BREEDING APPROACHES FOR DROUGHT RESISTANCE IN COTTON

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1 BREEDING APPROACHES FOR DROUGHT RESISTANCE IN COTTON

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2 INTRODUCTION DROUGHT AND MECHANISM OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE IMPORTANT TRAITS RELATED TO DROUGHT RESISTANCE SOURCES OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE DROUGHT INDUCED CHANGES IN SHOOT AND ROOT GROWTH PHYSOLOGICAL STUDIES BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES GENETICAL VARIABILITY STUDIES CORRELATION STUDIES BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR DROUGHT RESISTANCE BREEDING METHODS ACHIVEMENTS CONCLUSION FUTURE THRUST CONTENT

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3 INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION:

4 INTRODUCTION Species: Gossypium Spp. Common Name: Kapas Family: Malvaceae Chromosome No.: 26,52 Cultivated Species: 4 Wild Species: 46 Grown Mainly In China, USA, Brazil, India, Pakistan, Australia. India Rank First In Area and Fourth In Production In World. Grown In Haryana, Panjab, Rajastan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu. Maharashtra Stands First In Area and Gujarat Stands First In Production.

Cultivated species of cotton:

5 Cultivated species of cotton Asiatic Cotton: Diploid (2n=26) Gossypium herbaceum Gossypium arboreum AmericanCotton: Tetraploid (2n=52) Gossypium hirsutum Gossypium barbadense

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6 Country 2005-06 Area Production Productivity World 351.9 1115.2 690 India 91.2 184.0 439 China 51.0 255.0 1,089 USA 55.3 222.8 877 Brazil 55.3 222.8 877 Pakistan 31.5 100.0 691 Uzbekistan 14.5 48.0 721 Turkey 6.3 37.0 1,279 European U 4.5 22.0 1,051 Australia 2.8 24.0 1,833 Egypt 2.7 11.5 927 Source: www.ikisan.com/links/ap_cottonhistory.html Table no. 1 Area (lakh hectares), production (lakh bales), productivity (kg/ha) in major cotton producing countries during 2005-06

Fig 1: Trends in cotton area, production and productivity in India.(2001-02 to 2006-07) :

7 Fig 1: Trends in cotton area, production and productivity in India.(2001-02 to 2006-07)

Fig. 2 : COTTON SPECIES DISTRIBUTION IN INDIA:

8 Fig. 2 : COTTON SPECIES DISTRIBUTION IN INDIA North Zone G. hirsutum G. arboreum Central Zone G. hirsutum G. herbaceum G. arboreum South Zone G. hirsutum G. herbaceum G. arboreum G. barbadense

DROUGHT AND MECHANISM OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE :

9 DROUGHT AND MECHANISM OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE

DROUGHT:

10 DROUGHT Drought refers to the stress caused due to soil moisture deficiency.

Mechanism Of Drought Resistance:

11 Mechanism Of Drought Resistance DROUGHT ESCAPE : Drought susceptible variety performs well under drought environment simply by avoiding the drought period. DROUGHT AVOIDANCE : The ability of plants to maintain favorable internal water balance under moisture stress is referred as drought avoidance. DROUGHT TOLERANCE : It refers to the ability of crop plants to withstand at low tissue water content. DROUGHT RESISTANCE : It is the true form of drought resistance which refers to the ability of crop plants to give good yield under moisture deficit condition Singh P. (2004)

Fig. 3: DIGRAMATIC REPRESANTATION OF USDA –ARS REASEARCH PROGRAMME FOR DROUGHT RESISTANCE IN COTTON:

12 Fig. 3: DIGRAMATIC REPRESANTATION OF USDA –ARS REASEARCH PROGRAMME FOR DROUGHT RESISTANCE IN COTTON GERMPLASM REALEASE PHYSIOLOGY AND GENETIC EVALUATION BASIC PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMICAL REASEARCH PROGRAM OBSERVATION AND EVALUATION PRELIMINARY GERMPLASM DEVELOPMENT Rosenov et.al (1983) U.S.A.

