“Genetic Variability, Correlation, Path coefficient and Genetic diverg

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“Genetic Variability, Correlation, Path coefficient and Genetic divergence for Yield Contributing Character in Indian bean’’

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INTRODUCTION

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Indian bean:- is an important vegetable as well as pulse crop in India. Its botanical name is Dolichos lablab.(L.) and belongs to the family leguminaceae and sub- family papilionaceae Origin: - Indian bean [ Dolichos lablab (L.)] is an important leguminous crop originated at South East Asian sub-continent/endemic to Africa. Importance:- Indian bean [ Dolichos lablab (L.)] is an important crop It is popularly known as ‘Wal’, ‘Val Papdi’ and ‘Valor’ in Gujarat. There are two cultivated types of Indian bean viz ., typicus and lignosus (Shivashankar et al ., 1971). Typicus is a garden type and cultivated for its soft and edible pods. The green pods are used as excellent vegetable. where as Lignosus is known as field bean and mainly cultivated for dry seed as a pulse. Whereas, ripe and dried seeds are consumed as split pulse.

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Scientific classification Kingdom Plantae Division Magnoliophyta Class Magnoliopsida Order Fabales Family Fabaceae Tribe Phaseoleae Genus Lablab Species purpureus

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* Area and Production :- Vegetables (India) : Area : 3.4 million hectares : Production : 35.0 million tonnes Indian bean (India) : Area : 30000 hectares : Production : 27000 tonnes

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Sr. No. Crop Area (000 ha) Production (000 mt) Productivity (mt/ ha) 1 Brinjal 510 8200 16.07 2 Cabbage 280 6000 21.42 3 Cauliflower 280 4800 17.14 4 Okra 370 3550 9.59 5 Onion 530 5500 10.37 6 Peas 350 3200 9.14 7 Potato 1400 25000 17.85 8 Tomato 540 7600 14.07 9 Cucurbits 443.0 4720 10.7 10 Indian bean 35.0 2.7 0.09 Source : FAO (2007) Table 1: Area, production and productivity of major vegetable Crops in India

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Content Vegetable Grain Protein (%) 25 25.5 Fats (%) 2.7 1.7 Carbohydrates (%) 62.2 70 Vitamin-A (IU) 0.7 - Vitamin-B (mg) 312 - Vitamin(mg /100 gm) 9 - Ash (%) 7.1 4.3 Fibre (%) 16.1 9.6 Table: - 2 Nutrient analysis in Indian bean. M.A.U., Parbhani Birari and Ghanekar

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Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advances

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Seed Variability in different genotypes

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Genetic variability:- The variability refers to the presence of differences among the individuals of plant population. Variability results due to differences either in the genetic constitution of the individuals of a population or in the environment in which they are grown. There are three main sources of maintaining genetic variability in nature. 1. Spontaneous mutation 2. Natural out -crossing 3. Biotechnology and recombination

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Types of variability >> Genetic variability :- Heritable portion of total or phenotypic variability. It is of three type additive, dominance, and epistatic variances . >> Phenotypic variability :- The total or observable variation in a population. It consist of genotypic and environmental components.

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Heritability:- The ratio of genotypic variance to the phenotypic variance or total variance is known as heritability. It is generally expressed in percent. Types of heritability:- Heritability is of two types, these are broad sense heritability and narrow sense heritability. 1. Broad Sense Heritability:- It is the ratio of genotypic variance to total or phenotypic variance. It is calculated from total genetic variance which consist of additive, dominance and epistatic variance. Main features of broad sense heritability:- It can be estimated from both parental as well as segregating populations. It is estimated from total genetic variance. It is useful in the selection of elite types from homozygous material. 2. Narrow Sense Heritability:- It is the ratio of additive or fixable genetic variance to the total or phenotypic variance. Main features of narrow sense heritability:- For estimation of narrow sense heritability, crosses have to be made in a definite fashion. It is estimated from additive genetic variance. It is useful in the selection of elite types from segregating population.

