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Loading Complete Slide 2: Presented by: Abhishek Mallick IX-‘B’ Science PowerPoint Presentation IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Slide 3: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES We get ‘Carbohydrates’ from: Wheat Rice Maize Millets Sorghum Slide 4: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES We get ‘Protein’ from: Gram (Chana) Pea (Matar) Black gram (Urad) Green gram (Moong) Pigeon pea (Arhar) Lentil (Masoor) Slide 5: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Soyabean Ground nut Sesame Castor Mustard Linseed Sunflower We get ‘Fats’ from: Slide 6: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES We get ‘Vitamins & Minerals’ from: Fruits Vegetables Spices Slide 7: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES We get ‘Fodder Crops’ from: Berseem Oats Sudan Grass Slide 8: The interval in a 24-hour period during which a plant or animal is exposed to light is known as ‘Photoperiod’ IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Crops require: Different : ‘Climatic conditions’ ‘Temperature’ ‘Photoperiods’ ‘Sunlight’ for their Growth and Completion of their Life cycle Slide 9: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Crops which are grown in: ‘Rainy’ season are called: ‘Winter’ season are called: Kharif crops Rabi crops From ‘June’ to ‘October’ From ‘November’ to ‘April’ E.g. Paddy, Soyabean, Pigeon pea, Maize, Cotton, Green gram, Black gram E.g. Wheat, Gram, Peas, Mustard, Linseed Slide 10: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Major groups of activities for improving crop yields: Crop variety improvement Crop production management Crop protection management Slide 11: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Crop variety improvement: By ‘Hybridisation’ The act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids is known as ‘Hybridisation’ Factors for which variety improvement is done are: Higher yield, Improved quality, Biotic and abiotic resistance, Change in maturity duration, Wider adaptability, Desirable agronomic characteristics Slide 12: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Crop production management: Slide 13: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Nutrient management: Plants require 16 nutrients Slide 14: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Manure Manure is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste. Manure helps in enriching soil with nutrients and organic matter and increasing soil fertility. It increases the water holding capacity in sandy soils. In clayey soils, the large quantities of organic matter help in drainage and in avoiding water logging. Using biological waste material is also a way of recycling farm waste. Slide 15: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Fertilizers supply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. They are used to ensure good vegetative growth (leaves, branches and flowers), giving rise to healthy plants. Fertilizers should be applied carefully in terms of proper dose, time, and observing pre-and post-application precautions for their complete utilisation. This excess fertilizer then leads to water pollution. Fertilizers Slide 16: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Irrigation: The several different kinds of irrigation are: The artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops is known as ‘Irrigation’ Wells Canals River Lift Systems Tanks Slide 17: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Cropping patterns: Different ways of growing crops: Mixed cropping Growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land is known as ‘Mixed cropping’ Ex., wheat + gram, or wheat + mustard, groundnut + sunflower. It reduces risk and gives some insurance against failure of one of the crops. Slide 18: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Inter-cropping Growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern is known as ‘Inter-cropping’ Ex., soyabean + maize, or finger millet (bajra) + cowpea (lobia). It reduces risk and gives some insurance against failure of one of the crops. Intercropping of Maize & Flax Intercropping of Finger Millet & Sugar Cane Slide 19: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES HYV of some crop plants: Slide 20: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Crop protection management: The unwanted plants in the cultivated field are known as ‘Weeds’ Xanthium (gokhroo) Parthenium (gajar ghas) Grass Slide 21: Amaranthus viridis (Chauli) Trianthema (Saathi) Cyperinus rotundus (motha) Wild sorghum or Jangli jowar Some ‘Kharif’ season weeds: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Slide 22: Chenopodium album (Bathua) Convolvulvus pluricaulis (Hirankhuri) Wild oat (Jangali jaii) Phalaris (Mandoosi) Some ‘Rabi’ season weeds: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Slide 23: They compete for food, space and light. Weeds take up nutrients and reduce the growth of the crop. Insect pests attack the plants in three ways: They cut the root, stem and leaf They suck the cell sap from various parts of the plant. They bore into stem and fruits. Diseases in plants are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Weeds Slide 24: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Some common Indian insect pests of crop plants: Gundhi bug Sugarcane top-borer Sugarcane bottom-borer Pyrilla (Sugarcane leaf-borer) Mustard aphid Painted bug Slide 25: Weeds, insects and diseases can be controlled by various methods such as: Use of pesticides, which include herbicides, insecticides (e.g., malathion, lindane, thodan, dimethoate, metasytox) and fungicides. Mechanical removal. Use of resistant varieties, and summer ploughing. Preventive methods such as proper seed bed preparation, timely sowing of crops, intercropping and crop rotation IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Slide 26: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES *Present in very small amounts Nutritional values of animal products Slide 27: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Storage of grains Factors responsible for losses are: Biotic - insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria Abiotic - inappropriate moisture and temperatures in the place of storage. These factors cause: Degradation in quality Loss in weight Poor germinability Discolouration of produce -All leading to poor marketability Slide 28: These factors can be controlled by: Proper treatment. Systematic management of warehouses. Strict cleaning of the produce before storage Proper drying of the produce first in sunlight and then in shade. Fumigation using chemicals that can kill pests. IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Slide 29: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Some insect pests of stored grains: Pulse beetle Grain and flour moth Rice moth Rust red flour moth Lesser grain borer Khapra beetle Rice weevil Slide 30: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Animal Husbandry The scientific management of animal livestock is known as ‘Animal husbandry’ Cattle farming Cattle husbandry is done for: Dairy Draught labour for agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation and carting Dual purpose breeds Slide 31: Indian cattle belong to two different species: Bos indicus Bos bubalis Milk-producing females are called : Milch animals (dairy animals) The ones used for farm labour are called : Draught animals IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Slide 32: Exotic or foreign breeds include: Jersey Brown Swiss Have long lactation periods IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Holstein - Friesian Slide 33: Indigenous breeds of cow include: Show excellent resistance to diseases Red Sindhi Sahiwal IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Gir Slide 34: Improved breeds of cattle include: Karan Swiss (Brown swiss × Sahiwal) IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Karan - Fries (Holstein – Friesian × Thaparkar) Frieswal (Holstein – Friesian × Sahiwal) Slide 35: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Requirements: Proper cleaning Shelter facilities for cows and buffaloes Regular brushing to remove dirt and loose hair. Sheltered under well-ventilated roofed sheds that protect them from rain, heat and cold. The floor of the cattle shed needs to be sloping so as to stay dry and to facilitate cleaning. Balanced rations containing all nutrients in proportionate amounts. Vaccinations are given to farm animals against many major viral and bacterial diseases. Slide 36: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Food requirements of dairy animals are of two types: Maintenance requirement, which is the food required to support the animal to live a healthy life. Milk producing requirement, which is the type of food required during the lactation period. Animal feed includes: Roughage, which is largely fibre. Concentrates, which are low in fibre and contain relatively high levels of proteins and other nutrients. Slide 37: Poultry farming IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Poultry farming is undertaken for: To raise domestic fowl for egg production. Chicken meat. Aseel Desi or indigenous breeds: Chittagong Ghagus Busra Slide 38: Leghorn IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Light susex Barred plymouth Black minorca Rhode island red Slide 39: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Variety improvement are focused on to develop new varieties for the following desirable traits: Number and quality of chicks Dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production Summer adaptation capacity/ tolerance to high temperature Low maintenance requirements Reduction in the size of the egg-laying bird with ability to utilise more fibrous cheaper diets formulated using agricultural by-products Slide 40: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Egg and broiler production For good production of poultry birds: Good management practices are important such as: Maintenance of temperature Hygienic conditions in housing Poultry feed Prevention and control of diseases and pests Appropriate vaccination Slide 41: One is from natural resources, which is called capture fishing. The other way is by fish farming, which is called culture fishery. IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Fish production There are two ways of obtaining fish: Prawns Molluscs Slide 42: Popular fish varieties include: Pomphret Mackerel Tuna Sardines Bombay duck Mullets Bhetki Pearl spots Prawns Marine fisheries IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Slide 43: Mussels Oysters Seaweed Flying fish Hilsa Eel Seer Ribbon fish Salmon IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Slide 44: Catla (Catla catla) Rohu (Labeo rohita) Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Silver carp (hypophthalmichthys molitrix) IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Indian major carps: Exotic carps used in composite culture: Slide 45: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Bee keeping Products obtained from Apiculture (practice of bee keeping): Honey: 1 kg honey contains 3200 calories, energy rich food. Bee wax: Used for manufacturing of cosmetics, cold creams, shaving creams, polishes, candles, ointments, lipsticks, lubricants, in modelling work, etc. Propolis and Balms: used in repairing and fastening of comb. Poison: Used in manufacturing of certain Ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicines. Slide 46: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Indigenous varieties of honey bees: Apis cerana indica F. (Indian bee) Apis dorsata F. (Rock bee) Apis florae F. (Little bee) Slide 47: IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Exotic varieties of honey bees: Apis mellifera (European or Italian bee) Apis adamsoni (South African bee) Slide 48: Management for high yields of honey: Pasturage/ Crop/ Flora Bee- hive Apiary location Honey flow and seasons Swarming (Reproduction) Selection of variety of honey bee and site selection for bee keeping. IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Slide 49: Apiary Honey Extractor An ‘Apiary’ is a place where bee hives (wooden boxes) are kept to get honey and other products of bee. 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