ROLE OF BIOFERTILIZERS ON FLOWER CROPS

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1 ROLE OF BIOFERTILIZERS ON FLOWER CROPS

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2 Introduction Classification of biofertilizers Role of biofertilizers Review of literature… Marigold Gaillardia China aster Chrysanthemum Rose Tuberose Conclusion Future thrust 2 CONTENT

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3 INTRODUCTION

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4 INTRODUCTION Flowers are symbolised as love, purity, peace and beauty. Flower is a god’s gift to mankind. They are used in almost all occasions of festivals, religious or social functions. In new era floriculture industries has been developed in higher scale. So, the demand of flowers increased in the local as well as in the international market. The area under flower crops in India is about 1.06 lakh ha with the production of 5.5 lakh metric tonnes of loose flowers and 25.1 lakh cut flowers (Anon. 2006). The demands of organic flowers are also increase due to its longer shelf life. Biofertilizers (living fertilizer) are a mixture of micro organisms which are capable to mobilizing nutritive elements through biological process. Biofertilizers can be supplement to chemical fertilizers. They contribute plant nutrients through N 2 fixation, phosphate solubilization, maintenance of soil reaction and improvement of soil fertility. Biofertilizers are divided into bacteria, fungi and algae. They are capable for decomposing of organic matter also. In commercial scale, biofertilizers are available in the form of rhizobium, azotobactor , azospirillum , azolla , BGA, VAM and PSM.

What are Biofertilizers?: 

5 What are Biofertilizers? Biofertilizers are prepared effective strains of micro-organisms like bacteria, algae, fungi alone or in combination in sufficient numbers which can provide plant nutrients through microbial activity. They are grouped in three main categories according to the nutrients provided by them. Biofertlizers for nitrogen fixation. Biofertlizers for phosphate solubilization. Biofertlizers for decomposing organic matters When these microorganisms are incorporated with seed/seedling soil application , they increase crop production by way of Biological Nitrogen Fixation, solubilization of fixed phosphate, uptake of P & other mineral nutrients and synthesis of growth promoting substances.

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6 6 Classification of Biofertilizers Bacillus Pseudomonas Aspergillus Pencillium VAM Rhizobium Azotobacter Azospirillum BGA Acetobacter Azolla

ROLE OF BIOFERTILIZERS : 

7 ROLE OF BIOFERTILIZERS Contribute plant nutrients through biological nitrogen fixation and solubilization of fixed phosphate. Cheaper in cost and reduce chemical fertilizer consumption. Provide atmospheric nitrogen directly to the plants. Release of vitamins, hormones like auxins and gibberellins etc. Increased 10-20 per cent of crop yield. Control and suppress soil borne diseases. Beneficial effect of micro-organisms in soil. Improve soil properties and sustain soil fertility. Convert plant nutrients in available form. They are eco- friendly and pollution free.

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8 Fig 1: Nitrogen saving on use of biofertilizers Motsara & Bisoyi (2000) NBDC, Ghaziabad CROPS NITROGEN SAVING (Kg/ha)

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9 Fig 2: Phosphorus saving on use of biofertilizers Motsara & Bisoyi (2000) NBDC, Ghaziabad PHOSPHUROUS SAVING (Kg/ha) CROPS

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10 Fig 3: BACILLUS (PSM)

PHOSPHATE SOLUBILISING MICROORGANISMS: 

11 PHOSPHATE SOLUBILISING MICROORGANISMS Microorganisms :- Bacteria Fungi Yeast . Species :- Pseudomonas putida Bacillus subtilis , B. megaterium , B. coagualns . Aspergillus niger Penicillium digitatum Functions :- Convert insoluble soil phosphate into soluble forms . Increase 10-20% yield of crops. Used in crops :- All crops. flowers like rose, China aster, anthurium , gaillardia and tuberose.

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12 Fig 4: VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE (VAM)

VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE (VAM): 

13 VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE (VAM) Species :- Glomus fasciculatum Gigaspora nigra . Acaulospora scrobiculata . Sclerocystis clavispora . Endogene increseta . Functions :- Promotes more uniform crop, increases growth and yield. Enhances uptake of P, Zn, S and water. Enhance resistance to root disease and helps drought stressed plant. Improves hardiness of transplant stock. Reduces stunting on fumigated soil. Used in crops :- Cereal crops, Leguminous crops, Horticultural crops. Flower crops like China aster, marigold, gerbera, crossandra , gladiolus, tuberose, chrysanthemum etc.