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Table 3: F values, mean, rang, genotype coefficient of variability, heritability and genetics advance for six agronomic traits in lablab bean. Characters Mean ± SEm Phenotypic variances ( б 2 ph) genotypic variances ( б 2 ph) Genotypic coefficient variability (gcv) Heritability Genetic advance as per cent of mean Yield/plant 1.92 ± 0.19 0.68 0.62 41.14 91.71 88.72 Days of flower 113.74 ±3.74 380.24 319.14 16.74 94.44 33.30 No. of pod/bunch 6.91 ± 0.60 2.36 1.81 19.24 74.45 35.60 No. of seeds/pod 4.87 ± 0.43 0.41 0.13 7.39 31.76 17.75 Pod length (cm) 9.28 ± 0.67 5.43 4.75 23.38 87.40 45.04 Pod width (cm) 2.26 ± 0.14 0.36 0.33 25.22 91.71 50.00 **P=0.01 VRS, CSAUAT, Kanpur Singh et al . (1979)

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Table 4: Mean, range, GCV.,PCV., heritability and genetic advance. Characters Range Coefficients of Variability Heritability (broad sense) % Genetic advance as per cent of mean Genotypic Phenotypic Days to flower 52-113 15.72 16.26 93.5 31.3 Pod length 5.82-16.67 18.31 18.66 96.3 37.0 Pod width 1.45-4.29 22.46 23.06 94.8 45.0 Pod number per plant 38.80-59.60 38.69 41.12 88.5 74.5 Number of seed per pod 3.70-6 8.12 6.57 80.9 13.5 100 seed weight 27.40-56.80 12.67 13.74 85.0 24.1 Yield per plant 0.13-9.07 49.21 52.52 87.8 95.0 BCKV, kalyani Kabir and Sen (1987)

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Characters Range GCV PCV Heritability (broad sense %) Genetics advance as percentage of mean Plant height (cm) 84.00-122.00 10.57 12.87 68 17.90 Primary branches plant -1 6.00-7.80 6.99 8.87 62 11.41 Branch length (cm) 82.27-111.53 10.24 11.55 79 18.70 Stem thickness (mm) 8.30-10.77 6.81 9.25 54 10.36 Leaf : stem ratio 0.43-0.61 10.71 15.70 47 15.09 Green fodder (g plant -1 ) 95.33-180.67 18.41 21.14 76 33.02 Dry matter (g plant -1 ) 36.90-73.70 19.57 22.05 79 35.77 CAZRI, Jodhpur Rajora et al . (2000) Table 5: Estimation of Genetic Variability and Genetic Advance in Lablab Purpureus.

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Table 6: Parameters of genetic Variability in 50 genotypes of wal ( Lablab purpureus (L) sweet). Characters Parameters Range GCV PCV Heritability (bs) (%) Genetic advance Days to first flowering 42.33-154.0 20.5338 20.6368 99.00 47.6386 Primary branches plant -1 3.53-7.53 17.0642 17.7237 92.70 1.8244 Inflorescence plant -1 17.53-31.47 10.5909 11.1215 90.69 5.4802 Length of inflorescence (cm) 5.07-42.73 66.2646 66.5330 99.19 26.0099 Flower of inflorescence -1 7.07-33.60 32.5054 32.5054 98.86 11.7106 Pods inflorescence -1 3.67-9.93 18.4919 18.6566 98.24 2.7119 Days to maturity 61.67-210.0 18.0474 18.1558 98.81 63.5936 Length of pod (cm) 4.23-14.63 38.2544 38.3169 99.67 6.4692 Seeds pod -1 3.00-6.20 18.2227 18.3246 98.89 1.6589 100 seed weight (g) 16.0-77.67 25.2738 25.6654 96.97 17.5786 Harvest index (%) 13.95-148.13 27.0321 27.6143 95.83 13.2709 Seed yield plant -1 (g) 109.53-309.8 25.6587 26.0148 97.28 112.0027 Collage of Agriculture, Pune Patil et al . (2007)

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CORRELATION

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CORRELATION COEFFICIENT:- Correlation coefficient is a statistical measure which is used to find out the degree and direction of relationship between two or more variables. Thus correlation measures the mutual relationship between two or more variables. Correlation is of three types:- 1.Simple correlation:- The association between two variables and is of three types Phenotypic correlation – The association between two variables which can be directly observed. Genotypic correlation – The inherent or heritable association between two variables. Environmental correlation – It is entirely due to environmental effects. 2. Partial correlation:- When the correlation between two variables (X1 and X2) is worked out by eliminating the effect of third variable (X3) it is called as partial or net correlation. It is a study of relationship between one dependent variable one independent variable by keeping the other independent variables constant. 3. Multiple correlation:- In multiple correlation we study three or more variables at a time. In case of multiple correlation, the effect of all the independent variables is studied on a dependent variables. In plant breeding, correlation analysis provides information about yield components and thus helps in the selection of superior genotypes from diverse genetic population.

