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Stunt Man as a postmodern film -- Ambiguity a. Theme: 1. illusion/reality 2. sadness/comedy 3. control/freedom b. Analysis -- Symbol -- Relationships/Characters -- Setting/scene/music IV. Background information -- production -- theory of cultural industry Review for Modernism and PostmodernismCultural / Epistemological Concepts: Review for Modernism and Postmodernism Cultural / Epistemological Concepts Postmodernism: Blur the traditional boundaries between cultural / art The rise of visibility and the status of popular culture (electronic media) active audiencePostmodern “Structure of Feeling”(Williams 1979, 1981): Postmodern “Structure of Feeling” (Williams 1979, 1981) a sense of the fragmentary / ambiguous / uncertain nature of living an awareness of the centrality of contingency a recognition of cultural difference an acceleration in the pace of livingThe Reflexive Postmodern I: The Reflexive Postmodern I A discourse about experience to partake in a range of discourses and relationships a. the playful self-construction of multiple identities b. invites the “other” voices which had been suppressed by modernity (ex: feminism/ ethic diasporas/ ecologist…) c. an ironic sense -- of the “said before” -- a reflexive understanding of the contingency of one’s values and culture -- film/ television/ music/ literature promotes the feeling (produces the condition of an ironic knowingness)The Reflexive Postmodern II: The Reflexive Postmodern II Postmodernism as a historical blurring the past and present are displayed in “bricolage” and “intertextuality” -- Bricolage a. put unconnected signs together to produce a code of new meaning b. a style in architecture / film/ MV c. also a blurring of “genre” boundaries d. double codedSlide7: -- intertextuality a. citation of one text within another -- allusion to particular programmes -- oblique references to other genre conventions and styles b. reworking and recycling of particular type enlarged cultural self-consciousness about history and functions of cultural productsThe Reflexive Postmodern III: The Reflexive Postmodern III Aestheticization of urban life (the result) -- Artistic subcultures (Featherstone) a. erase the boundaries between art / everyday life b. turning life into a work of art c. sign / images in daily life be linked in consumer cultureThe Reflexive Postmodern IV: The Reflexive Postmodern IV Postmodern aesthetics in TV -- TV a. both image production circulation of a collage of stitched-together images unexpected association can occur (multi-channel diversity) forms a “strip text” (Newcombe) -- Markers aesthetic : self-consciousness / self-reflexiveness / juxtaposition / montage / paradox / ambiguity/ uncertainty * the blurring of boundaries of genre, style and historyThe Reflexive Postmodern V: The Reflexive Postmodern V Baudrillard * simulations and hyperreality -- the collapsing of the real/unreal, public/private, art/reality -- “we live everywhere in an aesthetic hallucination of reality” (Baudruillard) -- Implosion: * a process leading to the collapse of boundaries between real and simulations (the media / the social) TV is the worldPTSD: Post Trauma Stress Disorder: PTSD: Post Trauma Stress Disorder What is PTSD? Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is the name given to a cluster of symptoms often seen in trauma survivors. The more severe the trauma, the longer these symptoms will persist. In cases of major and/or repeated trauma, strong reactions may continue for years. The medic scene. Unusual response to normal circumstances. "Would you tell me what happened?“"All I know is he tried to run me down.“"Now, why on earth would he do that, I wonder?“"I didn't get a chance to ask him He was coming at me too goddamn fast Youwant to get home for Thanksgiving, you better figure the guy coming at youis trying to kill you. Learned that from the gooks." : "Would you tell me what happened?“ "All I know is he tried to run me down.“ "Now, why on earth would he do that, I wonder?