Breeding Rice For Aerobic Environment

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Breeding Rice For Aerobic Environment :

Breeding Rice For Aerobic Environment

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INTRODUCTION

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India has the largest area among the rice growing countries and enjoys the second rank in rice production. India produces 90 MT of rice in an area of 44 million ha with a productivity of over 2 t per ha. Rice is an important target for water use reductions because of its relative large water requirements compared with other crops. Rice cultivation consumes about 30% of all fresh water used worldwide. The global water crisis threatens the sustainability of rice production.

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Ground water tables have dropped on average, by 1-3 m per year in north China plain, by 0.5 - 0.7 m per year in the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Karnataka etc. Flood-irrigated rice uses 2 to 3 times more water than other cereal crops such as wheat and maize (Amudha & Sakthivel, 2007). Scarcity of fresh water resource has threatened the production of the flood-irrigated rice crop. Hence a new concept of reducing water requirement of rice is “Aerobic Rice Cultivation.” IRRI recently coined the term “Aerobic Rice” which means growing high yielding rice in non-puddled, aerobic soil which combine the characteristics of both the upland and high yielding lowland varieties (Bouman, 2001) .

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Characteristics of rice ecosystems

Components of the water balance of a rice field.:

Components of the water balance of a rice field.

Water loss in rice cultivation occurs through :

Water loss in rice cultivation occurs through Land preparation (puddling) Seepage Percolation Evaporation Transpiration

Table :1 Typical daily and seasonal rates of water use in rice production in the tropics. :

Item Daily (mm d -1 ) Seasonal (mm) Land preparation - 175 –750 Evapo -transpiration Wet season 4 – 5 400 –500 Dry season 6 – 7 600 –700 Seepage and percolation Heavy clay 1 – 5 100 –500 Loamy /sandy soils 25 – 30 2,500 –3,000 Table :1 Typical daily and seasonal rates of water use in rice production in the tropics. IRRI, Philippines Bouman et al. ( 2001)

Essential features of Rice for Aerobic Environment:

Essential features of Rice for Aerobic Environment Non puddled Non flooded Free draining soil No standing water Soil moisture mainly between saturation and field capacity Rainfed environments should not experience severe water stress at flowering stage.

Upland rice :

Upland rice Aerobic soil Drought tolerant Weed competitive Adverse soil conditions Input responsiveness-low => Stable but low yields Breeding:from upland rice

What is Aerobic Rice ?:

What is Aerobic Rice ? Aerobic adapted Early vigour to compete weed Inputs responsive High yielding High water productivity Can withstand occasional flooding Target : water-short irrigated and rainfed areas “Aerobic rice” refers to high yielding rice grown in non- puddled, aerobic soil. Aerobic rice has to combine characteristics of both the upland and the high yielding lowland varieties.

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Aerobic soil Input responsive Lodging resistant Weed competitive => Stable and high yields Water-short irrigated areas Rainfed lowlands Favourable uplands Lowland HYV traits Flood irrigated Responsive to Higher input High yield Drought susceptible

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IRRI, Philippines Bouman et al. (2001)

Water Productivity:

The main target of Aerobic rice is to increase water productivity without much reduction in yield In water short conditions,water productivity becomes more important than land productivity Water Productivity

Water productivity :

Water productivity grain yield irrigation + rainfall WP = gm grains kg -1 water Water productivity is defined as grams of grains produced per unit of water input.

Experimental approach:

Experimental approach

Table :3 Description of 44 varieties evaluated in southern Luzon in five environments differing in soil fertility and hydrology. :