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Simple Correlation Correlation Character Indicate r is significant Association between two characters is high. r is negative Increase in one and decrease in second and vice versa. r is positive Increase in one variable will cause increase in the other. Genotypic correlation (rg) Is higher than Phenotypic Correlation (rph) There is strong association between two characters genetically, but the phenotypic value is lessened by the significant interaction of environment. Phenotypic correlation (rpg) is higher than Genotypic Correlation (rg) The apparent association of two characters is not only due to genes but also due to favorable influence of environment. Environmental correlation is greater than genotypic and phenotypic correlation These two characters are showing high association due to favorable influence of particular environment and this association may change in other locality or environment. If the value of r is zero or insignificant These two characters are independent. If the value of rg, rph, all are insignificant It indicate the independent nature of two characters.

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Table 7: Correlation coefficient among 6 agronomic traits in lablab bean. Characters Days to flower No of pods/bunch No of seed/pod Pod length Pod width Yield/plant -0.109 (-0.119 ) 0.117 (0.110) 0.296* (0.422**) 0.456** (0.501**) 0.346* (0.342*) Days to flower 0.355* (0.429**) 0.316* (0.569**) -0.051 (-0.062) 0.209 (0.215) Pods/bunch 0.414** (0.889**) 0.116 (0.147) -0.224 (-0.247) No. of seeds/pod 0.228 (0.226) -0.016 (-0.125) Pod length 0.306* (0.308*) VRS, CSAUAT, Kanpur Singh et al . (1979)

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Table 8: correlation coefficient among nine characters in Sem ( Dolichos lablab ). *,** significant at 5 and 1 per cent respectively Characters No of flowers / cluster Length of inflorescence (cm) length of Pod (cm) Width of pod ( cm) Thickness of pod (cm) No. of pods per cluster No. of pods per plant Yield of green pod per plant Days to flowering -0.0218 0.1470 0.4338* 0.3342 0.1787 0.0443 -0.2738 -0.0118 No. of flowers per cluster 0.4382* 0.3446 -0.3039 0.2163 0.8544 ** 0.8155** 0.2391 Length of inflorescence (cm) 0.2408 0.1770 0.0633 0.4681* 0.1210 0.6364** length of Pod ( cm) 0.1634 0.6242** 0.2520 -0.1331 0.5972 Width of pod (cm) 0.1729 - 0.4350* -0.7486** 0.2448 Thickness of pod (cm) 0.1729 -0.1344 0.1805 No. of pods per cluster 0.5478** 0.1522 No. of pods per plant 0.3121 H.A.U., Hissar Pandita et al . (1980)

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PATH COEFFICIENT

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Path coefficient analysis The concept of path analysis was originally developed by Wright (1921) but the technique was first used for plant selection by Dewey and Lu in 1959. Path coefficient analysis is simply a standardized partial regression coefficient which splits the correlation coefficient into the measures of direct and indirect. TYPES OF PATH COEFFICIENT 1) Phenotypic Path: All possible phenotypic correlation coefficients among various characters under study are used for the estimation of phenotypic path. 2) Genotypic Path: Path correlation that are worked out from all possible genotypic correlation coefficient among various characters included in the study. 3) Environmental Path: Path correlation that are worked from all possible environmental correlation coefficients among various characters included in the study.

Table 9: Path analysis of yield components showing direct (diagonal, underlined) and indirect effect. :

Table 9: Path analysis of yield components showing direct (diagonal, underlined) and indirect effect. Characters Days to flower Pod length (cm) Pod width (cm) Number of pods plant -1 Number of seeds pod -1 100 seed weight (g) Correlation coefficient with dry matter (yield / plant) Days to flower -0.649 0.569 0.367 0.165 0.095 -0.217 0.330 a Pod length (cm) -0.285 1.296 0.300 0.030 0.137 -0.757 0.277 b Pod width (cm) -0.393 0.641 0.606 0.156 0.078 -0.459 0.629 a Number of pods plant -1 --0.164 0.060 0.144 -0.655 0.018 0.016 0.730 b Number of seeds pod -1 -0.245 0.704 0.188 0.048 0.252 -0.489 0.459 a 100 seed weight (g) -0.149 0.1038 0.295 0.295 0.130 -0.945 0.358 b BCKV, Kalyani Kabir and Sen (2000) a significant at P = 0.05 b significant at P = 0.01

