Business Cycle and Stabilization Policies : Business Cycle and Stabilization Policies Business Cycle : Business Cycle Slide 3: Business Cycle refers to a wave like fluctuation in the overall level of economic activity particularly in national output , income , employment and prices that occur in a more or less regular time of sequence.
It is the rhythmic fluctuations in the aggregate level of economic activity of a nation. Definition Slide 4: Depression , Contraction or Downswing
Recovery or Revival
Prosperity or Full Employment
Boom or Over Full Employment or Inflation
Recession – A Turn From Prosperity To Depression PHASES OF BUSINESS CYCLES Slide 5: GRAPH Slide 6: Good or bad climatic conditions.
Business confidence , psychological factors.
Over optimism or over pessimism.
Under consumption or over consumption.
Non-monetary factors such as war , earthquakes , strikes , drought , flood etc. CAUSES OF BUSINESS CYCLES Theories of Business Cycle : Theories of Business Cycle 1.Schumpeter’s innovations theory : 1.Schumpeter’s innovations theory Acc. To Schumpeter, innovations are source of business fluctuations .An innovation is defined as the development of a new product , or the introduction of a new method of production, a new process of production ,development of a new market , development of a new source of raw material ,a change in the organisation of business and so on… 2.Over-investment theory of Von Hayek : 2.Over-investment theory of Von Hayek Acc. to professor Hayek business cycles are caused by overinvestment and consequent over production. According to him, the primarily cause of the business cycle is monetary over estimate which is brought about by discrepancies between the rate of interest charged by the bankers and the natural rate of interest. If the banks begin to charge a rate of interest which is below the equilibrium rate, the business borrows more funds. If there is any disparity between the two rates will lead business fluctuations. 3.Hawtrey’s pure monetary theory : 3.Hawtrey’s pure monetary theory According to Prof. R.G. Hawtrey, “The trade cycle is a purely monetary phenomenon.” It is changes in the flow of monetary demand on the part of businessmen that lead to prosperity and depression in the economy. He opines that non-monetary factors like strikes, floods, earthquakes, droughts, wars, etc. may at best cause a partial depression, but not a general depression. In actually, cyclical fluctuations are caused by expansion and contraction of bank credit which, in turn, lead to variations in the flow of monetary demand on the part of producers and traders. Bank credit is the principle means of payment in the present times. Credit is expanded or reduced by the banking system by lowering or raising the rate of interest or by purchasing or selling securities to merchants. This increases or decreases the flow of money in the economy and thus brings about prosperity or depression Measures to control business cycles : Measures to control business cycles Monetary measures
1. monetary policy and the expansionary phase
2.monetary policy and the phase of depression
Miscellaneous measures Slide 12: Stabilisation Policies Introduction to Stabilisation Policies : Introduction to Stabilisation Policies Economic policies undertaken by governments to counteract business-cycle fluctuations and prevent high rates of unemployment and inflation.
The two most common stabilization policies are Fiscal and Monetary.
Stabilization policies are also termed countercyclical policies, meaning that they attempt to "counter" the natural ups and downs of business "cycles."
Expansionary policies are appropriate to reduce unemployment during a contraction and Contractionary policies are aimed at reducing inflation during an expansion (Contd) : (Contd) Stabilization policies are government actions, especially fiscal policy and monetary policy, designed to fix the unemployment and inflation problems created by business-cycle instability.
During periods of high or rising unemployment associated with a business-cycle contraction, the appropriate action is to stimulate the economy through expansionary policies.
During periods of high or rising inflation associated with a business-cycle expansion, the appropriate action is to dampen the economy through contractionary policies. Slide 15: This graph illustrates the goal of stabilization policies. The red line is the "natural" business cycle. Rising and falling around the blue long-run trend line.
But it rises and falls too much, causing inflation and unemployment. Stabilization policies can achieve this result by countering business cycle ups and downs. When unemployment rises with a business-cycle contraction, Expansionary policies are appropriate.
When inflation worsens with a business-cycle expansion, Contractionary policies are appropriate.