Table :3 Description of 44 varieties evaluated in southern Luzon in five environments differing in soil fertility and hydrology. Cultivars Germplasm group Variety type Adaptation Origin Aus196 Aus Traditional Upland India AZUCENA Tropical japonica Traditional Upland Philippines B6144F-MR-6-0-0 Indica Improved Upland Indonesia C22 Tropical japonica Improved Lowland Philippines CT13370-12-2-M Indica / tropical japonica Improved Upland Colombia CT13377-4-2-M Tropical japonica Improved Upland Colombia CT13382-8-3-M Indica / tropical japonica Improved Upland Colombia CT6510-24-1-2 Indica Improved Upland Colombia CT6516-24-3-2 Indica / tropical japonica Improved Upland Colombia DINORADO Tropical japonica Traditional Upland Philippines IR64 Indica Improved Lowland Philippines IR72 Indica Improved Lowland Philippines IR47686-30-3-2 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR55419-04 Indica Improved Upland Philippines IR55423-01 Indica Improved Upland Philippines IR60080-46A Tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR65261-09-1-B Tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR65907-116-1-B Indica / tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR66417-18-1-1-1 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR66421-062-1-1-2 Indica / tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR66424-1-2-1-5 Indica / tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR68702-072-1-4-B Tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IRRI, Philippines Conti…. Atlin et al . (2006)

Continue :

Continue IR70358-84-1-1 Indica / tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR70360-38-1-B-1 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR71524-44-1-1 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR71525-19-1-1 Indica / tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IR72768-15-1-1 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Philippines IRAT 170 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Ivory coast IRAT 177 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Ivory coast IRAT 212 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Ivory coast IRAT 216 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Ivory coast MARVILHA Tropical japonica Improved Upland Brazil PALAWAN Tropical japonica Traditional Upland Philippines PRIMAVERA Unknown Improved Upland Brazil PSBRC 80 Indica Improved Lowland Philippines PSBRC 82 Indica Improved Lowland Philippines UPL RI-5 Indica Improved Upland Philippines UPL RI-7 Indica Improved Upland Philippines VANDANA Aus / Tropical japonica Improved Upland India WAB 181-18 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Ivory coast WAB 56-125 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Ivory coast WAB638-1 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Ivory coast WAB96-1-1 Tropical japonica Improved Upland Ivory coast WAY RAREM Indica Improved Upland Indonesia IRRI, Philippines Atlin et al ., (2006)

Table: 4 Grain yield(t ha-1) at Changle and Changping per year,variety,and water treatment:

Table: 4 Grain yield(t ha -1 ) at Changle and Changping per year,variety,and water treatment 2001 2002 HD 502 HD 297 JD 305 HD502 HD 297 JD305 Water treatment at Changle Flooded 6.8 5.4 8.8 4.6 5.3 7.6 Water treatment at Changping W1 5.3 4.7 4.2 5.7 5.3 4.2 W2 4.6 4.3 3.8 4.8 4.7 3.6 W3 4.3 4.2 2.0 4.0 3.9 2.0 W4 3.5 3.4 1.5 4.3 4.6 3.5 W5 3.0 2.5 1.2 3.6 2.9 1.7 China Agri. Uni., Beijing Yang et al ., 2004 W1 = 80-90 % throughout growing season W2 = 60-70 % emergence to PI & 80-90% after PI W3 = 80-90 % emergence to PI & 60-70% after PI W4 = 60-70 % throughout growing season W5 = Rainfed rice with survival irrigation

Table: 5 Water productivity (g grains kg-1 water) per year,variety and water treatment. :

Year Location and treatment variety HD502 HD297 JD305 2001 Changle 0.50 0.40 0.65 Changping ,per water treatment W1 0.82 0.73 0.65 W2 0.80 0.75 0.66 W3 0.73 0.72 0.34 W4 0.67 0.66 0.29 W5 0.64 0.53 0.26 2002 Changle 0.37 0.42 0.61 Changping ,per water treatment W1 0.62 0.58 0.46 W2 0.62 0.61 0.47 W3 0.65 0.63 0.32 W4 0.62 0.66 0.50 W5 0.66 0.53 0.31 Table: 5 Water productivity (g grains kg-1 water) per year,variety and water treatment. China Agri .Uni., Beijing Yang et al ., 2004

Table: 6 Correlations among mean yields of 44 aerobic ,upland and irrigated varieties across five environments types in southern Luzon:

Environment Non -stressed upland Moderately water- stressed uplands Severely water stressed uplands Low- fertility uplands Non- stressed lowland 0.72** 0.31* - 0.10 0.41** Non -stressed upland 0.44** - 0.04 0.57** Moderately water stressed uplands 0.53** 0.50** Severely water stressed uplands 0.27 Table: 6 Correlations among mean yields of 44 aerobic ,upland and irrigated varieties across five environments types in southern Luzon *,** Significant at 0.05 and 0.01% respectively . IRRI, Philippines Atlin et al. , (2006)