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Table 10: Direct (diagonal) and indirect effect of yield traits in Indian bean genotypes. Characters Pod length (cm) Pod width (cm) Pod thickness (cm) Wt. of 10 pods (g) No. of pods per plant Seed length (cm) Seed width (cm) Seed Thickness (cm) Wt. of 100 seeds (g) Pod length (cm) 0.063 0.023 0.004 0.044 -0.002 0.012 0.028 0.024 0.037 Pod width (cm) -0.036 -0.095 0.042 -0.058 0.010 0.059 -0.028 -0.013 -0.028 Pod thickness (cm) -0.001 0.009 -0.020 -0.004 0.002 0.048 0.003 -0.003 -0.000 Wt.of10 pods (g) 0.469 0.403 0.125 0.664 -0.077 -0.285 0.286 0.301 0.379 No. of pods per plant -0.021 -0.085 -0.076 -0.096 0.822 -0.195 -0.159 -0.074 0.014 Seed length (cm) -0.000 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.000 -0.002 -0.001 0.000 -0.002 Seed width (cm) 0.066 0.043 -0.022 0.063 -0.028 0.126 0.146 0.102 0.091 Seed Thickness (cm) -0.009 -0.003 -0.004 -0.011 0.002 0.000 -0.017 -0.025 -0.014 Wt. of 100 seeds (g) -0.097 -0.049 0.002 -0.094 -0.003 -0.191 -0.103 -0.092 -0.166 ICAR Research, Umiam Rai et al . (2003) Underlined figure denoted direct effects of the characters towards yield Residual effect 0.095

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Genetic Divergence

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Table 11 a): Cluster pattern in 45 accessions of Indian bean. ICAR research, Umiam Rai et al . (2003) Cluster No No. of accessions in each cluster Accessions I 1 RCDL-27(Baster). II 3 RCDL-18(Baster),RCDL-19(Baster), RCDL-41(Baster). III 6 RCDL-11 ( Baster ), RCDL-20( Baster ), RCDL-26( Baster ),RCDL-28( Baster ),RCDL-29( Baster ),RCDL-36( Baster ). IV 10 RCDL-1(Baster),RCDL-7 (Baster), RCDL-10(Baster),RCDL-14(Baster), RCDL-16(Baster), RCDL-22(Baster), RCDL-24(Baster),RCDL-25(Baster), RCDL-31(Baster),RCDL-42(Raigarh). V 2 5 RCDL-1(Baster) ,RCDL-2 (Baster), RCDL-3(Baster),RCDL-4(Baster),RCDL-5(Baster), RCDL-6(Baster),RCDL-8(Baster) ,RCDL9(Baster),RCDL12(Baster), RCDL13(Baster), RCDL15(Baster), RCDL-17(Baster), RCDL-21(Baster), RCDL-23(Baster), RCDL-30(Baster), RCDL-32(Baster), RCDL-33(Baster), RCDL-34(Baster),RCDL-35(Baster), RCDL-37(Baster), RCDL-38(Baster), RCDL-39(Baster), RCDL-40(Baster), RCDL-43(Raigarh) ,RCDL-44 (Raigarh) , RCDL-45(Raigarh).

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Table 11 b): Inter and intra cluster D 2 value among five cluster of Indian bean. ICAR research, Umiam Rai et al . (2003) Clusters I II III IV V I 0.00 II 437359.21 213.46 III 583248.60 11393.85 2210.14 IV 749267.49 42235.96 11831.99 1002.35 V 1046840.67 132857.57 70628.98 27730.06 5790.79

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Table 11c): Cluster Mean for various characters in Indian bean. Characters Number of clusters % - contribution towards divergence I II III IV V Pod length (cm) 14.17 13.47 9.21 8.37 8.33 0.00 (0) Pod width (cm) 2.21 2.22 2.45 1.96 1.91 0.61 (12) Pod thickness(cm) 0.96 1.17 0.92 0.95 1.04 47.37 (938) Wt. of 10 pods (g) 105.33 104.19 87.19 68.87 59.91 0.25 (5) No. of pods / plant 285.00 127.22 140.56 134.62 71.03 48.53 (961) No of seed / pod 5.78 5.51 4.61 10.03 4.42 0.00 (0) Seed length (cm) 1.35 1.31 1.25 1.07 1.31 1.97 (39) Seed Width (cm) 1.14 0.96 0.93 0.82 0.89 0.00 (0) Seed thickness (cm) 0.84 0.78 0.77 0.67 0.68 0.96 (19) Wt. of 100 seeds(g) 40.30 43.31 36.01 33.73 32.04 0.15 (3) Yield/plant (g) 2998.8 1323.3 1075.8 814.8 395.1 0.15 (3) ICAR research, Umiam Rai et al . (2003)