IMPORTANT TRAITS RELATED TO DROUGHT RESISTANCE (BASIS OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE):

13 IMPORTANT TRAITS RELATED TO DROUGHT RESISTANCE (BASIS OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE)

MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS:

14 MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS Earliness :- Early maturing varieties are ready for harvest before the onset of drought. Stomatal characters : -sunken type, small size, less number per unit area and rapid closing nature. -Adaxial stomata are more sensitive to water stress than abaxial stomata. Leaf characters :- Thick cuticle, waxyness of leaf surface -Small and thick leaves with thick layers of palisade tissue, -Glossiness and hairiness. Root characters :- Root length, root density, root dry weight and root to shoot ratio are important trait. Growth habit :- Indeterminate genotypes are suitable to drought because determinate gives only one flush of flower and if there is drought period during flowering, it may lead to very heavy loss. Singh P. (2004)

Physiological factors:

15 Physiological factors HIGHER RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS LOWER RATE OF TRANSPIRATION HIGHER LEAF TURGIDITY HIGHER OSMOTIC CONCENTRATION

BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS:

16 BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS PROLINE CONTENT GLYCINBETAIN CONTENT

SOURCES OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE:

17 SOURCES OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE

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18 DIPLOID G. harknessii (D 2-2 ) G. aridum (D 4 ) G. stocksii (E 1 ) G. areysianum (E 3 ) G. anomalum (B 1 ) G. australe (G) G. raimondii (D 5 ) TETRAPLOID G. tomentosum (AD 3 ) G. darwinii (AD) WILD SPECIES WHICH POSSESS DROUGHT RESISTANCE Singh P. (2004)

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19 G. anomalum Diploid sp. Genome B 1

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20 G. aridum Diploid sp. Genome - D 4

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21 G. australe Diploid sp. Genome – G

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22 G. harknesii Diploid sp. Genome-D 2-2

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23 G. raimondii Diploid sp. Genome-D 5

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24

LAND RACES WHICH POSSESS DROUGHT RESISTANCE:

25 LAND RACES WHICH POSSESS DROUGHT RESISTANCE G. hirsutum : Punctatum G. arboreum : Sinense, Soudanense G. herbaceum : Acerifolium, Kuljianum, Persicum, Wightianum Singh P. (2004 )

DROUGHT INDUCED CHANGES IN SHOOT AND ROOT GROWTH:

26 DROUGHT INDUCED CHANGES IN SHOOT AND ROOT GROWTH LOWER HEIGHT LESS ROOT AREA FEWER NODES LOWER DRY WEIGHT OF STEM LOWER DRY WEIGHT OF LEAVES LOWER SHOOT TO ROOT RATIO GREATER TAP ROOT LENGTH NO CHANGES SECONDARY ROOT LENGTH AND ROOT DRY WEIGHT Pace et.al. (1999)

PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES:

27 PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES

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28 Ackerson (1980) Wilmington Fig. No. 4 : Influence Of Leaf Water Potential On Leaf Conductance

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29 Davies (1977) England Fig.6:

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30 Parameters ∆ A E gs SLW Carbon isotope discrimination ( ∆) 1.00 Photosynthesis( A) 0.24 1.00 Transpiration (E) 0.20 0.95 1.00 Stomatal conductance (gs) 0.28 0.94 0.91 1.00 Specific leaf weight (SLW) -0.11 -0.82 -0.74 -0.76 1.00 Table No. 2 : Correlation coefficients of physiological parameters measured in 27 cotton cultivars Leidi et al (1999) UK

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES:

31 BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES

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32 Ackerson (1980) Wilmington Fig. 7 :

Table No. 3 : Amino acid and ammonia composition of water stressed cotton leaf tissue:

33 Table No. 3 : Amino acid and ammonia composition of water stressed cotton leaf tissue COMPONENT Days after stress initiation 0 1 2 3 4 SE µ moles. g dry weight Ammonia 9.63 5.12 8.76 10.47 44.37 ns Aspargine 12.01 5.42 9.30 19.48 43.03 3.72** Aspartic acid 14.10 15.44 16.73 16.29 14.24 1.61** Methionine 0.14 - - 0.11 0.16 ns Proline - - 2.77 13.70 86.29 21.12** McMichael and Elmore (1977) Stoneville

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34

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35 McMichael and Elmore ( 1977) Stoneville Fig. 8 : Changes in proline content in water stressed cotton leaves

Table no.4: EFFECT OF MOISTURE STRESS ON SEED COTTON YIELD AND LEAF PROLINE IN DIFFERENT GENOTYPES :

36 Table no.4 : EFFECT OF MOISTURE STRESS ON SEED COTTON YIELD AND LEAF PROLINE IN DIFFERENT GENOTYPES Genotype Seed cotton yield (g/Plant) Decrease or increase over control Increase in leaf proline ( μ mole/ g dry wt.) over control Control Moisture stress Average Deltapin (CJ) 84 55.2 69.6 -34.3 1.5 Ewing x Tide water 69.4 57.3 63.3 -17.4 2.03 Indore 6 76 68.9 72.5 -9.3 16.03 H 14 x Jai 63.7 58.9 61.3 -7.5 11.52 AK 277 57.1 63.2 60.2 10.7 22.11 LD 135 63 63.8 63.4 1.3 11.01 Lohit 56.4 52.1 54.2 -7.6 18.94 AKH 4 56.3 55.7 56 -1.1 14.37 Singh and Sahay (1990) CICR, Nagpur

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37 Glycinebetaine accumulation in cotton leaves Australia Naidu et.al. (2007) Glycinebetaine is N-methylated amino acid. It plays a major role in conferring drought resistance. Glycinebetaine accumulation is significantly higher in rainfed cotton than irrigated cotton. Selection for higher Glycinebetaine has the potential to speed up breeding for drought resistance.