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Screening

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Table7 Variability observed for rice under upland rainfed ecosystem Genotypes Panicle/ m 2 (no.) Filled spikelets/panicle Spikelets fertility (%) 1000 grain wt. (g) Grain yield (g m 2 ) R281 PP 31-1 275 63.1 83.2 24.1 140.0 JR80-4-6 289 66.4 85.8 22.7 204.6 JR82-1-10 309 68.4 80.4 27.2 253.4 JR84-7-1-19 279 71.1 83.2 27.8 283.4 RWR78-71-9 335 64.3 84.0 24.0 257.9 RR149-177 274 51.8 85.6 24.3 168.4 RR151-3 236 68.1 85.4 27.9 205.9 RR166-645 256 74.5 82.9 28.5 230.4 RR180-1 213 63.0 87.9 29.4 227.1 Kalinga 3 294 60.0 80.7 24.8 165.4 Annada 272 76.2 88.9 27.6 285.4 Poorva 260 51.0 82.1 27.9 138.4 Aditya 306 60.6 88.7 29.6 189.1 Tulasi 268 69.9 90.0 25.4 270.4 Rasi 305 67.1 87.3 24.1 250.9 IR55423-15 191 83.3 86.2 27.9 192.9 TRC87-2-51 274 86.9 86.5 21.5 257.1 Z.A.R.S., Jagdalpur (M.P.) Rao (1997)

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Table8 Variability observed for physical & biochemical Characters of upland rice genotypes Variety Hulling (%) H R R (%) L / B Classification Amy lose (%) Grain yield RR 51-1 79. 00 21.33 2.08 SB 26.16 2.90 RR151-3 78. 33 16.33 2.48 SB 25.98 2.13 Anjali 79.33 34.00 2.13 SB 25.40 3.27 RR 348-5 78.33 30.66 2.11 SB 25.19 2.80 RR 361-1 77.00 16.00 2.55 LB 26.13 2.40 RR 363-737 77.66 44.66 3.23 LS 22.34 2.40 CR 876-6 79.00 27.66 3.20 LS 25. 51 1.97 RR 347-1 79.33 28.66 2.22 SB 20.46 2.93 RR 354-1 79.33 9.66 2.36 SB 25.32 2.70 RR 345-2 79.66 23.00 2.26 SB 20.91 2.30 RR 166-645 77.66 44.00 3.31 LS 23.37 2.30 RR 361-783 77.33 25.66 3.02 LS 21.41 1.17 RR 139-1 80.00 7.66 1.96 SB 25.99 1.90 Kalinga III 77.00 24.00 3.20 LS 26.16 1.87 Brown gora 78.66 8.66 2.15 SB 24.97 1.87 Vandana 79.33 17.00 2.49 SB 25.69 2.47 Mean 78.56 23.68 2.55 - 24.44 2.34 C V (%) 1.64 8.39 1.32 - 1.77 9.40 C D (P=0.05) 2.15 3.31 0.06 - 0.72 0.16 CRRI, Cuttack Das et al. (2005)

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Heritability & Genetic Advance

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Table 9 Estimation of range, PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean for grain yield and associated characters in upland rice. Character Range PCV GCV h 2 GA Days to 50 % flowering 56.0-80.0 9.5 9.4 97.9 19.1 Plant height (cm) 72.1-111.3 6.2 5.5 78.8 10.1 Panicles/ plant (no.) 3.2-4.1 12.0 4.7 - - Panicles length (cm) 17.0-22.4 10.4 9.3 78.7 16.9 Spike lets/ panicle (no.) 56.3-86.1 11.7 9.7 76.3 17.5 1000-grain weight (g) 19.6-28.5 11.4 11.1 97.7 22.9 Yield/ plant (g) 2.9-5.3 17.2 14.5 71.1 25.2 Biol. yield/ plant (g) 6.4-11.8 16.7 13.4 64.2 22.0 Straw yield/ plant (g) 2.8-6.9 26.0 24.4 88.1 47.1 Harvest index 0.33-0.58 15.6 14.7 89.5 28.8 Hazaribag Chauhan et al. (1993)