Stabilization policies are a countercyclical. Contractionary policies counter an expansion and expansionary policies counter a contraction. What are the different Instruments of Economic Stability ? : What are the different Instruments of Economic Stability ? Monetary Policy
Physical policy or Direct Controls Monetary Policy : Monetary Policy What is a monetary policy ?
It is a part over all Economic Policy of a country. It is employed by the government as an effective tool to promote economic stability and achieve certain predetermined objectives.
Monetary Policy deals with the total money supply and its management in an economy.
It is essentially a programme of action undertaken by the monetary authorities generally the Central Bank to control and regulate the supply of money with the public and the flow of credit with a view to achieving economic stability. General Objectives of Monetary Policy: : General Objectives of Monetary Policy: 1. Neutral money policy
2. Price stability
3. Exchange rate stability
4. Control of trade cycles
5. Full employment
6. Equilibrium in the balance of payments
7. Rapid economic growth Objectives of monetary policy in developing countries: : Objectives of monetary policy in developing countries: 1. Development role
2. Effective central banking
3. Inducement to savings
4. Investment of savings
5. Developing banking habits
6. Magnetization of the economy
7. Monetary equilibrium
8. Maintaining equilibrium
9. Creation and expansion of financial institutions
10. Integration of financial Institutions
11. Integrated interest rate structure
12. Debt management
13. Long term loan for industrial development
14. Reforming rural credit system
15. To create a broad and continuous market for Govt. securities Instruments of Monetary Policy : Instruments of Monetary Policy 1. Quantitative techniques of credit control
2. Qualitative techniques of credit controls MONETARY POLICY to Control INFLATION : MONETARY POLICY to Control INFLATION The best remedy for fighting Inflation is to reduce the aggregate spending. Monetary Policy can help in reducing the pressure on demand.
During Inflation the Central Bank can raise the cost of borrowing and reduce credit creation capacity of the commercial banks. This makes banks more cautious in their lending policies.
The rise in the bank rate, raising the interest rates, not only makes borrowing costly but also will have an adverse effect psychological effect on business confidence.
A rise in the raise may also encourage saving and discourage spending. Limitations to Monetary Policy : Limitations to Monetary Policy An increase in the bank rates may be ineffective if commercial banks do not follow the rise in the bank rate by rising their own interest rates.
Even if there is a rise in the interest rate, it may not be able to curb spending significantly.
For the open market operations to be effective there should be a well developed and closely knit money market.
A major difficulty arises because of the dichotomy in the money market. In India the Reserve Bank can control only the organised sector, which contitues only a small portion of the money market.
Indigenous bankers and money lenders who do bulk of lending lie outside the control of the RBI. MONETARY POLICY to check DEFLATION : MONETARY POLICY to check DEFLATION Deflation is the opposite of Inflation.It is essentially a matter of falling prices.
It arise when the total expenditure of the community is not equal to the value of the output at existing prices.
Consequently the value of money goes up and prices fall down
Deflation has an adverse effect on the level production, business activity and employment.
Deflation is considered worse than inflation
The Monetary Authority can only encourage the business enterprises and the lower interest rate may only improve the state of liquidity in the economy Fiscal Policies – Inflation , Depression : Fiscal Policies – Inflation , Depression Instruments of Fiscal Policy : Instruments of Fiscal Policy Public Revenue Tax Revenue Non- Tax
Revenue Direct Tax Indirect Tax 1) Personal and
Corporate Income Tax
2) Property and
Expenditure Tax Customs
VAT etc Administrative
Price of Public
Fines etc Public Expenditure
Expenditure Non - Plan
Expenditure Income generating projects
transport and comm.