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14 14 Droplet like colonies on Jensen’s medium Cyst resistant body Fig 5: AZOTOBACTER

AZOTOBACTER: 

15 AZOTOBACTER Family : Azotobacteriaceae Species : A. chroococcum A. paspali A. vinelandii A. beijerinckii A. agilis Functions :- Fixation of 20-25kg N/ ha. Increase yield 15-30 %. Biological control of nematode in plants. Increase vegetative growth and root development. Maintains soil fertility. Promotion of growth substances like vitamins, auxins, gibberellins. Used in crops :- Food Crops, Oil Seeds, Vegetables, Fruits, Flowers like marigold, rose, gladiolus, chrysanthemum and dahlia.

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16 Fig 6: AZOSPIRILLUM

AZOSPIRILLUM : 

17 AZOSPIRILLUM Family : Spirillaceae Species : A. llipoferum A. brasilense A. amazonese A. seropedicae Functions : Production of growth promoting substances Increase yield 10-15 %. Increase vegetative growth and root development. Increases uptake of mineral and water. Used in crops : Food Crops, Oil Seeds, Vegetables, Fruits, Flowers like marigold, rose, tuberose, gladiolus, chrysanthemum and dahalia.

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18 Fig 7: Liquid biofertilizer developed at Anand

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19 Biofertilizers should be in good quality which containing minimum 10 7 /gm viable microbial count. Preserve the biofertilizers away from sunlight, heat and moisture and Store them in cool and dry place at room temperature of 25-28 0 C. Chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers should not be applied together as there possibilities of the microorganisms being killed by them. Use only packets or bottles on which batch no., name of manufacturer and expiry date is mentioned. Do not mix biofertilizer in warm or hot water. Seed coated with biofertilizers should not be treated with fungicides and pesticides. PRECAUTIONS IN THE USE OF BIOFERTILIZERS

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20 Methods Rate 1. Seed Treatment 25-30 g per 1.0 kg seeds i.e. 200 - 250 g per 8 -10 kg seeds. 2. Seedling Treatment 1-2 kg per ha 3. Soil Treatment 2-3 kg per ha. 4. Sets Treatment 2-3 kg per quintal of sets APPLICATION METHODS OF BIOFERTILIZERS

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21 Zone State No. of biofertilizer plants East (24) Assam 4 Arunachal Pradesh 1 Bihar 4 Orissa 6 Manipur 3 West Bengal 6 North (23) Haryana 3 Himachal Pradesh 1 Punjab 2 Uttarpradesh 14 Delhi 3 South (33) Andhra Pradesh 5 Karnataka 11 Kerala 4 Tamil Nadu 11 Pondicherry 2 West (25) Gujarat 3 Madhya Pradesh 7 Maharashtra 11 Rajasthan 4 ALL INDIA 105 IARI, New Delhi Gaur (2006) Table 1. State wise biofertilizers manufacturing plants in India

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22 Bio-fertilizer Estimated by NBDC ( tonnes) Estimated by BCIL ( tonnes) Rhizobium 34,999 19,000 Azotobacter 145,953 11,400 Azospirillum 74,342 54,400 Blue green algae 251,738 260,000 TOTAL 507,032 344,800 Table 2. Bio-fertilizer requirement in India FDCO, New Delhi Motsara et al. (2004)

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23 EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZER ON FLOWER CROPS