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Clusters Number of genotype Genotype included I 32 NV-36,ND-39,NV-105,NV-11,NV-107,Konkan-7,NV-19,NV-34,NV-32,NV-94,NV-96,NV-52,GW-1,NV-25,Gujrat-1,IGP-21,Kpnkan-5,AKW9305,,NV-37,ND-26,NV-22,Konkan-6,ND-20,NV-71,ND-37,ND-19,ND-34,ND-27,ND-33,ND-38,Anand-3, II 12 NV-30, ND-32, NV-39, NV-14, NV-44,ND-29, NV-29,ND-23,AKW-9312,ND-28,Konkan-4,AKW-9303, III 1 ND-41 IV 1 AKW-9306 V 1 NV-56 VI 1 ND-25 Table 12 a): Composition of different cluster in 48 genotypes of Indian bean. Sardarkrushinagar Parmar et al. (2005)

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VI 0.00 V 0.00 IV 0.00 III 0.00 I 2.9 II 3.5 7.30 5.65 4.23 4.86 5.1 4.98 6.31 4.76 3.93 5.70 5.85 4.34 3.29 4.14 4.59 Cluster Diagram

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Table12 (b): Average Intra cluster (diagonal) and inter- cluster distances in Indian bean. Clusters I II III IV V VI I 8.68 (2.94) 39.91 (6.31) 25.14 (5.1) 53.37 (7.30) 23.65 (4.86) 24.81 (4.98) II 12.65 (3.55) 18.89 (4.34) 17.92 (4.23) 21.08 (4.59) 22.69 (4.76) III 0.00 (0.0) 32.00 (5.65) 10.85 (3.29) 15.48 (3.39) IV 0.00 (0.0) 34.32 (5.85) 32.60 (5.70) V 0.00 (0.0) 17.17 (4.14) VI 0.00 (0.0) Sardarkrushinagar Parmar et al .(2005)

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Table12(c): Intra Cluster mean values (D 2 ) for different character in Indian bean. Characters Clusters Grain yield Days to flower Days to mature Plant height Pods / Plant Pod length Branches/ plant Seed/ plant Test weight I 31.26 111.5 137.09 62.32 41.7 4.25 4.29 3.56 21.58 II 25.08 77.50 132.92 57.43 34.51 4.70 4.02 3.73 21.88 III 23.39 91.00 139.50 56.70 34.00 4.30 4.60 3.80 19.44 IV 18.22 65.50 123.00 44.30 24.30 4.40 2.90 3.40 21.94 V 34.42 92.50 142.50 63.90 39.3 4.90 4.10 3.80 25.57 VI 26.41 95.50 124.50 27.70 29.30 5.90 4.00 3.90 23.10 % contribution towards total genetic divergence 0.00 47.5 24.9 2.22 0.71 9.04 4.52 1.51 9.84 Sardarkrushinagar Parmar et al .(2005 )

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Table 13 (a): Composition of cluster based on D 2 values in Indian bean. Cluster No No of genotypes Included in a cluster Name of genotypes Plant habit Flower color I 7 AIBL-24 Spread Violet JIBL-19 Erect Violet JIBL-31 Semi-spreading Violet JIBL-32 Semi-spreading Violet Valor Virpur Spreading Violet Valor Dantiwada Spreading Violet JIBL-02-14 Erect White II 2 AIBL-18 Spreading White AIBL-01-21 Erect White III 2 AIBL-1 Erect White AIBL-01-20 Erect White IV 2 AIBL-01-05 Semi-spreading Violet JIBL-02-10 Erect White V 2 AIBL-01-16 Spreading Violet JIBL-02-19 Erect White VI 1 AIBL-8-1 Spreading Violet VII 1 AIBL-01-2 Spreading White VIII 1 JIBL-16 Spreading Violet VRS,JAU,Junagadh Golani et al . (2006)

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Table 13 (b): Average intra (Diagonal and bold) and inter cluster distance (D 2 ) values in Indian bean. Clusters I II III IV V VI VII VIII I 29.92 44.94 80.70 69.75 121.23 130.41 34.34 52.01 II 8.74 45.80 62.72 71.67 60.68 60.60 71.64 III 20.43 155.81 177.68 112.36 90.43 130.92 IV 40.23 58.34 139.96 108.78 105.11 V 36.59 155.58 159.78 157.40 VI 0.00 144.01 97.84 VII 0.00 60.02 VIII 0.00 VRS, JAU, Junagadh Golani et al . (2006)