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38 Fig no.9 : Glycinebetaine accumulation in cotton leaves Naidu et.al. (2007) Australia

Genetic variability studies for drought resistance:

39 Genetic variability studies for drought resistance

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40 Groups Moisture levels Average Dryland Pre-plant irrigation Full irrigation Yield (kg/ha) Yield (kg/ha) IWUE (Kg/ha/cm) Yield (kg/ha) IWUE (Kg/ha/cm) Yield (kg/ha) IWUE (Kg/ha/cm) Determinate 184 446 17.2 677 11.4 436 14.3 Moderately determinate 199 469 17.7 664 9.6 444 13.7 Indeterminate 224 551 21.8 741 9.3 506 15.5 Average 210 514 20.0 714 9.8 479 14.9 Correlation between indeterminacy 0.59* 0.72** 0.64* 0.46 -0.36 0.69* 0.43 Table No. 5 : EFFECT OF DIFFEERANT MOISTURE LEVEL ON DIFFERENT CULTIVAR GROUPS Quisenberry (1976) U.S.A.

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41 GENOTYPES RL ( cm) LRN ( no.) TRDW (mg) W/L (mg/cm) SDW (mg) M- 9044-0031-R 82.5 127.9 589 7.26 1.012 M-9044-0045-NR 61.5 75.9 277 4.23 0.399 M-9044-0057-NR 68.2 87.9 272 3.94 0.499 M-8744-0175-R 79.9 120.8 501 6.32 0.983 TAM 94- L25 79.4 140.6 460 5.88 0835 LK142 48.3 59.3 143 2.89 0.284 Mean 69.9 102.0 373 5.09 0.669 % C.V. 16.5 26.9 30.8 30.6 27.5 Table No. 6: Root characteristics of four CRS and two germaplasm lines . Basal et al (2005) Turkey

Table no. 7 : Genetic variability for yield and plant height in stress and non-stress condition (20 genotype G. hirsutum) :

42 Table no. 7 : Genetic variability for yield and plant height in stress and non-stress condition (20 genotype G. hirsutum ) Genotypes Plant height (cm) Plot yield ( g) Stress Non-stress Stress Non-stress LRA 5166 19 19 348 446 TKH 680 17 18 343 250 TKH 679 17 21 341 325 TKH 4-4-3 19 16 320 484 TKH 538 18 18 303 428 TKH 595 15 20 301 335 TKH 5-2 20 20 300 196 TKH 497 18 18 298 340 Rajamani (1994) Tamilnadu

Table no. 8 : Variation in physio-morphological traits related with drought tolerance:

43 Table no. 8 : Variation in physio-morphological traits related with drought tolerance Characters G.hirsutum (10 Genotype) G.arboreum (5 Genotype) G.herbaceum (4 Genotype) Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Relative water content (%) 51.14 2.03 44.82 2.34 48.03 1.37 Proline content(%) 35.40 6.08 204.56 50.58 214.08 13.50 Transpiration rate 1.45 0.21 2.46 0.42 1.61 0.46 Stomatal frequency 42.86 2.45 60.93 1.63 57.04 4.08 Stomatal length( μ ) 24.11 0.30 24.20 0.72 23.49 0.30 Stomatal width( μ ) 17.28 0.31 15.65 0.47 16.34 0.55 Hair density 35.25 12.93 95.20 16.57 118.75 15.37 Biomass/plant (g) 55.05 1.89 32.14 4.10 36.91 1.86 Total leaf area( cm 2 ) 604.26 75.74 448.98 78.75 844.52 95.21 Cotton yield / plant (g) 11.37 1.71 8.38 0.70 8.56 2.69 Singh et. al. (1996 ) CICR, Nagpur

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44 G. hirsutum leaf showing presence of only adaxial palisade layer G. arboreum with adaxial and abaxial palisade layers G.herbaceum with adaxial and abaxial palisade layers Fig. no. 10