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Table 10 Estimation of genetic parameters of variation for yield and its components in upland rice Parameters Days to 50% flowering Days to maturity Plant height (cm) Panicle length (cm) No. of panicle/ m 2 No. of filled grains/ panicle Straw yield/ m 2 (g) Grain yield/m 2 (g) Mean 95.73 124.90 73.87 17.38 297.89 71.77 93.82 60.37 Range mini. Max. 85.00 111.0 57.15 16.50 242.50 38.40 40.00 20.00 106.50 137.00 106.60 19.50 432.50 97.80 195.00 112.50 Variance g P 31.53 38.12 98.30 0.83 1378.50 205.74 1244.06 531.97 33.60 39.60 214.01 1.19 2350.36 241.12 1368.23 607.69 Coefficient of GCV variance PCV 5.87 4.94 13.42 5.23 12.46 19.98 37.59 38.21 6.05 5.04 19.80 6.28 16.27 21.64 39.42 40.84 Heritability (%) 93.90 96.20 45.90 69.30 58.70 85.30 90.90 87.50 Genetic advance 11.21 12.47 13.83 1.56 58.62 27.29 69.26 44.43 Genetic advance as % of mean 11.71 9.99 18.73 8.96 19.68 38.02 73.83 73.60 College of Agri. Kolhapur (M.S.) Patil et al. (1993)

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CORRELATION

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Table11 Estimation of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient in F4 population (K 35 3 x K-184) Attributes Panicle length Flag leaf length Ear bearing tillers Panicle weight Filled grains 100 grain weight Grain yield per plant Plant height P G 0.301 0.306 0.811** 0.985 0.780** 0.957 0.057 0.073 -0.044 -0.155 0.114 0.519 0.916** 0.970 Panicle length P G - 0.175 -0.072 0.073 -0.103 0.465** 0.733 0.387* 0.623 0.210 0.500 0.273 0.417 Flag leaf length P G - - 0.031 1.00 -0.131 0.229 0.268 -0.191 0.857** 0.329 ** 0.954 Ear bearing tillers P G - - - -0.053 0.173 -0.235 -0.225 0.198 0.240 0.806** 0.897 Panicle weight P G - - - - 0.782** 0.840 0.583** 0.777 0.377** 0.518 Filled grains P G - - - - - 0.538** 0.582 0.502** -0.052 100 grain weight P G - - - - - - 0.622** 0.653 *,**Significant at 5 & 1% level respectively MPKV, Rahuri Jangale et al. (1987)

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Character Plant height Panicle length Spikelets/ panicles Filled spikelets 1000-grian wt. Straw yield Biological yield Harvest index Yield per plant Days to 50% flowering r p r g 0.046 0.049 -0.171 -0.215 0.327 0.457 -0.164 -0.178 -0.014 -0.110 0.578** 0.633 0.419 0.568 -0.397 -0.418 -0.011 -0.004 Plant height r p r g - 0.560** 0.601 0.034 -0.058 -0.047 -0.027 -0.196 -0.212 0.633** 0.679 0.499* 0.573 -0.698** -0.750 -0.095 -0.132 Panicle length r p r g - - 0.247 0.0449 -0.535** -0.635 -0.220 -0.246 0.208 0.223 0.246 0.138 -0.455* -0.566 -0.212 -0.348 Spike let/ panicles r p r g - - - -0.261 0.394 -0.381 -0.513 0.059 0.008 0.152 -0.112 0.010 -0.083 0.046 -0.077 Filled spikelets r p r g - - - - 0.154 0.159 0.061 -0.086 0.039 0.050 0.377 0.395 0.451* 0.496 1000-grian wt. r p r g - - - - - 0.041 0.045 0.131 0.191 0.275 0.305 0.280 0.366 Straw yield r p r g - - - - - 0.801** 0.905 -0.755** -0.827 0.103 0.041 Biological yield r p r g - - - - - - -0.462* -0.669 0.443* 0.370 Harvest index r p r g - - - - - - - 0.441* 0.444 C.R.U.R.R.S., Hazaribag Chauhan et al. (1993) Table 12 Phenotypic & genotypic correlation between grain yield and some agronomic traits in upland rice