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24 MARIGOLD

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25 Treatments Plant height (cm) No. ofLeaves/plant Laterals branches/plant 30 days 60 days 90 days 30 days 60 days 90 days 30 days 60 days 90 days T 1 45:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg 31.10 70.50 105.30 40.13 78.10 141.30 6.80 16.30 24.70 T 2 45:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg + Azospirillum 35.90 76.26 42.10 44.10 84.20 147.30 6.97 17.20 27.30 T 3 45:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg + VAM 33.70 73.40 108.40 42.30 81.00 144.60 6.57 17.00 25.80 T 4 45:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg + Azospirillum + VAM 37.80 78.23 144.50 45.80 86.70 150.20 7.30 17.90 28.30 T 5 37.5:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg 25.90 62.30 97.20 32.10 70.20 132.20 6.17 15.20 20.10 T 6 37.5:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg + Azospirillum 29.50 67.47 101.20 37.50 76.30 138.20 6.43 16.00 23.10 T 7 37.5:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg + VAM 27.80 65.10 99.00 34.60 73.70 135.30 6.23 15.80 21.60 T 8 37.5:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg + Azospirillum + VAM 30.90 70.00 104.77 39.80 79.70 141.10 6.77 16.10 24.40 T 9 30:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg 19.90 52.13 88.53 23.30 61.00 122.40 5.90 14.60 18.10 T 10 30:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg + Azospirillum 23.70 58.70 94.17 29.70 67.20 128.50 5.70 15.80 19.00 T 11 30:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg + VAM 21.60 55.30 91.60 26.50 64.00 125.30 6.03 14.70 18.80 T 12 30:45:37.5 NPK mg/kg + Azospirillum + VAM 25.70 61.30 96.80 31.60 69.00 131.60 6.27 15.10 20.00 T 13 40:30:37.5 NPK mg/kg 29.00 66.80 99.13 36.70 75.60 137.50 6.50 16.00 22.90 T 14 40:30:37.5 NPK mg/kg + Azospirillum 35.60 75.60 111.30 43.50 83.60 146.70 7.27 17.00 27.10 T 15 40:30:37.5 NPK mg/kg + VAM 33.50 72.90 107.80 42.00 80.30 144.00 6.43 15.63 25.50 T 16 40:30:37.5 NPK mg/kg + Azospirillum + VAM 37.40 78.13 114.00 45.40 86.10 149.60 7.30 17.40 28.00 CD (P = 0.05) 0.53 1.31 1.51 1.71 1.62 1.50 0.70 2.00 2.42 Annamalainagar Rajadurai et al. (2002) Table : 3 Effect of Azospirillum and Vam on growth charechter of african marigold

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26 Treatments Plant height (cm) One flower wt. (g) No. of Flowers / plant Flower yield (t/ha) T 1 Control 76.32 10.13 24.39 15.44 T 2 PSB 80.15 12.32 25.42 19.56 T 3 PSB + Azotobacter 81.29 12.84 25.96 20.84 T 4 PSB + Azospirillum 82.32 13.41 26.48 22.20 T 5 PSB + Azospirillum +Azotobacter 85.62 14.28 27.92 25.01 CD at 5% 3.89 0.895 0.924 1.33 Varanasi Mathew and Singh (2003) Table 4. Effect of different combinations of biofertilizer on growth and yield of African marigold cv. Pusa Narangi Gainda

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27 Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of branches per plant Flower diameter (cm) Flower yield per ha (t) T 1 : Control (150 kg N/ha.) 98.56 17.00 6.09 8.97 T 2 : 0 kg N/ha. + Azospirillum 94.20 14.66 5.32 8.51 T 3 : 50 kg N/ha. + Azospirillum 95.96 16.66 6.25 9.19 T 4 : 100 kg N/ha. + Azospirillum 99.10 19.66 6.57 9.43 T 5 : 150 kg N/ha. + Azospirillum 104.30 23.00 6.73 10.51 T 6 : 0 kg N/ha. + Azotobacter 94.63 15.00 5.52 8.60 T 7 : 50 kg N/ha. + Azotobacter 96.00 17.33 6.40 9.23 T 8 : 100 kg N/ha + Azotobacter 100.80 21.00 6.82 9.79 T 9 : 150 kg N/ha. + Azotobacter 105.23 23.33 6.90 10.71 T 10 : 0 kg N/ha. + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 94.76 15.33 5.82 8.85 T 11 : 50 kg N/ha. + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 102.63 18.33 6.67 9.40 T 12 : 100 kg N/ha. + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 113.03 27.66 7.58 12.03 T 13 : 150 kg N/ha. + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 110.80 25.00 7.31 11.86 S. Em 2.47 1.40 0.21 0.18 C.D. at 5% 7.22 4.09 0.61 0.53 C.V. % 4.25 12.41 5.64 3.13 Anand Suthar (2005) Table 5. Effect of biofertilizers and chemical nitrogenous fertilizer on growth, quality and yield of African marigold cv. Local

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28 GAILLARDIA

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29 Table 6. Effect of biofertilizers on growth and yield of gaillardia Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of branches/plant Flower yield per plant (g) Flower yield (q/ha) T 1 Control 37.20 26.13 68.40 42.75 T 2 RDF @ 100:50:50 NPK kg/ha. 46.47 38.44 139.67 87.29 T 3 75% RDF 42.17 36.27 108.01 67.50 T 4 75% RDF + Azospirillum + PSB 45.80 41.00 142.57 89.11 T 5 75% RDF + Azospirillum + VAM 44.83 38.27 125.97 78.73 T 6 75% RDF + Azotobacter + PSB 45.10 38.27 124.36 77.72 T 7 75% RDF + Azotobacter + VAM 45.13 38.43 127.74 79.84 CD at 5 % 2.52 1.95 8.34 5.21 Parbhani Rathod et al. (2002) RDF : Recommonded Dose of Fertilizer