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45 Genotype- Lamina thickness( μ ) Adaxial palisade( μ ) Abaxial palisade( μ ) Tissue ratio Gossypium hirsutum (10 Genotype) Acala SJ2 192.86 77.70 - 1.482 170CO2 231.25 103.60 - 1.232 1301DD 233.10 94.35 - 1.470 Reba Pvt 9 173.43 109.61 - 1.025 Laxmi 197.95 85.10 - 1.326 MCU 5 199.80 81.40 - 1.454 Indore 2 236.80 105.45 - 1.245 SRT 1 207.20 81.40 - 1.500 B 1007 199.80 88.80 - 1.270 Reba B 50 210.90 98.05 - 1.150 Mean 208.30 92.54 - 1.315 SE 6.384 35. 77 - 0.050 Table No. 9 : GENETIC VARIBILITY FOR LAMINA THICKNESS, PALISADE HEIGHT & TISSUE RATIO Singh et.al (1992) CICR, Nagpur Cont…

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46 Genotype Lamina thickness( μ ) Adaxial palisade( μ ) Abaxial palisade( μ ) Tissue ratio G. arboreum AKH 4 240.50 111.00 49.95 0.505 AKA 5 234.95 96.20 44.40 0.671 Sanjay 229.40 88.80 48.10 0.675 K 9 207.20 86.90 44.40 0.577 Lohit 246.05 109.10 48.10 0.564 Mean 231.62 98.40 46.99 0.598 SE 13.41 10.02 2.22 0.065 G. herbaceum G Cot 11 214.60 83.20 40.70 0.701 G Cot 13 240.50 99.90 42.55 0.688 Digvijay 222.00 94.35 40.70 0.643 Wagad 160.38 86.95 40.70 0.797 Mean 209.37 91.10 41.16 0.707 SE 29.81 6.47 0.801 0.056 Cont… 46

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47 Treatment Normal irrigation Irrigation on wilting Rainfed Mean CV % Soil moisture 10.6 8.7 5.4 - - Leaf area (cm 2 ) 38.3 27.6 24.0 29.97 25 Specific leaf weight (g/dm 2 ) 0.75 0.94 1.02 0.90 16.34 Relative water content (%) 76.8 73.9 69.0 73.23 29.76 Water potential ( - bar) 6.84 8.19 9.70 8.24 30.21 Singh et.al (1990) IARI, New Delhi Table no 10 : Genetic variability for specific leaf weight and leaf area (21 genotype of upland cotton by half diallel method)

Table No. 11 : Variability among different genotypes for morphological traits related to drought resistance. (G. hirsutum):

48 Table No. 11 : Variability among different genotypes for morphological traits related to drought resistance. ( G. hirsutum ) Genotype Laterals (No) Taproot length (cm) Total root dry weight (g) Shoot dry weight (g) Root to shoot ratio CABUCS 9.3 11.1 0.144 2.022 0.071 CD 3H 8.8 10.0 0.144 2.065 0.071 SP37H 9.0 9.6 0.148 1.916 0.079 DPL 41 7.5 10.0 0.127 1.605 0.080 MACAOS 7.5 8.6 0.129 1.613 0.085 PAY303 9.2 10.0 0.155 1.834 0.085 LSD (0.05) 1.1 1.1 0.016 0.186 0.008 CV% 21.5** 12.5** 18.7** 16.9** 18.0** Cook (1992) USA

Correlation studies in cotton:

49 Correlation studies in cotton

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50 Traits RL LRN TRDW W/L SDW SDWR RL 1.00 0.76 0.71 0.48 0.75 0.33 LRN 1.00 0.77 0.65 0.73 0.15 TRDW 1.00 0.94 0.87 0.17 W/L 1.00 0.77 0.10 SDW 1.00 0.17 SDWR 1.00 Table No. 12 : Correlation among different drought related traits ( G.hirsutum ) Basal et.al (2005) Turkey RL – Root length, LRN - Lateral root number, TRDW - Total root dry weight, W/L - Root weight per unit length of tap root, SDW - Shoot dry weight, SDWR - Shoot dry weight reduction Where,

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51 Traits Root length Total dry weight (%) Dry weight of shoots (%) Dry weight of roots(%) Relative root wt Root length 1.00 -0.01 0.02 -0.14 - 0.41* Total dry weight (%) 1.00 0.97* 0.40* 0.24* Dry weight of shoot (%) 1.00 0.16 0.02 Dry weight of roots(%) 1.00 0.87* Relative root weight 1.00 Eissa et.al . (1983) Table No. 13 : Correlation among different drought related traits ( G. hirsutum ) Mississippi

Biotechnological approaches for drought resistance:

52 Biotechnological approaches for drought resistance

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53 Table No.14: Biometrical Parameters Of QTLs Affecting Productivity And Physiological Traits Of Cotton Drought Resistance Traits Chr. or linkage groups Nearest marker Dry matter Chr 02 pAR 451a Chr 09 pAR 288 Seed cotton yield Chr 02 pAR 390b Chr 06 pAR 936 Chr 14 A 1222 Chr 18 pAR 4-13 Chr 25 pGH 309 LGA 03 pAR 570a LGD 07 pGH 286 Osmotic potential Chr 06 pAR 3-32a Chr 25 PXP 1-47 Carbon isotope ratio Chr 15 A 1109 Chr 22 pAR 243 LGD 04 A 1163b LGD 05 A 1220 Saranga et.al. (2001) U.S.A.

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54 Saranga et.al. (2001) U.S.A. Fig. 11 :

BREEDING METHODS:

55 BREEDING METHODS

CONVENTIONAL METHODS:

56 CONVENTIONAL METHODS INTRODUCTION PURELINE SELECTION MASS SELECTION PEDIGREE METHOD BACKCROSS METHOD MUTATION BREEDING

NON-CONVENTIONAL METHOD:

57 NON-CONVENTIONAL METHOD GENETIC ENGEENIRING BIOTECHNOLOGY

Achievements:

58 Achievements

Table No. 15 : Short Duration Varieties/Hybrids Suitable For Drought Situation in India:

59 Table No. 15 : Short Duration Varieties/Hybrids Suitable For Drought Situation in India Zone Varieties Hybrids G. hirsutum G. arboreum G. herbaceum North zone HD 123, HS 182, H 974, LH 1556, F 846, RS 810 LD 327, RG 18 LAHH 1, LAHH 4, CSHH 195, Omshankar, RAJDH 7 Central zone Vikram, JK 4, LRK 516, LRA 5166, G. cot 16, G.cot.18 Jawahar tapti, Sarvottam,AKA-7, PA 402, G. cot 15, G.cot.19 NHH 302, NHB 80, H10, G. cot. MDH-11 South zone L 389, L 603, L 604, LK 861, Sahana, MCU7, Surabhi, Sumangala, MCU 12 Srisailam, DLA 17, K10,K11 DB 3-12 Savita , Surya, Sruthi , KCH 1 AKDH 7

Cotton genotypes possess drought resistance:

60 Cotton genotypes possess drought resistance COUNTRY VARIETY USA ACALA 1517-75, ACALA 1517 , ACALA SJ-4, ACALA SJ-5, Bligthmaster A-5, Broadent, Cascot B-2, Coker 310, Coker 312, Coker348, Coker5110, Delcot 277, Deltapin SR-2, Deltapin SR-4, Dunn 120, Gregg45E, GSA-71, Lankart- 57, Stoneville-256, HyBee200A, Paymaster303 . AUSTRALIA G002-7-1, G077-2. BRAZIL IAC-13-1, IAC-RM4-SM5, Minas dona beja, Minas sertaneja, SL-236869 MEXICO T-1, T-25, T-133, T- 147,T-169, T-254, T-295, T-461. THIALAND SK-14,SK-32, INDIA Laxmi, TSH-9704, MCU-10, Indore 2,SRT-1, 170CO 2, AKH 4, Lohit, Wagad. USSR C-1211, CX 349, 108-F, 137-F, 138-F, 152-F. UGANDA AH(67)M, BP52, BPA68, CA(68)36, SATU-65, PAKISTAN AC134, AC307, Lasani 11, LSS, M4, PAK-51, BULGARIA 73, 3279, 3996, 4521, 6111.

CONCLUSION:

61 CONCLUSION Development of resistant varieties is most economical method for management of drought. Biochemical, physiological changes and structural modifications occur in resistant plants which are responsible for drought resistance. Effectiveness of resistant breeding program is dependent on the availability of efficient screening procedures, identification of adequate sources of resistance and knowledge of inheritance of resistance . Traits related to drought resistance are root length, root density, earliness, stomatal conductance, small and thick leaves, photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, leaf turgidity, osmotic concentration, proline accumulation. Wild species and land races especially of Asiatic cottons are good sources of drought resistance.

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62 Development of rapid and efficient screening method for drought resistance. Identification of new multiple resistance genes to incorporate resistance to drought. Research work is needed to transfer drought resistance trait from wild species to cultivated species. Development of male sterile line having drought resistance trait is needed to exploit heterosis in cotton hybrids. Incorporation of gene(s) of interest through molecular breeding or marker assisted selection in combination with conventional breeding methods. FUTURE THRUST

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63 Thank You 63

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