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GENETIC DIVERGENCE

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Table 13 Clustering pattern of rainfed rice genotypes Cluster No. of genotypes genotypes I 8 Norungan, Noortipathu, kuruvaikalangium, Ottuchandi, PM 1002, PM 1091, Sattari, IET 7261 II 9 PM 1021, PM 1040, PM 1060, PM 1386, PMK 1, IET 7617, IET 7633, IET 7635, III 8 Annapooma, Bharathi, Pavizham, PM 1088,PM 1156, PM 1381, TNAU 3810, IET 7614 IV 2 IET 7991, TKM 9 V 1 TPS 1 A.C.R.I., Madurai Vivekanandan and Subramanian (1993)

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Table 14 Mean intra and inter cluster distance among five Clusters in rainfed rice Cluster I II III IV V I 36.92 48.13 34.29 169.46 226.08 II 78.46 36.08 76.24 92.47 III 13.68 81.73 150.80 IV 5.85 36.04 V 0.00 A.C.R.I., Madurai Vivekanandan and Subramanian (1993)

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Table15 Cluster means for economic characters in rainfed rice Cluster Duration (days) Plant height (cm) No. of productive tillers per hill length of earhead (cm) grain yield (t/ha) I 111.83 68.26 8.34 14.41 0.64 II 110.50 81.90 6.18 16.56 1.20 III 110.18 56.33 9.30 14.86 1.04 IV 111.00 66.20 9.70 13.85 1.88 V 112.30 96.70 5.30 14.70 2.07 A. C. R. I., Madurai Vivekanandan and Subramanian (1993)

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HETEROSIS

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Table16 (a) Performance of high yielding F 1 hybrids and their F 2 , BC 1 and BC 2 progenies 1=Prabhavati, 2=Ambemohor local, 3=Punjab 1 ,4=IET 8573, 5=RPA 5929, 6=DGWG , 7= CRM mutant, 8= Pusa 33 and 9=Basmati 370 Continue…. Grain yield (g) per plant 1 x 3 30.65 15.13 51.17 126.17** 68.91** 24.50 52.68** 35.51 27.24 1 x 4 30.86 8.90 39.62 99.30** 28.39** 24.73 37.58** 25.57 26.18 1 x 8 32.34 7.14 38.15 93.26** 17.97** 23.51 38.37** 36.65 26.60 1 x 9 34.06 12.53 53.08 127.81** 55.84** 24.10 54.60** 23.39 29.28 Avg. 21.45 45.66 111.64 42.78 24.21 45.81 30.28 27.33 R. A. R. S., Anakapalle Reddy et al. (1993) Cross P ˉ 1 P ˉ 2 F ˉ 1 H (%) HB (%) F ˉ 2 ID (%) B ˉ C 1 B ˉ C 2

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Table 16 (b) Performance of low yielding F 1 hybrids and their F 2 , BC 1 and BC 2 progenies Cross P ˉ 1 P ˉ 2 F ˉ 1 H (%) HB (%) F ˉ 2 ID (%) B ˉ C 1 B ˉ C 2 Grain yield (g) per plant 1 x 2 31.09 26.50 31.16 8.19 0.23 30.67 1.57 34.37 37.57 1 x 5 31.17 10.224 20.72 0.05 -33.53** 19.85 4.20 31.06 23.35 1 x 6 34.15 4.06 20.28 6.12 -40.61** 18.38 9.37** 39.24 19.89 1 x 9 34.98 6.18 21.14 2.72 -39.57** 18.07 14.07** 21.78 16.95 Avg. 22.30 23.33 4.27 -28.37 21.74 7.30 31.61 24.44 *,**Significant at 5 & 1% level respectively R. A. R. S., Anakapalle Reddy et al. (1993) 1= Prabhavati, 2= Ambemohor local, 3 = Punjab 1 , 4= IET 8573, 5= RPA 5929, 6= DGWG , 7= CRM mutant, 8= Pusa 33 and 9= Basmati 370