“ "I didn't get a chance to ask him He was coming at me too goddamn fast You want to get home for Thanksgiving, you better figure the guy coming at you is trying to kill you. Learned that from the gooks." Vietnam War & Media: Vietnam War & Media The Media further enhanced the gap between the veterans and the citizens back home. "Television brought the brutality of war into the comfort of the living room. Vietnam was lost in the living rooms of America--not on the battlefields of Vietnam." --Marshall McLuhan, 1975 Background information: Background information 戰地攝影記者的敬業精神舉世公認，而本書是一本非常特殊的攝影輯，因為所有作者都已在戰場上殉職！他們用寶貴的生命去記錄1950-70年代，中南半島所發生的慘烈戰鬥，全書充滿悲情與血淚，所有作品來自美、日、南北越，更真實的反映了戰場實況與各方的詮釋 Stunt Man-- a sense of Ambiguity: Stunt Man -- a sense of Ambiguity Stunt Man : -- from the perspective of postmodernity, Stunt Man and its production has given the audience a feeling of ambiguity of the boundaries between illusion/reality, sadness/comedy and control/freedom. However, Cameron still represents a human drive for survival.“Symbols” In “The Stunt Man”: “Symbols” In “The Stunt Man” Illusion & Reality 1. postmodernism film— blur boundaries Sadness & Comedy 1. black humors reflect the sadness in war 2. Eli cares much about the sadness than the bloody scenes and cruelty in war. c. Control & Freedom 1. the stunt man with “”Paranoia” free? 2. Eli controls Lucky or helps him cure his “Paranoia” Slide17: Make-up effect Car Military aircraft Tank Costume By using these stage properties in the movie, we have a concrete image of WW Ⅰ “effects” arranged to fit the story. Boundaries are not clear Illusion & RealitySadness & Comedy(Black Humor): Sadness & Comedy(Black Humor) Tomb Victorian toy Cha Cha on the plane Piglets in the cradles These scenes don’t tell us the real situation during the war time(not suitable for a war movie), but they tell us the harms brought by war indirectly. The comic elements (Black humors)added by Eli in his movie The sadness in the war. People become helpless, hopeless in the war. Slide19: medal & the letter— Nina cried beside a anonymous tomb and held a letter given by American president (because she rescued and refuge the American soldiers), but whom she was thinking about at that moment? Nina got the medal form German government because her father and brother died for Germany, but whom she was thinking about and crying for at that moment? Another Ambiguity about Sadness and The ComicControl &Freedom: Control &Freedom Helicopter (Eli uses it to shoot from the air) Crane (Eli’s transportation) Eli’s power over his Clock stunt man and other (In Nina’s room) actors/ actresses Wire netting The smoke (Eli spread from his helicopter ) 金剛 Eli’s Power: Eli’s Power Seeming very controlling but still limited “How tall is King Kong?” Too confident in his power as a director The interaction with the Police The Relationship Among the CharactersControl & Freedom--Eli &Cameron: Control & Freedom--Eli &Cameron Eli just uses Cameron as a tool?-- Accessional Value Eli wants to help Cameron? Savior —Eli seems to be the savior for Cameron. He brings Lucky back to the society in the end. On the other hand, we can also say Lucky is the savior for Eli. He give Eli the chance to get Bert’s accident back to control. Illusion & Reality--Eli’s good intention: Illusion & Reality--Eli’s good intention When the stage manager asks Eli to get rid of Cameron as soon as possible. Eli says he just wants to help this young man who comes back from the war.--We don’t know if it’s true or not!! Sadness & Comedy--Cameron’s violence: Sadness & Comedy--Cameron’s violence When the worker mentions the Korea War, Cameron becomes mad and violent suddenly. –reflection of his trauma This scene shows Cameron might not be really so innocent.Ambiguities in the Degree of Control: Ambiguities in the Degree of Control The Degree of Eli’s Control over Nina Eli tells Nina that her parents has seen the sex scene Spotlighting on Cameron and Nina. The hug at the end of the graveyard scene; Nina is unhappy with Cameron’s attitude towards Eli; Raymond tries to tease Eli Slide26: In Discipline and Punish, Foucault describes how a system disciplines people.