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30 Table 7. Effect of biofertilizers and nitrogenous fertilizer on growth, quality and yield of gaillardia cv. Local Treatments Plant height (cm) Diameter of flowers (cm) Yield of flowers g/plant t/ha T 1 : 0 kg N/ha + Azospirillum 57.53 5.62 240.00 17.78 T 2 : 50 kg N/ha + Azospirillum 59.13 6.12 271.85 20.14 T 3 : 75 kg N/ha + Azospirillum 65.10 6.90 316.42 23.14 T 4 : 0 kg N/ha + Azotobacter 58.59 6.22 252.80 18.73 T 5 : 50 kg N/ha + Azotobacter 60.30 6.07 278.58 20.63 T 6 : 75 kg N/ha + Azotobacter 66.07 6.67 320.50 23.74 T 7 : 0 kg N/ha + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 58.13 5.77 258.78 19.17 T 8 : 50 kg N/ha + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 72.07 7.52 353.00 26.14 T 9 : 75 kg N/ha + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 70.83 7.31 332.00 24.59 T 10 : Recommended dose 100 kg N/ha as control 62.57 5.90 292.13 21.64 S. Em. + 2.23 0.30 13.53 1.04 C.D. at 5% 6.61 0.89 37.11 3.08 C.V. % 6.13 8.08 7.44 8.36 Anand Parmar (2006)

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31 CHINA ASTER

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32 Treatments Plant height (cm) Branches / plant Flowers / plant Flower yield (g) / plant T 1 Control 38.83 12.30 47.37 92.21 T 2 Full NPK @ 100:80:100 kg/ha. 48.03 17.47 53.80 153.33 T 3 1/2 NP + Full K 40.47 15.80 49.97 119.91 T 4 1/3 rd NP + Full K 39.77 15.27 49.80 116.53 T 5 VAM 39.40 14.20 49.17 109.32 T 6 Full NPK + VAM 51.97 17.97 55.63 162.25 T 7 3/4 th NP + Full K + VAM 51.23 18.00 58.07 173.21 T 8 1/2 NP + Full K + VAM 42.37 16.73 52.07 139.02 T 9 1/3 rd NP + Full K + VAM 41.33 16.00 50.97 128.60 T 10 Phosphobacterium (PB) 39.17 13.77 48.43 102.52 T 11 Full NPK + PB 48.20 17.80 54.30 156.74 T 12 3/4 th NP + Full K + PB 46.00 17.13 53.46 148.99 T 13 1/2 NP + Full K +PB 42.60 16.17 51.50 135.45 T 14 1/3 rd NP + Full K + PB 40.77 15.73 50.30 124.07 T 15 VAM + PB 40.10 15.00 49.33 112.64 T 16 Full NPK + VAM + PB 58.63 18.47 60.53 183.42 T 17 3/4 th NP + Full K + VAM + PB 59.80 18.53 61.47 189.50 T 18 1/2 nd + Full K + VAM + PB 43.47 16.93 51.43 139.56 T 19 1/3 rd NP + Full K + VAM + PB 41.63 16.27 51.33 130.72 CD at 5% 1.13 0.38 0.93 3.32 IARI, New Delhi Kumar et al. (2003) Table 8. Effect of VAM and Phosphobacteria on growth and yield of china aster

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33 Table 9. Effect of biofertilizers and nitrogenous fertilizers on growth and yield of China aster cv. Purnima Treatments Plant height (cm Number of flowers per plant Flower Yield Per plant (g) Per ha (t) T 1 0kg N/ha + Azospirillum 30.92 15.87 25.00 2.78 T 2 60kg N/ha + Azospirillum 38.60 23.67 39.62 4.40 T 3 90kg N/ha + Azospirillum 43.28 26.53 61.65 6.85 T 4 0 kg N/ha + Azotobacter 36.21 17.85 32.25 3.59 T 5 60kg N/ha + Azotobacter 41.29 24.20 45.53 5.06 T 6 90kg N/ha + Azotobacter 44.59 27.53 68.27 7.59 T 7 o kg N/ha + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 43.11 29.20 68.60 7.60 T 8 60kg N/ha + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 46.97 30.47 78.28 8.69 T 9 90kg N/ha + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 60.76 36.73 99.07 11.00 T 10 Recommended dose @120 kg N/ha as a control 46.65 30.67 70.66 7.85 S. Em ± 1.87 1.37 3.05 0.38 C.D. at 5 % 3.84 2.88 7.25 0.81 C.V. % 5.30 6.43 7.18 7.18 Anand Panchal (2006)

