 4.49 65.79 LA 81 x LA 86 -14.32 -4.03 -9.52 -9.52 -9.96 19.59 LA 43 x LA 44 0.78 15.13 3.24 -9.74 44.38 41.32* LA 43 x LA 87 -17.96 6.13 -1.59 -1.59 -11.84 39.88* LA 43 x LA 86 14.50 14.50 -9.52 -9.52 -4.37 -2.26 LA 44 x LA 87 5.33 36.27** 1.45 1.44 -14.09 36.31* LA 44 x LA 86 6.37 21.52 -7.87 -77.87 29.87 29.87 LA 87 x LA 86 2.74 32.91* 0.83 0.82 1.31 60.75** Continue…

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Table : 11b. Estimation of heterosis in Ridge gourd. Crosses length of fruit Girth of fruit Duration of crop BH (%) SH (%) BH (%) SH (%) BH (%) SH (%) LA 81 x LA 43 -21.73* -39.79** 12.50 11.95 4.34 -1.76 LA 81 x LA 44 -29.90** -46.06** 21.10** 19.54* -9.05** -9.05** LA 81 x L A87 -27.56** -43.18** 5.30 7.52 -0.68 -2.87 LA 81 x LA 86 -30.95** -30.96** 4.77 4.72 -10.60** -10.60** LA 43 x LA 44 15.56 -48.21** 15.79* 14.10 -3.20 -3.20 LA 43 x LA 87 -24.72** -40.98** 10.33 12.67 1.69 -0.56 LA 43 x LA 86 -26.86** -26.87** -2.39 -2.43 -4.97* -4.97* LA 44 x LA 87 -25.26** -41.38** 7.24 9.52 -0.66 -0.66 LA 44 x LA 86 -36.57** -36.57** 4.53 4.51 -2.54 -2.54 LA 87 x LA 86 -7.22 -7.22 2.57 4.72 -2.54 -2.54 *, ** Significant at 5 and 1% levels, respectively. BH- Heterobeltiosis, SH- Standard heterosis K.A.U., Thrissur Mole et al. (2001)

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Table: 12 Estimates of G.C.A. effect of parents in Ridge Gourd Parents Vine length (cm) Position of 1 st female flower No. of female flower Days to first harvest (days) Fruit diameter (cm) Av. fruit wt. (g) No. of fruits /vine wt. of fruit /vine Atigre -0.05 -0.36 -2.28* 0.50 0.00 -2.03* -0.75* -0.10* Kawalapur 0.05* 0.73* -1.62 1.18* 0.10* 1.73* -1.47* -0.10* Inampangari -0.09 -1.23* 0.50 -2.43* -0.07 -1.59 1.12* 0.06 Panvel -0.13 -1.04* 2.05 -1.27* 0.00 0.81 0.33 0.04 RG-108 -0.11 0.83* 0.60 0.44 -0.04 -1.10 0.21 0.00 Tendoli 0.48* -0.79* 0.18 -1.23* -0.09* 0.83 -0.19 -0.01 Jaipur 0.29 2.41* -1.22 1.94* -0.02 3.86* -1.06* -0.01 Punjab Sadabahar -0.23 -0.54 -1.27 0.83 -0.05 -1.25 -0.64 -0.07* Co. 1 -00.9 0.52 3.67* 1.06* 0.10* 1.50 2.24* 0.23* Pusa Nasdar -0.53* -0.53 -0.60 1.04* 0.06 -2.75* 0.21 -0.05 SE (gi) 0.18 0.31 1.13 0.46 0.04 0.85 0.37 0.03 CD-(gi) 0.35 0.61 2.21 0.90 0.08 1.67 0.72 0.07 * Significant at 5% College of Agri., Pune Shah and Kale (2003)

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Table : 13. The crosses producing significant SCA effect for various characters in Ridge gourd. Vine length Position of 1 st female flower No. of female flower Days to first harvest (days) Fruit diameter (cm) Av. fruit wt .(g) No. of fruit/vine wt. of fruit/vine 1 x 3 (1.85) 1x 9 (-3.35) 1 x 6 (7.40) 2 x 5 (-6.02) 2 x 6 (0.64) 8 x 9 (12.20) 6 x 10 (9.58) 1 x 10 (0.47) 7 x 9 (1.74) 2 x 5 (-2.89) 2 x 3 (7015) 3 x 5 (-4.73) 3 x 4 (0.43) 6 x 7 (10.46) 3 x 10 (6.03) 3 x 10 (0.46) 3 x 10 (1.24) 6 x 8 (-2.86) 5 x 8 (6.97) 7 x 9 (-4.45) 9 x 10 (0.40) 1 x 2 (9.34) 5 x 9 (5.54) 5 x 9 (0.44) 7 x 9 (-2.45) 4 x 10 (-4.43) 1 x 7 (0.27) 3 x 6 (8.95) 1 x 10 (3.77) 8 x 9 (0.35) 2 x 9 (-2.37) 6 x 8 (-4.26) 4 x 6 (7.66) 3 x 4 (2.40) 6 x 10 (0.35) 3 x 5 (-2.20) 1 x 10 (-4.11) 7 x 9 (7.35) 1 x 6 (2.31) 1 x 2 (0.25) 5 x 7 (-2.97) 1 x 10 (6.62) 2 x 3 (2.21) 1 x 6 (0.25) 1 x 6 (-2.77) 4 x 5 (6.55) 5 x 10 (6.49) College of Agri., Pune Shah and Kale (2003 ) Atigre 2) Kawalapur 3) Inampangari 4) Panvel 5) RG-108 6) Tendoli 7) Jaipur 8) Punjab Sadabahar 9) Co-1 10) Pusa Nasdar