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COMBINING ABILITY

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Table 17 Estimation of general combining ability effects of parents for different characters in upland rice Character IET 8674 Annada Dular IET 7255 IET 10899 Prasanna S E Days to flowering 7.096** 8.159** 1.646* -14.041** 6.634* -8.991** 0.718 Plant height - 6.033** -8.125** 12.186** -15.626** 10.816** 6.874** 0.515 Panicle no./ plant 1.250** 2.253** -1.694** 0.470 -0.880** -1.416** 0.224 Panicle length 0.905* 0.930* 1.021** -1.115** 1.971** 1.620** 0.283 Grain/ panicle -2.783* -1.683 -7.058** -15.033** 13.617** 12.942** 1.150 1000 grain weight -0.542** 0.858** 0.721** 2.046** -1.629** -1.454** 0.054 Harvest index 1.629** 2.095** -0.685** 1.005** 0.932** -0.790** 0.060 Yield per plant 3.036** 3.999** -2.514* 1.749* -1.051 -5.039** 0.821 *,**Significant at 5 & 1% level respectively Rice Research Station, Bankura Ghosh (1993)

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Table 18 Five best combiners for grain yield per plant and their performance for other traits Crosses Per se performance SCA effect GCA effect Other traits showing desirable SCA effect. P 1 P 2 IET 7255 x Prasanna 53.68 22.906** 1.749* -5.239** Plant height, 1000 grain wt., panicles per plant and grain per panicle. IET 8674 x Dular 53.28 18.406** 3.035** -2.514* Plant height, 1000 grain wt., panicles per plant and grain per panicle. Dular x IET 10899 41.83 10.056** -2.514* -1.051 Panicle length, Panicles per plant and grains per Panicle. Annada x Prasanna 40.30 7.726** 3.999** -5.239** Panicles per plant and grain per Panicle. Annada x Dular 40.35 5.576** 3.999** -2.514 Panicle length and Panicles per plant. *,**Significant at 5 & 1% level respectively Rice Research Station, Bankura Ghosh (1993)

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Table19 Estimation of GCA effects for grain yield and other traits Parent Plant height Heading date Productive tillers Root weight Biomass Grain yield TKM 9 -6.28** -0.40** 0.30** -0.49** 0.77** 0.54** AS26556 -1.76** 1.24** -0.36** -0.45** -2.01** 0.49** PMK 1 9.08** 5.28** 0.01 1.39** 2.77** -0.41** IR 64 -5.73** 1.45** 0.74** -1.13** -1.33** -0.07 ADT 37 -0.40** -7.35** -0.81** -0.34** 0.25 -0.71** Poongar 4.72** -7.35** -0.81** 1.01** 1.09** -0.71** S E 0.09 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.22 0.13 CD (5%) 0.25 0.17 0.22 0.25 0.61 0.36 CD (1%) 0.33 0.22 0.29 0.33 0.80 0.43 TNAU, Coimbatore Ibrahim (1995)

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Table 20 Estimation of SCA effects for grain yield and other traits Hybrids Plant height Heading date Productive tillers Root weight Biomass Grain yield P 1 x P 2 1.99** -0.03 0.41* -0.56* 0.94 0.76* P 1 x P 3 1.0** -0.68** -0.93** 0.87* 1.68** 1.04** P 1 x P 4 -3.16** -0.79** 2.71** 0.18 -0.37 -2.02** P 1 x P 5 2.33** 0.71** -0.99** 0.42* 1.25* 0.39 P 1 x P 6 2.78** -0.55** 0.64** -1.14** 0.67 0.14 P 2 x P 3 3.36** -2.60** 1.95** 0.07 4.33** 4.74** P 2 x P 4 6.98** -0.66** -1.62** 0.73** 2.00** -0.30 P 2 x P 5 0.37 3.02** 1.92** -1.01** -1.49** -0.08 P 2 x P 6 0.91** 1.25** -3.14** -1.01** -1.49** -0.08 P 3 x P 4 2.82** 1.26** 1.32** 1.07** 2.91** 1.44** P 3 x P 5 2.84** 2.87** -1.29** -0.65** 0.18 0.50 P 3 x P 6 -1.87** -2.35** -1.81** -0.06 0.01 0.60** P 4 x P 5 -0.20 0.56** -0.08 0.07 -3.17** -2.86** P 4 x P 6 1.29** -1.94** 0.19 -1.82** 0.46 1.33** P 5 x P 6 -0.53** -0.01 -0.42 0.33 -0.68 -0.08 S E 0.21 0.13 0.19 0.21 0.51 0.31 CD (5%) 0.58 0.36 0.53 0.58 1.41 0.86 CD (1%) 0.76 0.47 0.69 0.77 1.86 1.13 P1=TKM 9, P2=AS26556, P3=PMK 1, P4=IR 64, P5=ADT 37, P6=Poongar TNAU, Coimbatore Ibrahim (1995)