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34 Table 10. Effect of biofertilizers and nitrogenous fertilizers on quality of China aster cv. Purnima Treatments Diameter of flower (cm) Vase life (days) T 1 0kg N/ha + Azospirillum 5.34 7.40 T 2 60kg N/ha + Azospirillum 6.22 7.73 T 3 90kg N/ha + Azospirillum 6.65 8.06 T 4 0 kg N/ha + Azotobacter 5.98 7.66 T 5 60kg N/ha + Azotobacter 6.42 8.06 T 6 90kg N/ha + Azotobacter 6.75 8.13 T 7 0 kg N/ha + Azospirillum +Azotobacter 5.60 7.73 T 8 60kg N/ha + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 6.75 9.73 T 9 90kg N/ha + Azospirillum + Azotobacter 7.52 11.20 T 10 Recommended dose @120 kg N/ha as a control 6.45 8.13 S. Em ± 0.06 0.17 C.D. at 5 % 0.14 0.36 C.V. % 1.27 2.52 Anand Panchal (2006)

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35 CHRYSANTHEMUM

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36 Table 11 Effect of VAM fungi on growth and yield of chrysanthemum cv. Local Yellow Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of lateral branches No. of flowers per plant Flower yield per plant (g) Acaulospora laevis 29.00 7.52 58.81 112.80 Glomus mosseae 30.05 7.92 62.01 119.20 Glomus fasciculatum 33.00 8.43 66.85 130.95 Without inoculation 28.09 6.85 54.75 104.57 CD at 5% 1.25 0.30 6.01 3.51 Annamalainagar Gnanadevi and Haripriya (1999)

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37 Treatments Plant height (cm) Flower yield (t/ha) Vase life (days) Keeping life without pedicel (days) Keeping life with pedicel (days) T 1 : 200 kg N/ha (control) 63.47 9.66 12.03 6.68 10.35 T 2 : 200 kg N/ha + Azotobacter 65.50 9.94 11.91 6.62 10.14 T 3 : 175 kg N/ha + Azotobacter 61.27 9.42 12.40 6.73 10.58 T 4 : 150 kg N/ha + Azotobacter 60.00 9.22 13.72 7.51 11.70 T 5 : 200 kg N/ha + Azospirillum 65.70 9.81 11.74 6.61 10.15 T 6 : 175 kg N/ha + Azospirillum 61.90 9.60 12.38 6.74 10.40 T 7 : 150 kg N/ha + Azospirillum 59.60 5.91 11.37 6.21 8.48 T 8 : 200 kg N/ha + Azotobacter + Azospirillum 68.70 10.84 11.40 6.24 8.50 T 9 : 175 kg N/ha + Azotobacter + Azospirillum 70.93 11.76 13.90 7.72 12.00 T 10 : 150 kg N/ha + Azotobacter + Azospirillum 60.73 9.02 12.40 7.30 11.58 S. Em 2.41 0.59 0.49 0.25 0.46 C.D. at 5% 7.18 1.74 1.45 0.75 1.35 C.V. % 6.56 10.69 6.87 6.38 7.61 Table 12. Effect of biofertilizers and chemical nitrogenous fertilizer on growth, yield and quality of chrysanthemum Anand Chauhan (2005)

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38 ROSE

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39 Pantnagar Singh et al. (2003) Treatments Diameter of flower (cm) Winter Summer Rainy Mean T 0 Control 7.15 6.37 7.09 6.87 T 1 Full dose of NPK (50:40:30 g/m 2 ) by chemical fertilizer (CF) 7.87 7.05 7.59 7.50 T 2 4 kg FYM / m 2 + remaining dose of NPK by CF 7.82 6.81 7.78 7.47 T 3 T 2 + Azotobacter 7.92 7.11 7.90 7.64 T 4 T 2 + PSB 8.17 7.12 7.99 7.76 T 5 2 kg Poultry manure (PM) + remaining dose of NPK by CF 7.88 6.86 7.58 7.74 T 6 T 5 + Azotobacter 8.08 6.93 7.67 7.56 T 7 T 5 + PSB 7.81 6.76 7.34 7.03 LSD (P = 0.05) 0.40 0.43 NS - Table : 13 Effect of integrated nutrient management on diameter of flower in rose during different seasons