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Table : 14. Heterosis (%) over better and top parent for flowering, fruit characters and yield. IARI, New Delhi Hedau and Sirohi (2004) Hybrid Days to first female flower open Fruit length Fruit weight No. of fruits per vine Fruit yield per vine BP TP BP BP BP TP BP TP DRG 1 × PN -12.19** -3.98** 8.16** 2.57** 50.54** 7.73 93.09** 93.09** DRG 1 × PRG 7 -6.49** -5.96** - 3.24** 62.90** 16.56* 68.51** 68.51** PN × KRG 5 - - - - 29.65** - 58.36** 28.18** CHRG 1 × KRG 5 -15.22 ** -13.89** 24.26** 7.29** - 8.14 19.11** - DRG 1 × AAJU 3 - - - - 72.58** 23.35** 66.30** 66.50** CHRG 1 × AAUJ 3 - - - 3.73** 71.43** 80.45** 92.67 - CHRG 2 × AAUJ3 -0.26 - - - 75.86** - 66.53** 8.56 KRG 5 × AAUJ 3 - - 24.66** 16.15** 33.14** 0.04 62.46** 31.49**

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Important Hybrid Varieties Public Sector 1. Pusa Meghdoot (L) ( IARI ) 2. Pusa Manjari ( R ) ( IARI ) 3. Pusa Hybrid-3 ( IARI ) 4. PBOG-1 (GBPUAT) 5. PBOG-2 (GBPUAT) 6. NDBH-4 (NDUA&T) 1. Pusa Hybrid-1 (IARI) 2. Pusa Hybrid-2 (IARI) 3. RHRBGH-1 (MPKVV) 4. BTH-165 (PDVR) 5. BTH-7 (PDVR) 1. MRGH-3 1. Phule Priyanka (MPKV) 2. Sheetal (BSKV) 3. PUSA Sanyog (IARI) Name of crop Bottle Gourd : Bitter Gourd : Ridge Gourd : Cucumber : Private Sector 1. Varad ( L) (MAHYCO) 2. MGH-1 ( R) (MAHYCO) 3. CBH-4 (L) (Century) 4. Harita (Century) 5. Swati (Sungro) 6. No. 204 (IAHS) 1. MBTH-101 (G) (MAHYCO) 2. MBTH-102 (W) (MAHYCO) 3. NO.49 (IAHS) 4. Tijarti (Century) 5. Vivek (Sungro) 1. Surekha (MAHYCO) 2. Rohini (SLUIT) 3. Gaurav 1. Dharwad green (RAJURESHWAR SEEDS) 2. Shivneri (SEMINIS )

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POSSIBILITIES TO OVERCOME To develop genotypes having female to male flower ratio, as it results in higher fruit yield. Use of wild species in breeding program to produce strong peduncle. For production of more female flowers spraying of ethylene to induce more female flowers. Use of male sterile line with maintainer line having male fertile cytoplasm. To develop genotypes having lowest node number at which first pistillate flower appears. To develop genotypes possessing uniform thick cylindrical fruits, free from bitterness.

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-: CONCLUSION :- From the foregoing discussion it can be conclude that the hybrid vegetable production technology is one of the best options for yield potential of cucurbit. In this, the cucurbits are distinct group, where low inbreeding depression, monoecious, gynoecious, and androecious nature of plant exist which exclude the need of emasculation and facilitate easy hybridization programme at least cost. Thus, there is wide adaptability of cucurbit crops in commercial exploitation of heterosis. Major cucurbit shows significant heterosis over mid parent, top or better parental lines. Therefore, efforts should be made to develop the hybrids which may suit the requirement of National and International market. .

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38 Future Thrust Efforts should be made to develop F 1 hybrid of bitter gourd which can suit the requirement of value addition and processing industry. Attempts should be made to develop multiple disease resistant hybrids in gourd vegetables which are highly susceptible to several diseases. Efforts should be made to develop stable tropical gynoecious lines and/or male sterile line linked with easily identified phenotypic marker and their proper utilization in heterosis breeding programme. In hybrid breeding programme efforts should be made to develop parental/hybrid lines which are suitable for protected and off-season (winter) cultivation with better adaptability to variable environment.

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