「規訓『造就』了個人，就是這種權力的特殊技術，同時將個人當作對象，以及他運作的工具（Foucault） Is there love between Eli and Nina? Ex. According to Sam, they were lovers three years ago. Ex. “Nina, why are you trying to scare me to death?” Ex. “I am losing you, Nina…” Slide27: Cameron and Nina sexy image on TV. The encounter –Rescue scene Nina in the frame Ambiguities of Illusion/Reality Slide28: The party after quarrel with the theme music Is Nina complicit with Eli? Why? Clip Slide29: Nina appears to be very supportive about the idea of final counteraction. The final scene—Seeming to be naïve and innocent ClipSlide30: Raymond and Nina in Bed— “Isn’t anything what it seems? No.” It is a reaffirmation of their love; however, without that scene, the preview number rose abruptly. Illusion and Reality The Connection Between Eli and Richard Rush: The Connection Between Eli and Richard Rush The name “Eli” was Richard’s own Pseudonym Peter O’ toole’s Example Barbara:Tenacity Manipulating or not? The final screenplay rewrite: to examine the nature of the panicControl & Freedom--Eli &Sam: Control & Freedom--Eli &Sam Friendship Business interestSadness & Comic--Eli & Bert: Sadness & Comic--Eli & Bert Bert’s death is an accident for Eli. Bert’s death for Eli? --Eli really feels sad about it. or--Bert is a part of the movie, Eli can find anyone to replace him. Illusion & Reality--Language: Illusion & Reality--Language Movie scene--Calling for medic & the disguise toward war--Clip Dining room talk--Different point of view toward death Gooks & Wrecks Pinball--I just want to get another chance Music—What the Scores Present in the Movie: Music—What the Scores Present in the Movie The Main Theme: “Circusy” The Main Theme Composed in Grand Waltz: “Splendid” The Director’s (Eli’s) Theme: “Powerfully Rhythmic & Scheming” The Love Theme: “Romantic” Theme Song—Bits & Pieces: Concepts Related to The Stunt Man: Concepts Related to The Stunt Man 1. Blend of Various Film Genres Social Satire?Concepts Related to The Stunt Man: Concepts Related to The Stunt Man 2. The Disorder of Scenes 3. The Screening Room —Showing WHAT? — The Sin? The Conspiracy? The embodiment of crime? Or The Truth? 4. The Social Satire — The temporary actors performed by local policemen Cultural Industry -- criticizing popular culture --: Cultural Industry -- criticizing popular culture -- Frankfurt School: a. Two points different from Marxism -- away from economy-determinism -- pay more attention on “Culture” b. Key points of criticism on popular culture -- the commercialized -- the standardized -- 強制化 c. Walter Benjamin -- “技術複製文化” -- film production Behind The Scene—The Production of a Hollywood Film: Behind The Scene—The Production of a Hollywood Film The director is not one who has authoritative power on his work really (Neither Eli Cross nor Richard Rush). The promotion events of “The Stunt Man” — Projection Room —The Luncheon The anecdotes occurred in the filming process of “The Stunt Man”Behind The Scene—The Production of a Hollywood Film: Behind The Scene—The Production of a Hollywood Film The efforts Rush had made to sell his film—how he dealt with the film company, his sponsor, and the film critics. In “The Stunt Man”, Eli has the time limit to finish the shot; on the contrary, Rush met the problem such as the length of the film, and the distribution commitment and so on, as well.For Your References…: For Your References… “The Sinister Saga of Making The Stunt Man”—Available on Engsite. “The Player”—Showing the cultural reality in Hollywood film making. “The Stunt Man” Official Website—http://www.thestuntman.com/Question to think about: Question to think about When Lucky came out from the water, he saw Eli and Nina from his car window (they acted like a couple and waved to him). But later on, we know he didn‘t’t feel betrayed or angry. And therefore, we may say that he was set free from his “Paranoia.” Q: Does Eli control Lucky or cure his “Paranoia” and set him free in some way? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.