Construction of Dams Defence exp.
changes Public Debt Borrowings
External Borrow.. Deficit Financing Printing of
fresh currency Automatic
Stabilizer Fiscal Tools
Transfer Payments etc Objectives in Developing Countries : Objectives in Developing Countries Help to break the viscious circle of Poverty
Help to formulate a rational consumption policy
Help to raise the rate of savings
To Control the Operation of Business Cycle
Help to raise the volume of investment
Help to diversify the flow of resources
Help to raise living standard
Help to reduce economic inequalities
Help to control Inflation and Deflation
Help to create more job opportunities Role of Fiscal policy in economic Development : Role of Fiscal policy in economic Development To act as a optimum allocator of resources
To act as a saver
To act as an Investor
To act as price stabilizer
To act as an economic stabilizer
To act as an economic generator
To act as balancer
To act as growth promoter
To act as an income redistributor
To act as stimulator of living standards of people Inflation Depression : Inflation Depression Demand or Cost Wages Inflation Line Demand Demand Line w1 w2 C1 C2 Fiscal Policy to Control Inflation : Fiscal Policy to Control Inflation Taxation as an anti-inflationary measure should be used carefully
Inessential and unproductive expenses of the government should be cut down
Public Borrowing from Non Banking lenders
Other factors as the role in the economic development Fiscal Policy to control Depression : Fiscal Policy to control Depression Reduction in Personal Income tax and corporate tax
Increase in Public Expenditure
Encouraging Investment in public work programmes, social and economic overheads
Social Security Schemes , unemployment insurance , pension, subsidies should be provided Slide 31: Fiscal Policy as an instrument to fight depression and create full employment conditions is much more effective than the monetary policy , since it affects the level of effective demand directly , while monetary policy attempts to do it only indirectly Physical Policies and Direct Control : Physical Policies and Direct Control Physical Policy : Physical Policy When monetary and fiscal measures are inadequate to control prices govt. resorts to direct control.
During wars etc. when inflationary force are strong price control involve, imposing ceilings in respect of certai prices and prices are to be stopped from rising too high.
Price control is done by control of distribution of commodities trhough rationing.
In U.S. price control takes the form of price support programme in which prices are prevented from falling below certain levels considered fair.
Under certain circumstances govt may even resort to dual pricing. Instruments of Physical Policy : Instruments of Physical Policy Direct controls are imposed by govt. to ensure proper allocation of scarce resources like food, raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods etc.
Govt. can strictly forbid or restrict certain kinds of investments or economic activity.
During the period of inflation govt. can directly exercise control over prices and wages. Monetary and fiscal controls will have a general impact on the economy while physical controls can be employed to affect specific scarcity areas. Types of Direct controls : Types of Direct controls Control over consumption and distribution through price control and rationing.
Control over investment and production through licensing and fixing of quotas etc.
Control over foreign trade through import control, import quotas, export control etc. Slide 36: During war period there will be a terrific increase in the demand for certain commodities causing a steep rise in prices of commodities, this is intensified by war financing, allowing surplus purchasing power in the economy.
Price control attempts to check the inflationary rise in prices, enable all citizens to get a minimum of certain basic necessaries of life and serves as an effective instrument of resource mobilization. Slide 37: Govt. may fix ceiling prices for various commodities.
If the govt. doesn’t revise such policies from time to time, it may lead to hoarding and black-marketing.
It requires govt. to exercise some control over supply and demand.
Direct link between commodity market and factor market during emergency conditions govt. can resort to control of profit, interest, rent and wages. Slide 38: Dual Pricing – Wherein two prices prevail in the market at the same time foer the same product out of which one is a controlled price for the lower income group and the other is a free market price determined by the conditions of demand and supply.
Administered Prices – Fixed by the govt. for a few goods like steel, aluminium, fertilizers, cement etc. which serve as raw materials for other industries. Slide 39: Control over investment and production is equally essential.
To overcome short – term scarcity generally essential goods are imported to meet the excess demand. Advantages of Direct Controls : Advantages of Direct Controls They can be introduced quickly and easily, hence the effects of these can be rapid.
Direct controls can be more discriminatory than monetary.
There can be variation in the intensity of the operation of controls from time to time in different sectors. Disadvantages : Disadvantages Direct controls suppress individual initiative and enterprise.
They tend to inhibit innovations, such as new techniques or production, new products etc.
Direct controls may include speculation which may have destabilizing effect. It thus encourages the creation of artificial scarcity through large scale hoardings.
Direct controls need a cumbersome, honest and efficient administrative organization if they are to work effectively.
Gross disturbances may appear when the controls are removed. Thank you : Thank you