Adv4 Unit 6 pt2 upper

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1 Modals Chapters 9 & 10 Your Trip to the Southwest: Native American Rock Art

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2 Progressive form of modals express a possibility about something in progress, either now or in the past. The artist could have been illustrating rain. When did the artist live? What were they doing? in the past have been illustrating rain modal + + -ing Are we certain? No. Perhaps they were.

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3

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4 Degrees of Certainty: present tense The rock art could depict visits from aliens. The rock art must tell a story. must 95% sure may might 50% sure or less could Which one is more certain?

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5 Degrees of Certainty: past tense The artists must have created it for ceremonial purposes. Others think they may have created it as a form of language. modal + have + past participle Which one is more certain?

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6 Negative: In both present and past, the degrees of certainty for modals change (except for must ). The rock art couldn’t depict visits from aliens. The rock art may not tell a story. couldn’t 99% sure can’t must not 95% sure may not 50% sure might not or less Which one is more certain? PRESENT

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7 Negative: In both present and past, the degrees of certainty for modals change (except for must ). The artists couldn’t have depicted visits from aliens. The artists may not have wanted to tell a story. couldn’t have 99% sure can’t have must not have 95% sure may not have 50% sure might not have or less PAST

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8 Practice 3 Use Degrees of Certainty modals to answer the questions in your own words. Many answers are possible. Why were the petroglyphs made? What did the geometric patterns mean? What is the most frequently seen image in the rock art? What image probably is not seen in the rock art?

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