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Clusters Green pod yield Plant Height (cm) Plant Spread (cm) No. of Branches / plant 100Pod weight (g) Pod length (cm ) Pod width (cm) No. of Seed / Pod Days to first picking I 83.82 102.85 67.22 4.66 54.67 12.97 12.16 5.05 97.57 II 88.99 108.33 73.88 4.56 58.67 11.91 18.78 5.06 92.00 III 115.84 98.98 62.22 3.83 52.34 10.11 18.61 4.67 92.00 IV 64.25 104.72 89.16 5.30 38.67 11.44 11.67 4.49 97.00 V 95.26 117.2 89.16 5.78 48.67 9.28 16.89 4.33 94.50 VI 97.43 105.55 65.55 4.33 89.33 14.44 29.00 4.11 93.33 VII 66.67 102.22 65.55 4.44 95.67 14.00 19.33 4.89 99.67 VIII 117.8 98.89 60.00 5.53 84.33 16.55 15.44 5.33 94.67 Range min. 66.67 92.77 58.33 3.77 3733 9.11 9.66 4.00 90.67 Range max. 117.80 117.22 97.77 5.89 95.67 16.55 29.00 5.33 102.33 Mean 88.74 104.73 71.69 4.78 58.26 12.29 15.69 4.82 95.65 S.E+ 8.46 2.28 2.74 0.22 6.85 0.60 1.37 0.25 2.89 CV(%) 16.52 3.78 6.62 8.17 20.38 8.48 15.26 8.89 5.25 %contribution towards total divergence 0.65 9.16 13.07 22.87 7.85 8.50 24.18 11.11 2.61 Table13: (c) Cluster means for nine characters in Indian bean. VRS ,JAU , Junagadh Golani et al . (2006)

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Clusters Genotype included in the cluster Seed source Genotype in the cluster I 26,31,10, 21,25,27,29,24, 22,17,30,23,5, 13,15,16,28,19,2,9,18, 14,1,11 West Tripura South Tripura West Tripura South Tripura West Tripura 24 II 4,12,13 South Tripura 3 III 8 West Tripura 1 IV 7 West Tripura 1 V 20 South Tripura 1 VI 6 West Tripura 1 Table 14 a) :Distribution of 31 genotypes in different cluster pooled over environment. ICAR Research, Tripura Center, Lembucherra Sankaran et al . (2008 )

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Table14b):Inter and intra cluster distances (D 2 ) in lablab bean. Clusters I II III IV V VI Cluster I 7.602 10.751 10.159 12.943 17.569 12.444 Cluster II 8.227 16.500 18.666 13.930 15.898 Cluster III 0.000 11.586 20.972 15.370 Cluster IV 0.000 24.061 9.762 Cluster V 0.000 25.063 Cluster VI 0.000 ICAR Research, Tripura Center, Lembucherra Sankaran et al . (2008 )

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Table 14c) cluster mean for different traits in lablab bean. Trait / Cluster No. No. of flowers / spike No. of fruits/ spike No. of spike / plant Pod length (cm ) Pericarp thickness(cm ) Pod Breadth(cm ) No. of seed / plant Pod weight Yield / plant I 32.194 10.611 95.694 9.768 0.199 2.087 4.542 6.777 6.656 II 34.000 13.333 100.22 14.72 0.161 2.356 5.222 8.49 9.411 III 27.333 12.667 111.33 8.002 0.167 1.867 4.000 4.733 1.420 IV 24.667 9.000 18.667 6.733 0.203 2.133 5.333 5.9333 2.300 V 32.000 9.000 110.00 18.50 0.167 3.033 3.667 12.767 5.057 VI 33.00 13.333 20.667 8.00 0.177 2.567 4.333 4.453 8.233 ICAR Research, Tripura Center, Lembucherra Sankaran et al . (2008)

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From the foregoing discussion, it can be concluded that there is great scope to identify the superior genotypes with yield and yield contributing characters exhibiting wide variability. Majority of yield contributing traits such as pod length, pod width, size of pod, number of pods, number of seeds per pod, number of flowers per cluster and length of inflorescence, showed significant and positive correlation indicating possibilities of improving these traits through selection. Path analysis revealed that the primary branches per plant, stem thickness and leaf-stem ratio was significantly and positively associated with dry matter yield. Genetic divergence among the genotypes plays an important role in selection of parents having wider variability for different characters such as number of pods per plant, test weight, days to flowering and days to maturity which can be utilized in breeding programme for improvement of yield in Indian bean. CONCLUSION :-

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