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40 Treatments No .of flowers/m 2 during 1 st flush No. of flowers/m 2 during 2 nd flush Weight of flowers/m 2 during 1 st flush (g) Weight of flowers/m 2 during 2 nd flush (g) Uninoculated 101.11 199.11 427.56 851.58 inoculated 114.44 222.39 508.47 985.35 CD at 5% 10.48 1.24 33.23 35.57 Pantnagar Singh and Jauhari (2005) Table: 14 Effect of Azotobacter on flowering attributes in rose

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41 TUBEROSE

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42 Treatments flowers weight / plant (g) Yield (t / ha) No. of bulbs / plant Bulb wt. / plant (g) 1 st Year 2 nd Year 1 st Year 2 nd Year T 1 FYM 7.66 6.83 1.18 1.78 25.66 400.00 T 2 Azospirillum 9.66 9.66 2.31 2.31 24.66 533.33 T 3 Phosphobacteria (PB) 8.00 8.00 1.99 1.99 21.66 316.66 T 4 NPK @ 30:65:62.5 kg/ha + Azospirillum 9.66 8.66 2.31 2.01 24.66 533.33 T 5 NPK @ 60:65:62.5 kg/ha + Azospirillum 9.16 7.50 2.62 1.87 21.66 450.00 T 6 NPK @ 90:65:62.5 kg/ha + Azospirillum 11.33 9.83 2.83 2.35 29.00 666.66 T 7 NPK @ 120:25:62.5 kg/ha + PB 10.00 8.66 2.20 2.16 24.33 566.66 T 8 NPK @ 120:37.5:62.5 kg/ha + PB 10.33 7.66 2.33 1.91 25.00 568.16 T 9 NPK @ 120:44:62.5 kg/ha + PB 11.00 9.66 2.60 2.34 34.33 816.66 T 10 NPK @ 120:65:62.5 kg/ha + Azospirillum + PB 13.66 10.20 3.08 2.75 36.00 866.66 T 11 NPK @ 120:65:62.5 kg/ha 9.16 8.33 2.29 2.08 24.00 583.33 CD (5%) 2.65 1.55 0.67 0.41 9.45 397.7 Pechiparai Swaminathan et al. (1999) Table : 15 Effect of Azospirillum , Phosphobacteria and inorganic nutrients on yield of tuberose

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43 Financial and technical support. Establishment of new RBD’c (Regional Biofertilizers Development Centers). Encouragement to private sectors, State Govt., Volunteers organization for production, distribution and marketing. Publicity programmes through mass media. To bring all production units under control of DAC (Department of Agriculture and Co-operation). Training for farmers, extension workers, producers and traders on various aspects of technology. GOVT. STRATAGIES FOR PROMOTION OF BIOFERTILIZER PRODUCTION

Conclusion : 

44 Conclusion With the changing scenario of Indian floriculture, the biofertilizers played an important role in modern technology through nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization and decomposition of organic matter. The response of biofertilizers varies with flower species. The application of biofertilizers like Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSM @ 2-3 kg/ha. and VAM @ 2g/plant and it’s combination found effective. Marigold : Combine application of PSB, Azotobacter and Azospirillum increased growth, 66 % yield and saving 50 kg N/ha. Gaillardia : Application of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB improved growth, quality, increased 25% yield and saving 50 kg N/ha. China aster : Application of Azotobacter, Azospirillum, improve growth, quality, increased 40% yield, and saving 30 kg N/ha. Chrysanthemum : Application of Azospirillum and Azotobacter improved growth, increased 21% yield and saving 25 kg N/ha. Rose : Inoculation with Azotobacter increased 15% yield and PSB improve quality of flowers. Tuberose : Application of Azospirillum and PB increase 30% yield and quality of flowers.

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45 FUTURE THRUST       Identification and isolation of efficient strains of biofertilizers for flower crops. Strains that increase N 2 fixing ability should be identified and selected. Recommendations regarding type of inoculums, time, dose and mode of application are needed to be specified and standardized. Search for new bio organisms which can be use as efficient biofertilizers.

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46 THANK YOU