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STABILITY

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Table 21 Promising, high yielding stable rainfed rice genotypes Genotype Duration (Days) No. of productive tillers Ear length (cm) Grain yield (t/ha) Mean bi S -2 di Mean bi S -2 di Mean bi S -2 di Mean bi S -2 di PM 1040 108.5 1.8 14.4** 7.5 3.5 -0.5 17.9 0.1 -0.9 1.8 1.0 0.03 PM 1381 107.0 0.5 -3.1 9.1 -1.5 -0.9 20.3 0.8 37** 2.0 1.2 0.06 IET 1444 112.1 0.9 -6.5 7.3 2.4 -0.9 16.6 1.2 0.7** 1.6 0.2 -0.01 IET 7261 109.5 1.8 -4.5 11.9 1.9 3.5** 15.6 0.7 -0.4 1.9 2.0 0.02 IET 7617 100.2 1.7 11.7** 7.9 -0.2 -0.4 17.3 -0.4 0.5 2.0 0.9 0.09 TKM 9 108.7 1.7 -3.6 10.6 1.8 11.4** 17.7 1.0 1.1 2.6 0.5 0.17** PMK 1 116.1 -0.1 -7.0 8.5 3.9 7.6** 18.6 1.6 -0.9 2.6 0.7 1.20** TPS 1 105.6 1.6 3.9* 10.7 2.1 -0.8 18.5 0.7 2.6** 2.8 0.6 0.48 Pooled mean 108.2 1.0 - 9.0 1.0 - 17.7 1.0 - 1.8 1.0 - SE 3.5 1.1 - 1.9 2.5 - 1.4 0.6 - 0.5 0.5 - *,**Significant at 5 & 1% level respectively A. C. R. I. Madurai Vivekanandan and Subramanian (1994)

ADVANTAGES OF AEROBIC RICE:

1.Reduced irrigation frequency 2.Increased mycorrhizal association 3.Increased nitrogen uptake 4.Increased rhizobial association 5.Requires less labour than lowland rice and can be highly mechanized. ADVANTAGES OF AEROBIC RICE

LIMITATIONS :

Weed infestation is more as compared to flooded condition. Nematodes and soil borne pathogen are more due to free soil aeration. Rapid yield loss has been reported in monocropping of aerobic rice. As number of cropping seasons increased, yield difference between flooded and aerobic rice increased. LIMITATIONS

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION From the foregoing discussion, it can be seen that there is sufficient variability among genotypes which could be exploited for breeding rice for aerobic condition. The characters association studies among aerobic rice genotypes revealed that further advancement in yield could be made by improving important yield components through selection. Huge diversity has been recorded among rice genotypes which could be utilized for heterosis as well as transgressive breeding programme. The genotypes showing good combining ability and stability could be used to develop high yielding varieties or hybrids under aerobic condition.

Future Thrust:

Future Thrust To develop high yielding potential cultivar under rainfed and water scarce area in aerobic condition To develop aerobic cultivar which are resistant to drought, nematodes and other soil borne diseases To develop the genotype for early duration and faster growth rate To develop the cultivar which perform well under non-permanently flooded condition Ideotype breeding also called as “New Plant Type” breeding has immense potential for improvement of aerobic rice which needs to be exploited.

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